BASIC FRONT OFFICE OPERATION
1. Define front office.
2. What is hospitality industry?
Ans. The hospitality industry consists of broad category of fields within the service industry that
includes lodging, restaurants, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional
fields within the tourism industry. The hospitality industry is a several billion dollar industry that mostly
depends on the availability of leisure time and disposable income. A hospitality unit such as a restaurant,
hotel, or even an amusement park consists of multiple groups such as facility maintenance, direct
operations (servers,housekeepers, porters, kitchen workers, bartenders, etc.), management, marketing,
and human resources.
The hospitality industry covers a wide range of organizations offering food service and accommodation.
The industry is divided into sectors according to the skill-sets required for the work involved. Sectors
include accommodation, food and beverage, meeting and events, gaming, entertainment and recreation,
tourism services, and visitor information. Usage rate or its inverse "vacancy rate" is an important variable
for the hospitality industry. Just as a factory owner would wish a productive asset to be in use as much as
possible (as opposed to having to pay fixed costs while the factory isn't producing), so do restaurants,
hotels, and theme parks seek to maximize the number of customers they "process" in all sectors. This led
to formation of services with the aim to increase usage rate provided by hotel consolidators. Information
about required or offered products are brokered on business networks used by vendors as well as
In viewing various industries, "barriers to entry" by newcomers and competitive advantages between
current players are very important. Among other things, hospitality industry players find advantage in old
classics (location), initial and ongoing investment support (reflected in the material upkeep of facilities and
the luxuries located therein), and particular themes adopted by the marketing arm of the organization in
question (for example at theme restaurants). Very important is also the characteristics of the personnel
working in direct contact with the customers. The authenticity, professionalism, and actual concern for the
happiness and well-being of the customers that is communicated by successful organizations is a clear
3. What is passport?
Ans. A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of
international travel, the identity and nationality of its holder. The elements of identity are name, date of
birth, sex, and place of birth.
A passport does not of itself entitle the passport holder entry into another country, nor to consular
protection while abroad or any other privileges. It does, however, normally entitle the passport holder to
return to the country that issued the passport. Rights to consular protection arise from international
agreements, and the right to return arises from the laws of the issuing country. A passport does not
represent the right or the place of residence of the passport holder in the country that issued the passport.
One of the earliest known references to what served the major role of a passport is found in theHebrew
Bible. In Nehemiah 2:7-9, attributed to the time of the Persian Empire in about 450 BC, it is said that
Nehemiah, an official serving King Artaxerxes I of Persia, asked leave to travel to Judea, and the king
granted leave and gave him a letter "to the governors beyond the river" requesting safe passage for him
as he travelled through their lands.
In the medieval Islamic Caliphate, a form of passport was used in the form of a bara'a,
a receiptfor taxes paid. Only citizens who paid their zakah (for Muslims) or jizya (for Dhimmis) taxes were
permitted to travel to different regions of the Caliphate, thus the bara'a receipt was a "traveller's basic
It is considered unlikely that the term "passport" is derived from sea ports, but rather from a medieval
document required to pass through the gate ("porte") of a city wall or to pass through a
territory. In medieval Europe, such documents were issued to travellers by local authorities, and
generally contained a list of towns and cities into which a document holder was permitted to pass. On the
whole, documents were not required for travel to sea ports, which were considered open trading points,
but documents were required to travel inland from sea ports.
4. Define hotel.
Ans. A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. The provision of basic
accommodation, in times past, consisting only of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a
washstand has largely been replaced by rooms with modern facilities, including en-suite
bathrooms and air conditioning or climate control. Additional common features found in hotel rooms are
a telephone, an alarm clock, a television, a safe, a mini-barwith snack foods and drinks, and facilities for
making tea and coffee. Luxury features include bathrobes and slippers, a pillow menu, twin-sink vanities,
and jacuzzi bathtubs. Larger hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool,
fitness center, business center, childcare, conference facilities and social function services.
Hotel rooms are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to
identify their room. Some hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. In the United
Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all guests within certain stated hours. In
Japan, capsule hotels provide a minimized amount of room space and shared facilities.
5. What do you understand by tourism?
Ans. Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism
Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual
environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".
Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2010, there were over 940 million international
tourist arrivals worldwide, representing a growth of 6.6% when compared to 2009. International tourism
receipts grew to US$919 billion (€693 billion) in 2010, corresponding to an increase in real terms of
4.7%. As a result of the late-2000s recession, international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown
from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth
in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, and ended up only
2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. This negative trend intensified during 2009,
exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide
decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in international
Tourism is important and in some cases vital for many countries, such
as France, Egypt,Greece, Lebanon, Israel, the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy,
and Thailand, and many island nations, such as Mauritius, The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines and
the Seychelles. It brings in large amounts of income in payment for goods and servicesavailable,
contributing an estimated 5% to the worldwide gross domestic product
6. What is a motel?
Ans. motor hotel, or motel for short, (also known as motor inn, motor court, motel, motor lodge, tourist
lodge, cottage court, auto camps, tourist home, tourist cabins, auto cabins, cabin camps, cabin court, or
auto court) is a hotel designed for motorists, and usually has aparking area for motor vehicles. In the
United States, the term is considered somewhat outdated; few motel chains still exist, such as Econo
Lodge, Family Inns of America, andWigwam Motel (Motel 6 and Super 8 Hotels are two of the most
popular still in existence). Motels peaked in popularity in the 1960s with rising car travel. In the
year 2000, the American Hotel-Motel Association removed 'motel' from its name after considerable
market research, and is now the American Hotel and Lodging Association. The association felt that the
term 'lodging' more accurately reflects the large variety of different style hotels, including luxury and
boutique hotels, suites, inns, budget, and extended stay hotels.
Entering dictionaries after World War II, the word motel, a portmanteau of motor and hotel or motorists'
hotel, referred initially to a type of hotel consisting of a single building of connected rooms whose doors
faced a parking lot and, in some circumstances, a common area; or a series of small cabins with common
parkng. As the United States highway system began to develop in the 1920s, long distance road journeys
became more common and the need for inexpensive, easily accessible overnight accommodation sited
close to the main routes, led to the growth of the motel concept.
7. What is a booking diary?
8. Draw the organization structure of a medium hotel.