Developmental Psychology - PowerPoint by z8OBCl


									Survey of Modern Psychology

Developmental Psychology
       Views on Infant Learning
• Nativist
  – Important aspects of perception and other
    cognitive processes are innate
  – We have built in knowledge of what sensory
    inputs mean
• Empiricist
  – All knowledge comes from experiences and our
  – We relate sensory inputs to each other to
    determine what they mean
Upon birth, humans can:
• Discriminate between different tones, pitches,
  and loudness
  – It’s suggested that newborns show a preference
    for their mother’s voice
• See within a range of about four feet
  – Discriminate brightness, color, and follow a
    moving stimulus with their eyes
• Grasping reflex:
   – Infants close their fists tightly around objects placed in
     their palms
   – If the object is lifted, an infant can hang on and support
     his or her weight for about a minute
• Rooting reflex
   – When an infant’s cheek is touched, their head turns
     toward the stimulus while opening their mouth until the
     stimulus is in their mouth
   – This triggers a sucking reflex

These are considered reflexes (automatic responses) but
   are replaced by directed responses (voluntary) with
  Babies are cute for an evolutionary advantage

We instinctively find a rounded face, large eyes, and other
 baby features “cute;” this encourages us to want to protect
 and care for a baby even if it’s not ours. The evolution of
 Mickey Mouse capitalizes on this factor.
Motor Development
      Linguistic Development
Age         Linguistic Achievement
3 months    Cooing

4 months    Babbling

10 months   First word

18 months   About 20 words
            One word utterances
24 months   About 250 words
            Two word utterances
30 months   About 500 words
            Three plus word utterances
 Important Times in Development
In general, a child’s reaction to their environment
   depends on their age (and amount of knowledge)
• Critical Periods
  – Times in development when certain events have an
    enormous impact
  – The same events have less impact if they occur earlier
    or later
  – If they happen too late, certain milestones will not be
    reached and a certain path of development is set
 Important Times in Development

• Sensitive Periods
  – Similar to the idea of critical periods, but with less
    rigid boundaries
  – During this time, the baby is particularly sensitive
    to a particular influence
     • For example, attachment to parents is more easily
       formed at an early age
• Some maturation will happen regardless of
  outside influences (due to genetics)
  – Some milestones cannot be reached until a certain
    age; the infant’s brain and muscle tone must reach
    sufficient development
• Some development depends on experience as
  – For example, animals raised in complete darkness do
    not develop all structures of the visual system and
    therefore cannot see properly later on if exposed to
       Developmental Theorists
• Piaget
• Freud
• Mahler
• Erikson
• Kohlberg
There is question about how accurate any of
  these theorists are, but their contributions
  are important in a historical sense

Piaget is considered the first theorist to say that
  children were not miniature adults, but were
  different and went through a series of
  psychological changes on the way to
Believed that human development and behavior
  come from consistent and reliable patterns of
  interaction with the environment called
• Schemas are goal oriented strategies that
  people use to explore and learn about the
  world and their environment
Said that children learn through:
• Adaptation: the exchange between an
  individual and his or her environment
  – Assimilation
     • The incorporation of one’s environment into an
       existing schema
  – Accommodation
     • The adaptation or modification of an existing schema
       to the characteristics of a new object

                Ex. a “grabbing an object” schema
                Piaget’s Stages

1.   Sensory-Motor: birth to 2 years
2.   Preoperational: 2 – 7 years
3.   Concrete Operational: 7 – 11
4.   Formal Operational: 11-15
  Sensory-Motor Stage Birth – 2 years

• The infant uses his or her senses and motor
  functions to understand the world
• Infants do not differentiate between “me” and
  “not me” and lack object permanence
  – Object permanence: the understanding that an
    object exists outside of our immediate experience
  – Infants do not understand that a rattle continues
    to exist even if he or she is not holding it
  Sensory-Motor Stage Birth – 2 years
A not B effect
• When a 9 month old sees an experimenter hide a
  toy under a blanket on their right (A), the child
  will remove the blanket to retrieve the toy
• If the experimenter then hides the toy under a
  blanket on their left (B) (while the baby is
  watching) the baby will continue to search for the
  toy on the right
• The baby interprets location A as being part of
  the toy’s identity
 Sensory-Motor Stage Birth – 2 years
• In the later 6 months of this stage, babies
  begin to form representational thoughts and
  can keep an object or event in their memory
• For example, understanding that the toy exists
  even when it’s not seen is a mental
  representation of that toy
  – At this age, a child will become angry or frustrated
    if a toy is not where he or she left it
     Preoperational Stage 2 – 7 Years
• Children gain a well organized mental
  representation of the world
• Develop a more sophisticated set of schemas
  called “operations”
  – Operations allow an internal manipulation of ideas
    according to a stable set of rules
     • This begins at about 7 years of age
• Use of symbols, language, and speech
• Understanding of past, present, and future
     Preoperational Stage 2 – 7 Years
• Children remain egocentric – do not understand
  that other people have different experiences
  from themselves
  – In a study, children 4 – 7 were given a 3-D model of a
  – While the child viewed the scene from one location, a
    teddy bear was placed in different locations around
    the model
  – When asked what the teddy bear would see, children
    consistently said that the bear saw the same thing
    they did
      Preoperational Stage 2 – 7 Years
Failure of Conservation
• Equal sized glasses A and B were put side by side and
  filled with the same amount of colored liquid
   – 4 year olds can easily say that the amounts are equal
• A new glass C is added that’s taller and narrower than
  the original glasses, and the liquid is poured from A to
   – When asked if there is more liquid in glass B or C, children
     say C because the level of higher
Children do not yet understand that the amount of liquid
  is constant, even though it is being acted upon
Conservation of Number
            A young child will reply that
            there are more objects
            when they are spread
            further apart from each
   Concrete Operational 7 – 11 Years
• Children understand conservation and that
  changes to one aspect of a situation by be
  compensated for by changes to a different aspect
• Children can understand concrete operations, but
  lack the ability to think abstractly
  – Ex. 8 or 9 year olds can understand that 4 is an even
    number and 4 + 1 is an odd number; 6 is even, 6 + 1 is
  – Tend to not see the pattern that adding 1 to any even
    number yields an odd number
 Formal Operational Stage 11 – 15 Years

• Children expand from concrete thinking to
  abstract or hypothetical thinking
• Can consider hypothetical possibilities
           Problems with Piaget
Object Permanence and Occlusion
• 4 month olds were an image of a rod that
  moved back and forth behind an occluding

 Object Permanence and Occlusion
• After becoming habituated to the original display, babies were
  shown a non-occluded image
   – B with an unbroken moving rod
   – C with a broken rod

          B                      C
Object Permanence and Occlusion

Infants spent more time looking at C than at B
This suggests that they expected the rod to be
  one solid piece, even though they could not
  see the entire rod
      Understanding of Numbers
• 6 month olds were shown two panels simultaneously
  with pictures of two or three simple objects
• A drum was sounded over a loudspeaker with booms in
  sets of two or sets of three
• When hearing “boom boom,” babies looked at the
  panel with two items
• When hearing “boom boom boom,” babies looked at
  the panel with three items
This implies that the babies connected the idea of “two”
  or “three” between sound and visual stimuli
      Conservation of Number
• Children generally do demonstrate understand
  that adding an item increases the number of
  items in a set and that adding one and
  subtracting one leave the total unchanged
• Lack of conservation of number implies that a
  child confuses, for example, the length of a
  row with the number of objects in a row
      Conservation of Number

• In Piaget’s research, children were asked the
  same questions twice very quickly, one after
• It’s theorized that children may have believed
  that the experimenter did not like the child’s
  first answer (“they’re the same”) and
  therefore changed it when asked again
• In a study, 2 ½ - 3 year olds were given a
  photograph and asked to show it to their
  mother, who was sitting opposite the child
• Children turned the photo so that it faced the
  mother, implying that they realized that she
  had a different viewpoint than they did
        Egocentrism and Beliefs
There is evidence that a developmental change
  occurs between 3 and 4 ½ years of age
• In “false-belief tests” a child and teddy bear are
  seated in front of two boxes, one red and one
• The child and teddy bear watch the experimenter
  put candy in the red box, and the experimenter
  shows both that the green box is empty
• The bear is taken out of the room, and the child
  watches the experimenter switch the candy to
  the green box
       Egocentrism and Beliefs
• The teddy bear is brought back into the room,
  and the experimenter asks the child where the
  teddy bear will look for the candy
• At age three, children will say the green box
  “because that’s where it is”
• By age 4 ½ children will say that the bear will
  look in the red box because that’s where the
  bear thinks the candy is
    This indicates knowledge that others have a
       different experience from our own, and
  understanding that others may have a false belief
• Believed that people go through discrete sequential
  psychosexual stages of development
• Moving from one state to the next was dependent
  upon resolving “conflicts” in the previous stage
   – Unsuccessful resolution would result in being stuck in that
     phase (fixation) and the person would hold on to
     maladaptive behaviors from that phase
      • It would also lead to anxiety and mental illness
• Thought that people are driven by a desire for
  pleasure, and at different ages different points of the
  body were the focus for pleasure
  Stage 1: The Oral Stage 0 – 1 ½ Years
• Pleasure is derived from stimulation of the
  mouth (ex. sucking)
• Babies get pleasure from feeding or nursing,
  but also learn about the world by putting
  objects in their mouths
• The major difficulty in this phase is weaning,
  when a baby has less close contact with his
  or her mother
  Stage 1: The Oral Stage 0 – 1 ½ Years

Unsuccessful resolution of the oral stage would
  result in:
• Passivity
• Immaturity
• Manipulative personality
     Stage 2: Anal Stage 1 ½ - 3 Years
• The focus of attention becomes the child’s anus
• Physiologically, babies begin to gain control over
  their bowels at this age and toilet training starts
   – The more immediately pleasurable solution for a child
     is to “go” wherever and whenever
• Ideally, according to Freud, toilet training is done
  gradually so the child slowly learns why it’s
    Stage 2: Anal Stage 1 ½ - 3 Years
• Conflict in the anal stage happens if parents
  are either too strict or not strict enough in
  toilet training
  – Being too strict would result in an obsession with
    organization or excessive neatness
     • “Anal – Retentive”
  – Not being strict enough would result in
    recklessness, carelessness, defiance, and
     Stage 3: Phallic Stage 3- 6 Years
• Attention shifts to the genitals
  – This is not in a sexual fashion
• Children discover that they have genitalia, and
  that boys and girls are different
• Children become more curious about their
  own, and others’, bodies
     Stage 3: Phallic Stage 3- 6 Years
• The main conflict in the phallic stage is the
  Oedipus Complex
   – Boys want to marry their mothers (or rather, to have
     possession of the mother because she fulfills needs)
   – As a result, the boy wants to kill his father because the
     father is his obstacle to his mother; however, the
     father also provides for the child and is bigger and
     stronger, so the boy knows that he cannot actually kill
     his father
      • The boy develops “castration anxiety” fear that the father
        will punish the boy
     Stage 3: Phallic Stage 3- 6 Years
• For girls, this is more complicated
  – Freud said that girls realize that not only is her
    father an obstacle, but she does not have a penis
  – Girls develop “penis envy” because of their lack of
• Another proposed alternative to the Oedipus
  Complex for girls was the Electra Complex
      Stage 3: Phallic Stage 3- 6 Years
• Ideally, the stage is resolved by the child identifying
  with their same-sex parent (a boy identifies with his
  father, a girl identifies with her mother)
   – Identifying with a parent helps the child internalize morals
• For girls, lack of resolution causes striving for
  superiority over men or being overly seductive,
  flirtatious, or submissive with low self esteem
• For boys, lack of resolution causes excessive ambition
  and vanity
• Lack of identifying with one’s parent would lead to
  recklessness or immorality
    Stage 4: Latency Stage 6-12 Years

• The child’s focus on their genitals and
  sexuality develops into more socially
  acceptable behaviors
• Pleasure is derived from the mind and
  activities (school, socializing, etc.)
    Stage 5: Genital Stage 12 - adult
• (puberty through adulthood)
• The person learns to accept his or her genitals
  and begins to experience mature sexual
• The major tasks are full separation from one’s
  parents and resolving conflicts from the
  previous stages
• The primary goal is accepting adult
             Freud - Criticisms

• Freud’s developmental theories were heavily
  focused on men and the male experience
  – For example, “penis envy” seemed to better
    reflect women envying the power and social
    status that men had, not the penis specifically
           Freud - Criticisms

  especially the
  mother, are
  blamed for
              Margaret Mahler
Object Relations Theory
• Focuses on the relationship between a mother
  (or caregiver) and the infant and the effect of this
  relationship on the infant’s development of a
  sense of self
• Believes that individuals are born with a drive to
  build interpersonal relationships
• The individual’s sense of self and others affects all
  subsequent interpersonal relationships
              Margaret Mahler
In Object Relations, the main developmental task is
   differentiating between the self and others
The three main stages of development are:
1. Autistic stage: newborn – 1 month
2. Symbiotic stage: 1 – 5 months
3. Separation-Individuation stage: 5 – 24 months

  “Object” refers not only to literal objects, but to
                     other people
            Margaret Mahler
   Autistic Stage newborn – 1 month

• The infant is focused entirely on him or herself
• Mostly unresponsive to external stimuli
• Does not perceive others as separate beings
          Margaret Mahler
     Symbiotic Stage 1 – 5 months

• The infant begins to perceive the
  mother/caregiver as a “need-satisfying object”
• The infant feels unity with the mother, but
  begins to understand that the mother is a
  separate being
           Margaret Mahler
    Separation – Individuation Stage

The Separation-Individuation Stage is made up
  of four sub-stages
1. Differentiation: 5 – 9 months
2. Practicing: 9 – 14 months
3. Rapprochement: 14 – 24 months
4. Object Constancy: after 24 months
           Margaret Mahler
    Separation – Individuation Stage

• Differentiation Sub-Stage: 5 – 9 months
  – The infant’s attention shifts from being inwardly
    focused to outwardly focused
  – The infant begins to separate from the caretaker
    (for example, learning to crawl)
           Margaret Mahler
    Separation – Individuation Stage

• Practicing Sub-Stage: 9 – 14 months
  – The infant continues to separate from the
  – More autonomous functioning
  – The infant becomes more independently mobile
    and more active
     • Ex. walking, playing, etc.
          Margaret Mahler
   Separation – Individuation Stage

• Rapprochement Sub-Stage: 14 – 24 months
  – The baby begins to want to act independently
  – The baby moves away from his or her
    mother/caregiver, but regularly comes back to
    make sure that the caregiver is still there
          Margaret Mahler
   Separation – Individuation Stage

• Object Constancy Sub-Stage: after 24 months
  – The baby has an internalized mental
    representation of his or her caregiver and
    understands that the caregiver continues to exist
    even when they are not together
    Mahler and Object Relations
A transitional object is
   an object that the
   individual can
   mentally associate
   with a specific
   person when that
   person is not
   physically present
Ex. a “security blanket”
   or for adults a piece
   of jewelry/heirloom
• Psychosocial Theory
  – Emphasizes individual’s ability to change and shape
    their personalities
  – Believes that childhood is an important time in
    development, but that development continues
    throughout the lifespan
  – People have the ability to adapt to and change their
  – Considers the importance of the individual’s own
    psychological system, but also their biology and social
• Each stage of development focuses on a
  particular area of growth, builds on the previous
  stages, and paves the way for future stages
• Each stage has a psychosocial crisis which must
  be resolved
  – The crises are marked by a conflict between two
    opposing personality traits
  – Healthy development requires a balance between the
• Crisis resolution depends on the individual and
  his or her social environment

Trust v. Mistrust            Birth to 1 year
Autonomy v. Shame and        2 – 3 years
Initiative v. Guilt          4 – 5 years
Industry v. Inferiority      6 – 11 years
Identify v. Role Confusion   12 – 18 years (adolescence)
Intimacy v. Isolation        20 – 35 years
Generativity v. Stagnation   35 – 50 years
Ego Integrity v. Despair     50 years and up
     Trust v. Mistrust: birth – 1 year

• The infant develops a sense of trust in others
  through being nurtured and loved
• If an infant is not nurtured and loved, he or
  she will experience a high level of mistrust
  – This causes the child to be withdrawn later in life
Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt: 2 – 3 years

• The child begins to develop skills that allow
  him or her to be autonomous
  – i.e., motor and verbal skills
• The child becomes more confident and in
• If a child is not provided with what he or she
  needs socially (ex. nurturance) he or she will
  feel ashamed and less confident
      Initiative v. Guilt: 4 – 5 years

• The child becomes curious and moves around
  into new spaces to explore
• The child learns to play with others
• A child who is not allowed to take initiative
  will feel guilty and fearful
   Industry v. Inferiority: 6 – 11 years

• A child develops a need to do things well,
  work, and to provide in the future
• School and peers are important in assisting
  the child in his or her mastery over tasks
• If a child fails to achieve a sense of mastery, he
  or she will feel inferior and incompetent
Identity v. Role Confusion: 12 – 18 years

• An adolescent begins to create his or her own
  identity and integrate the various components
  of him or herself into a whole person
• An adolescent who is unable to integrate will
  experience role confusion
   Intimacy v. Isolation: 20 – 35 years

• The individual learns to build reciprocal
  relationships with others socially, sexually, and
• Individuals who do not build these
  relationships will feel isolated
Generativity v. Stagnation: 35 – 50 years

• The individual develops the capacity to care
  and nurture
• An individual who fails at this stage will focus
  only on caring for him or herself
         Ego Integrity v. Despair: 50+ years

• The individual
  learns to accept his
  or her own life
  achievements and
  those of significant
• If the individual fails
  at this, he or she
  will experience
• Believed that at birth people lack all morals,
  ethics, and honesty; moral development is
  leaned from the individual’s family
• Three levels of moral development, each
  consisting of two stages

• Pre-Conventional Level: birth – 9 years
• Conventional Level: 9 – 15 years
• Post-Conventional Level: 15 - adult
Pre-Conventional Level Birth – 9 Years

• Stage 1
 – Begins at school age
 – In this stage we behave according to social norms
   to avoid punishment
• Stage 2
 – The individual acts according to his or her own
   best interest
    Conventional Level 9 – 15 Years

• Stage 3
 – The individual behaves to gain the approval of
• Stage 4
 – The individual behaves in accordance with laws
   and rules
       Post-Conventional 15 - Adult

• Stage 5
 – The individual begins to gain a genuine interest in
   others and to understand social mutuality
• Stage 6
 – The individual develops autonomous morality
   based on individual conscience
   •   Kohlberg believed that no one actually reaches level 6
               Kohlberg’s Theory of
               Moral Development
Level            Stage Social Orientation
Pre-             1     Obedience: Avoid punishment
Conventional     2     Personal reward
Conventional     3     Good boy/good girl
                       Gain approval and avoid disapproval
                 4     Law and order
                       Conformity with rules
Post-            5     Social contract
Conventional     6     Universal ethical
Summary of Developmental Theorists
• Opinions differ over whether stages must happen
  sequentially and whether we move from one
  stage to another abruptly or gradually
• Opinions differ over what happens if stages are
  not completed in the ideal fashion
• It’s not truly possible to “prove” any one of the
  theories completely true or false
  – They largely give suggestions to guide research and
    interpret behavior

• Old theory said that infants are attached to
  their mothers because the mother satisfies
  basic physical needs
  – Food, warmth, physical protection, relief from
  – This was known as the “cupboard theory”

• John Bowlby and others said that there had to be
  more to attachment than fulfillment of basic
  – For example, babies show interest in strangers who do
    not provide food
• The new belief was that infants are born with
  social needs and therefore seek contact
• The mother therefore fulfills needs and provides
  interaction, safety and a feeling of comfort
• Harlow conducted a study using newborn
  rhesus monkeys raised without their mothers
• Each monkey lived in a cage with two figures
     •A “wire
     mother” that
     had a nipple to
     dispense milk
     •A “terry-cloth
     mother” that did
     not provide food
     but was cuddly

• The monkeys spent significantly more time
  with the terry-cloth mother
• Harlow presented the monkeys with a
  mechanical toy that made loud noises; the
  monkeys rushed to the terry cloth mother and
  clung to “her,” suggesting that they were
  seeking comfort
• Overall, Harlow concluded that babies are attached to
  their mothers because the mother provides comfort,
  not simply as a source of things
• In further studies, Harlow isolated monkeys
  completely (provided food, but no terry-cloth
  mother figure)
• Three months of isolation had little effect, but
  longer periods led to major disturbances
  – The monkeys huddled in a corner of the cage and
    rocked back and forth
  – When exposed to normal monkeys, they did not
    engage in play and instead withdrew, rocked, and
    bit themselves
  Attachment – Harlow continued

• Monkeys raised in isolation later on could not
  engage in normal interactions with other
  monkeys and tended to become violent
• If they had babies, they showed no ability to
  love or care for their offspring
  – In some cases, the monkeys actually abused their
What about humans?
• Infants raised in relative isolation in orphanages
  showed major developmental impairments
   – Some were desperate for love and attention
   – Others were apathetic to people – they did not
     approach or seek comfort from other people
• Other studies of people who were raised in
  deprived orphanage environments show
  intellectual deficits, particularly in language and
  abstract thinking; heightened physical
  aggression; delinquency; indifference to others
         Repairing the Damage
• Monkeys raised in isolation were later placed
  with monkeys younger than themselves
  – The younger monkeys sought contact, but would
    not be physically aggressive
• The older monkeys eventually adapted and
  were able to play and normally interact
• While monkeys who were raised in isolation
  showed difficulty mothering a first child, they
  reacted normally to second born babies
         Repairing the Damage
• Similar results have been found with humans
  – People who were taken out of the orphanages
    eventually caught up with their peers, while those
    who stayed in orphanages longer did not
            Attachment Styles
There are two aspects to attachment:
1. Being with the caregiver brings contentment
2. Being away from the caregiver evokes distress

Initially, infants cannot always differentiate their
    own mother from other adults. By 6 – 8 months,
    the infant knows who his or her mother is and
    becomes upset when they are separated
 Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
Mary Ainsworth developed the following method of
  studying a baby’s attachment (generally used
  with 1 year olds) to his or her mother:
• A child is brought to an unfamiliar playroom and
  is given the chance to explore and play with the
  mother present
• After some time, a stranger (the experimenter)
  comes in, speaks to the mother, and approaches
  the child
 Ainsworth and the Strange Situation
• The mother leaves the room briefly, leaving the child
  alone with the stranger
• After a few minutes, the mother returns and the
  stranger leaves
   – (In some variations, the mother leaves twice. The second
     time the stranger leaves as well, leaving the child alone in
     the room)

 The focus is primarily on how the baby responds to the
   mother’s returning, with some attention paid to the
       baby’s behavior when the mother is absent.

  Babies are said to have one of the following “attachment styles”
           Attachment Styles
• Securely attached
  – The child explores the room while the mother is
    there and may interact with the stranger
  – Shows some distress when the mother leaves
  – Is very happy and quickly consoled when the
    mother returns

• People who are securely attached as children
  tend to be better adjusted socially as adults
  and have better self esteem
              Attachment Styles
• Anxious-Ambivalent Insecure Attachment
   – Does not explore/explores very little when the
     mother is present
   – Becomes upset and panicky when the mother leaves
   – Acts ambivalent during the reunion
       • E.g., runs to the mother to be picked up, but immediately
         wants to be put down
       • Might push the mother away

• It is believed that these pairs interact on the mother’s
  terms only
• As adults, they are more likely to have difficulties in
  relationships and worry that their partner does not love
  him or her
                Attachment Styles
• Anxious-Avoidant Insecure Attachment
   – The child is distant and aloof from the beginning of the
   – Shows little distress when the mother leaves the room
   – Ignores the mother when she comes back

• It is believed that the mother is generally disengaged from
  the child and often does not meet his or her needs. The
  child comes to feel that his or her actions have little to no
  impact on the mother
• As adults they are more likely to have problems with
  intimacy and invest little in social or emotional
               Attachment Styles
• Disorganized Attachment
         (this was added later)
  – The child cries during the separation, but is not
    comforted by the mother when she returns
  – The child may avoid her, curl up on the floor, or show
    stereotyped behaviors (i.e., rocking, hitting oneself)
  – This is more common if the mother experienced a loss
    shortly before or after the child’s birth and was
    severely depressed
  – The child is likely to act like a caretaker for his or her
          Attachment Styles
     Summary of Attachment

In America, secure attachment is considered ideal
  and about 65% of 1 year olds are securely
Which attachment style is considered healthiest
  depends on cultural variables and values
        Summary of Attachment

• It is unclear whether the mother causes the
  child’s behavior entirely, or if it is a reciprocal
• If a child naturally engages less, the mother may
  adapt and learn to engage less with her child
• More recent research has shown that babies
  exhibit the same attachment styles with fathers

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