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									    授 课 教 案


系(部):     公外部      .

姓    名:    王素芬     .

课程名称:     高级商务英语   .




    辽宁对外经贸学院
           辽宁对外经贸学院教案
                    【首页】
课程名称    外贸高级商务英语
                         授课        商务    年级       07 商务
                         专业        英语    班级        英语
课程编号

       必修课 公共基础课( );专业基础课(√);专业课( )
课程类型
       选修课 限选课( );任选课( )

授课方式   课堂讲授  ;
           (√) 实践课(√ ) 考核方式         考试(√);考查( )

课程教学
              34         学 分 数                2
总学时数

学时分配   课堂讲授   20   学时; 实践课     14   学时

                         Louise
                                               经济科学
                           Pile
       《新编剑桥                        出版社及        出版社
教材名称               作 者    Catrin
       商务英语》                        出版时间       2002 年 3
                         Lloyd-J
                                                  月
                          ones
                                               经济科学
                         Louise                 出版社
                           Pile                2002 年 3
      《新编剑桥
                          Catrin                  月
      商务英语》教                        出版社及
使用参考书              作 者   Lloyd-J
       师用书                          出版时间
                          ones




授课教师    王素芬        职 称   副教授         单 位          公外部


授课学期               2008-2009 年度第二学期


注:表中( )选项请打“√”,本页只在每门课程教案前填写一份。
                       辽宁对外经贸学院教案

周次          第    周                           第   次课                 备   注
章节
                     Unit 1 a Work Roles
名称
授课                                                教学
       理论课( √ );实验课(√                 );实习(      )           2
形式                                                时数
教       After the completion of the unit, students should be able
学 to
   talk about jobs and duties with related words and phrases
目
   practise reading for specific information
的
   know and make use of expressions and terms related to
及    work roles
要
求

                 教 学 内 容 提 要                             时间分配


 I Introduction to the course and the textbook           25 min


 II Assessment and requirements                          5 min.


 III Unit 1:
    speaking: talk about work roles                     15 min.
    Reading: read the reading material                  20 min.
   and answer the questions
               detailed study of words and expressions   20 min.
    Summary and homework                                5 min.
       Talking about work responsibilities and
教      duties
学
重
点
与
难
点




讨
  Discussion: Work roles
论
、 Assignments: look for more information about work
练
习 positions, possibilities and tasks and talk about them.
、
作
业

教
学 Multimedia
手
段

参
考
资
料
 注:教案按授课次数填写、每次授课均应填写一份。重复班授课可不另填写教案。
                    Unit 1 a               Work Roles
Teaching Objective:
     After the completion of the unit, students should be able to
   talk about jobs and duties with related words and phrases
   practise reading for specific information
   know and make use of expressions and terms related to work roles

I.     Speaking
 1. What job would you like to choose?
 2. Can you talk about responsibilities and tasks of different jobs
II. Reading
1. Introduction to job description
      The purpose of a job description
     The purpose of a job description is to allow you, as an employer, to account for
all aspects of the job you are offering.
     Details covered in within a job description would be: the job title; who is
accountable for the employee; the location of the job; a brief description of what the
job entails; a list of duties and responsibilities; hors of work; working conditions and
pay.
      A job description clearly defines what the job is about and what can be
expected from the job, and so it benefits both you and your employee to be clear as
to what the job will entail. Additionally, by sending a copy of a job description to
potential employees can help to reduce the amount of feedback from people
unsuitable for the job.
      As your company grows, you can build a portfolio of job descriptions for each
job within your organization which will help you to prevent task clashes.
     On the right is a sample of a job description, and although its content is very
basic, it should give you an idea how you might design your own. Remember, adapt
your own job description to fit your own business needs, but try to stick to the same
format.

2. Introduction to words and phrases in the reading material “What is
Workset?”
specification [n.] 规定,说明
WorkSet [n.] 定工制,岗位责任制
job description 岗位说明书,职责描述
job brief 简要工作布置,工作概要
pie chart 饼分图,圆形分析图
WorkSet color 定工色牌,定工色块
re-align [v.] 重新调整
peak occupancy (酒店)入住高峰期
3. Detailed study of words and expressions
1) response to
   the public’s response to our appeal for help 公众对我们呼吁帮助的回应
           in response to something
  The law was passed in response to public pressure.为了应对公众的压力,该法律
不得不被批准通过。
          positive/favorable/negative etc response
The exhibition has received a positive response from visitors.参观者对该展览的反
应积极。
          an emotional/angry response
The decision provoked an angry response from residents.该决定引起居民们的愤怒
反应。
Emmett’s new exhibition has met with a favorable response from critics.
2) job description noun [countable]
      an official list of the work and responsibilities that you have in your job 工作职
责描述
                  = job brief
                  = job profile
3) abreast adv.
keep/stay abreast of something “与……齐头并进,不落后于,                         (通过耳闻目睹)
了解掌握最新情况”                (to know the most recent facts about something because of
what one reads or hears)
e.g. I like to keep abreast of the latest developments in software.
我喜欢了解掌握软件的最新发展情况。
        It’s important to keep abreast of the latest developments in computers.
walk/ride etc abreast 并肩走
        two/three/four etc abreast (=with two, three, four etc people or vehicles next to
each other)
          The planes were flying four abreast.
level with someone or something or in line with them 并排地
       As the car drew abreast of him, Jack suddenly recognized the driver.
4) core activity“核心经营项目,核心业务,主营业务”                              ,core 一词有“核心、
    关键”等意,可与不同词搭配。如 core product 核心产品,core benefits
    核心福利项目
5) contribute to a management team     “向管理团队出谋献策” 短语 contribute to
                                                                  ,
   除了大家所熟悉的“贡献”之意外,还可作“提出建议”解,此处则用作此
   意。
6) The employee interprets the manager’s brief and uses it as a framework for
   approaching the tasks that make up the job. “员工领会了经理的简要工作布置
   后,即可应用它作为实施工作任务的参照标准。                          ”此处 interpret 一词不作
   “口译”解,而是用作“理解、解释”之意。

   III.    Read the reading material and answer questions
   1. What were the team leaders asked to do first?
   2. What did this show?
   3. What did the use of WorkSet colors then allow the company to do?
   4. Why does Barrie Watson distinguish between skills and attributes?
   5. How can Ekstrom ensure its team leaders have the right attributes?
   IV.     Summary
   V.      Assignment
   Look for more information about work positions, possibilities and tasks and talk
   about them next time in class.
                     辽宁对外经贸学院教案

周次         第   周                         第   次课                 备   注
章节
                   Unit 1 a Work Roles
名称
授课                                               教学
       理论课( √ );实验课(√               );实习(    )             2
形式                                               时数
教 After the completion of the unit, students should be
学 able to
目
的  talk about jobs and duties
及  write reports
要  practise listening for gist and specific information
求

               教 学 内 容 提 要                            时间分配


  I. Revision                                         10 min.
  II. Talk about work positions, possibilities        25 min.
  and tasks
 III. Listening                                       25 min.
 IV. Report writing                                   25 min.
 V. Summary and homework                              5 min.
      Writing a Business report
教
学
重
点
与
难
点




讨
  Assignment:
论
、 Write a 200-250 word report according to the
练
习 information given on p 8.
、
作
业

教
学 Multimedia
手
段

参
考
资
料
 注:教案按授课次数填写、每次授课均应填写一份。重复班授课可不另填写教案。
                            Unit 1 a Work Roles

     After the completion of the unit, students should be able to
      talk about jobs and duties
      write reports
      practise listening for gist and specific information
      review the present simple and present continous

I.      Review
1. Words and phrases
2. Speaking: Ss talk about work positions, possibilities and tasks
II.     Practical discussion
A)How does the Workset system use color to clarify work roles?
Workset allows companies to clarify work roles by classifying different aspects of
the job according to color. Companies can use color to specify the exact level of
responsibility to be given to a number of key tasks. These specifications can be
changed as the job changes. Employees can use the same system to give feedback on
the job from their point of view, ensuring that job descriptions remain relevant.
B) How does the manager’s brief compare with what the employee actually does?
 According to the manager’s brief, about half of the employee’s time should be
spent taking personal responsibility for meeting objectives (yellow work). However,
the employee feels that this is not the case. Blue work (i.e. work carried out in a
prescribed way) is double the amount envisaged in the brief. As can be seen from the
grey, white and pink segments, the employee also perceives him/herself to be
involved in certain activities outside the job brief. While the small amount of white
(creative) work appears to be positive, the pink time serves no useful purpose.
Moreover, the incidental grey work which the employee is asked to do in addition to
his/her job may be detracting from the core yellow work.
C) Match each verb with one of the four core WorkSet colors.
    Blue: operate, comply, follow
    Yellow: schedule, design, decide
    Green: support, assist,
    Orange: co-operate, participate
      Blue: carry out, execute
      Yellow: plan, research
      Green: aid, cover
     Orange: take part, brainstorm
BLUE WORK 指的是员工必须按事先确定的工作方式依照规定标准完成的任
务。所以像 operate(操作)              ,comply(遵从)        ,follow(按照)等动词都属于蓝
色色牌。
• YELLOW WORK 指的是完成一个目标个人承担的责任。                                只要能够达到工作目
标,如何去完成无关紧要。因此,如 schedule(安排,作计划)                                  ,decide(决定)      ,
design(策划)等动词都与黄色色牌对应。
III. Listening.
1. Words and expressions in listening
  (1) hierarchy noun plural hierarchies
  [uncountable and countable] a system of organization in which people or things are
divided into levels of importance 等级制度;阶层
         a rigid social hierarchy 严格的社会等级
         She worked her way up through the corporate hierarchy to become president.
她一路沿着公司的等级不断提升自己的职位,直至做到了总裁的位置。
         come to terms with something
         to accept an unpleasant or sad situation and no longer feel upset or angry
about it 让步屈服,达成协议,妥协
         George and Elizabeth have come to terms with the fact that they will never
have children. 乔治和伊丽莎白接受了他们将没有孩子这个事实。
  (2) clock in/ out 用打卡机记录上班时间 to record on a special card the time
you arrive at or begin work
  American Equivalent: punch in
  At this time a lot of service workers would be clocking off.
   clock out phrasal verb
  to record on a special card the time you stop or leave work 用打卡机记录下班时
间
   American Equivalent: punch out
   (3) on a one-year contract
   jet in/out
[intransitive always + adverb/preposition] informal to travel by plane, especially to
many different places 坐飞机飞行
   jet off
We’re jetting off for a sunshine holiday in the Caribbean. 我们坐飞机去加勒比海
度过一个阳光假期。
   business executives jetting around the world 商界高管认识绕着世界坐飞机
Keys: HDBEA
III. Language revision
 Present simple
      To refer to permanent or long-term situation:
               I work for the UK subsidiary of a Japanese company.
      To refer to regular actions:
                I produce technical documents.
       To refer to states
                I have a lot more responsibility now.
       To refer to future time in subordinate clauses:
                I always have to consult him before I can make even the smallest
alteration.
        As part of a conditional clauses:
              If something needs doing, then I think whoever’s available should do
it.

  Present continuous
        To refer to temporary situations:
                 I’m travelling around Europe a lot.
         To refer to current activities
                 I’m a temp and I’m working as a PA for law firm in London just now.
         To refer to an activity happening around a particular time:
                 Especially when you’re starting a new…
           To emphasize that an activity is ongoing:
                 Everyone’s still clocking in and out at the same time.
IV. Report Writing
1.How did Barrie use WorkSet?
Barrie Watson used WorkSet to ascertain that Ekstrom Team Leaders had different
perceptions of the precise level of responsibility to be allocated to each of their key
tasks. He then helped the company to use the WorkSet colors to select which level
was most appropriate for each task and to communicate its expectations to the Team
Leaders.
2. Read the report again and answer the following questions.
    (1)     to explain how they saw their roles.
    (2)      Leaders had different perceptions of their roles.
    (3)     To communicate the most appropriate approach to a series of key tasks.
    (4)     Skills can be developed; attributes (i.e. the qualities people are born with)
cannot.
    (5)      It can set up assessment centers to screen applicants and team leaders.
    Report / Proposal format and its terminology.
            Date:
            Report/ Proposal on….
            Introduction
            Findings
            Conclusion(s)
           Recommendations
Your name
Your position (if available)
3. Some fixed terminology in the report writing.
   Introduction
               The report/proposal aims/set out to….
               The aim / purpose of this report/proposal is to…
               The report is based on….
    Findings
               It was found that…
               The disparity clearly showed …
               The following points summarise our key findings.
               The key findings are outlined below.
     Conclusions
               It was decided/agreed/felt that…
               It is clear that….
               No conclusions were reached regarding….
     Recommendations
               It is suggested/proposed/recommended that ….
               We (strongly) recommend that…
               It is essential to
             It would be advisable to

Adding ideas:              Furthermore/ Moreover/ In addition,
Contrasting ideas:          However, … /Although …, ……/ Despite/ In spite of…
                           /…while / whereas…
Making comparisons: Both…/ Neither… / Like/Unlike…, ……..
Linking cause and effect:            Because of/ as a result of/ due to/owing to…
                           This means…          …leads to./ results in…
Ex. 3 on page 13.
Write passive voice sentences in a report.
1. ‘There’s a lack of communication in Sales.’ (it/feel)
     It was felt that there was a lack of communication in Sales.
2. ‘Let’s organise some training for our team leaders.’ (it/ suggest)
     It was suggested that some training should be/be organised for our team leaders.
3. ‘We’re going to bring in a consultant.’ (it/decide)
   It was decided that a consultant should be brought in/be brought in/ to bring in a
consultant.
4. ‘It seems team leaders’ roles aren’t clear enough.’ (it/find)
     It was found that team leaders’ roles are not/were not clear enough.
5. ‘OK, we’ll start implementing Workset next month.’ (it/agree)
     It was agreed that we should start/ we start implementing Workset the following
month.
6. ‘Ekstrom needs to set up new assessment centres.’ (we/recommend)
    We recommend that Ekstrom should set up/sets up/set up new assessment
centres.
Demonstration A P 67
Problems:
     The candidate fulfils the task but not very clearly. Although he/she adheres to
the word limit and recommends how to spend the profits and outlines the benefits, as
required, there is no clear organisation of ideas in paragraphs. This makes the
writer’s ideas difficult to follow. In addition, typical elements of report writing are
lacking, such as headings, bullets and standard report writing phrases.
Main points       Supporting ideas
       Computers are not necessary.         Employees already have new computers.
The existing computers are fast enough for employees’ routine work.
       Language training is a good idea. It would help the company increase
export sales to Spain and France. Staff would enjoy the lessons and feel the
company is investing in them. It would be good for motivation. Special bonus
payments are not recommended.           They would be good for motivation but do not
invest in the company. Staff would expect more bonuses in the future. There is the
question of who you give the bonuses to.

Altered Version
Introduction
     This report sets out to examine how the company should re-invest this year’s
profits. The areas under consideration are the purchases of new computers, the
provision of language training courses and the payment of special bonuses.
Areas under consideration
     New computers
     The majority of company computers are quite new and fast enough to
handle the work done on them. Consequently, new computers would not be
recommended.
     Language training courses
     The company aims to increase exports, particularly in Spain and France.
Therefore, language training courses would be an excellent idea for those employees
who deal with business partners and customers overseas. In addition, training
courses would increase                 motivation: staff would enjoy the lessons and
perceive that the company is investing in them. Therefore, language training would
be an option.
      Special bonus payments
      Although special bonus payments would have a beneficial impact on
motivation, they would have no direct effect on the company’s operations. There are
also potential problems concerning the selection of staff eligible for the payments
and the setting of a precedent for future payments. Therefore, bonus payments
would not be advisable.
Recommendations
      It is felt that the best solution for both the company and staff would be to
invest in language training. It is suggested that the company should organise courses
in French and Spanish. Those employees who have contact with partners and
customers should be assured of places but other interested members of staff should
also be allowed to attend.

Sample Answer
Date: 30 January 2006
Report on: Company Training Course for Foreign Language Translators
Introduction
       This report aims to assess three training courses and recommend one of them
as being the most useful for all foreign language translators. The three courses from
which a choice may be made are: English Language Development, Changes in
Technology, and Management Skills.
Areas under consideration
       English Language Development
       All translators in the Company have university degrees in English Language
and many colleagues in our field have postgraduate qualifications in Linguistics or
Translation. As the Company’s English Language Course is only to Diploma level
and contains                    nothing that will be new to us, it is not suitable for us
and is best left to other colleagues.
        Changes in Technology
       All Company translators completed an excellent “Changes in Technology”
courses two months ago, which brought us up to date on use of personal computers
and machine-translating. Clearly, we do not need to attend the “Changes in
Technology” course again.
        Management Skills
        The “Management Skills” course is definitely the one for the Company’s
translators. It has recently been announced that our department will be divided, next
year, into six sections, each of which will serve a specific Division of a
much-expanded Company. Thirty new English Language graduates will be
recruited as new translators, five to each section. We six existing translators will be
promoted as Heads of Section.
Recommendations
        All six of us lack management skills and, when we have our own sections,
such skills will be absolutely necessary. Therefore, I have no hesitation in
recommending that all translators are enrolled for the “Management Skills”
training course.
Fan Yi Ling
Translating Coordinator

V. Homework
1. Owing to increased business in your department you believe that you need to
recruit an additional receptionist and have been asked to write a report explaining
why this new post is necessary.
2. Write a report
     explaining why another receptionist is needed
     what duties the person appointed will be expected to perform,
     referring to the present receptionist’s duties
     qualities the new receptionist should have.
Write 200-250 words.
          Unit 1 b                          Company Structure
Teaching Objective:
1. To enable Ss to talk about company structure
2. To practise reading and listening for specific information
3. To review the past simple, present perfect simple and present perfect continuous


Types of company structure
1. Speaking①
  Look at the following diagrams. What kind of company structure do you think each one
represents?
  Suggested answer:
Ex 1
A Large established company Hierarchical pyramid structure.
B Small company (owner manager). Flat management structure.
C Flexible company with proiect-based teams.




2. Reading
owner manager 经理人,公司所有者
project-based team 项目小组,
competitive advantage 竞争优势
established company (老牌)知名公司,著名企业,也作 established corporation
responsiveness 快速反应能力
operating process 经营环节,经营过程
management process 管理环节,管理过程
1). hierarchical pyramid structure 层级制金字塔结构,即层级制组织结构,是公司组织结
构形式之一。这种结构的特点是,公司内部功能齐全,科室设置完备,公司组织层次多,
机构呈纵向垂直构架。自上而下逐级授权,自下而上逐级汇报,信息流通缓慢,沟通渠道
有限,多重领导,效率低下。
2). flat management structure 扁平化的管理结构,公司组织结构形式之一。         公司经理即公司
所有人,这类企业通常是小型公司。组织结构简单,机构呈横向扁平设立,信息反馈环节
少,效率高,管理层对经营环节既不失去控制,又能使企业反应快速。及时反馈信息保证
了有效管理和竞争优势。与 hierarchical management structure (层级制的管理结构)相对。
3). flexible company with project-based teams 由项目小组构成的灵活公司体系。由基于信息
技术,自我管理,分工管理,分工明确的任务小组或者事业单位构成,公司组织结构呈现
灵活机动的特性,该组织结构按项目小组设立,各项目小组或各级事业单位直接对分管总
经理负责。既能有效管理庞大复杂的层级制组织结构,又可以保持企业家式新兴公司的快
速反应。信息技术作为该组织结构协调管理和决策反馈的中枢。

翻译
1). the big small company
2). With speed increasingly seen as the key to competitive advantage, the dream is to marry the
control of an established company with the responsiveness of a start-up.
3). However, the line workers lack both the authority and motivation to improve these routine
tasks and are limited by their local view of the business.
4). It co-ordinates complex fast-cycle operating processes and, more importantly, gives
decision-makers quick access to detailed, real-time information about operations and market
performance.
1). 题目中 big small company 一语采用的是矛盾修辞法,这是一种把两个意义相反,互相
矛盾或者互不调和的词语并列在一起,表示特殊真实内涵或寓意的辞格。理解和翻译时不
宜只看字面意思,而应根据上下文,试图从相互矛盾的形象概念中找到其内在语义联系,
译出经过凝缩的意义。在本篇文章中,big small company 的实际内涵是融合了知名大企业
和新创办的小公司各自优点长处的公司体制,根据课文内容,可译为“健全高效的公司体
     ,
制”“规模健全而又反应快速的公司”“大而精干的公司”“反应快速的大公司”等。     ,                   ,
2). 这是一个比较长的句子,在这里我们可以将它拆分为两句来译:                                         “如今,速度越来越被
认为是获得竞争优势的关键。人们向往着能将老牌知名企业的管理能力和新兴公司的快速
反应能力结合起来。             ”注:start-up 一词作名词原指(生产或操作的)                        “开始,启动”       ,现已
            指
有新用法, “新创立的小公司”      “新兴公司”
                     ,             尤其是那些网络公司             (dot-com companies)  ,
与知名企业相对。
3). “但是,在直线管理体制下的员工,既没有职权也缺乏主动性去改进这些一成不变的
工作,同时狭隘的经营观念也限制了他们的手脚。               ”注:line workers 指 workers under line
management 在直线管理体制下的员工。Line and staff management(直线业务及人事管理)
是大型机构的一种管理体系,分别有业务经理和行政经理,前者负责经营,销售等主要业
务,               如:
    后者负责后勤业务。 As the corporation grew a system of line and staff management was
introduced. (随着公司日益发展壮大,开始采用直线业务及人事管理体制。                          )
4).“它不仅可以协调错综复杂,快速循环的经营环节,更重要的是,信息技术使决策者能
够快速获得第一时间的详细信息,及时了解经营活动和市场运作动态。                             ”注:real-time 意为
“(与事件发生几乎同步的)同时的,实时的”             。


Suggested answers:
Ex2
A. Hierarchical organization
Advantages: High level of control
Disadvantages: Workers lack the authority and motivation to improve processes. Management’s
response time is slow. Only suitable for stable business environments.
B. Entrepreneurial organization
Advantages: Totally centralized authority and direct contact between owner and employees
ensure responsiveness to eternal changes.
Disadvantages: Only suitable for small companies.
C. Information age organization
Advantages: Allows speed of response within a large complex structure. Retains control but
gives quick access to information. Employees can constantly refine their actions and strategies.
Organizational control is dynamic.
Disadvantages: although IT makes al these advantages possible, it cannot motivate people to use
the information they have.
Ex 3
1) Operating processes are concerned with how a company produces and sells its products and
     services. Management processes are concerned with how a company directs and controls
     these operations.
2) Jobs are standardized and separated into sequential steps which are carried out under direct
     supervision.
3) There is daily personal interaction between the owner and employees.
4) Access to information alone cannot motivate people to use that information on behalf of the
     organization. Organizations need to ensure that the information is used by mangers and
     employees to accomplish the same goals.
Flexible working
相关背景知识
The term flexible working refers to working practices, mutually agreed between employee and
employer, which cover working hours, locations or patterns of work. Such arrangements have to
comply with the law on working time, including hours, rest breaks and the working week.

Flexible working 弹性工作制
flexible working patterns 弹性工作方式
为了降低员工在工作、家庭、休闲或教育方面不同要求的冲突,减少交通费用,是员工更
加安心工作,降低员工流动率,同时也为了更好地利用办公设备,提供 24 小时服务,许
多公司采用了灵活多样的弹性工作方式。其中主要的弹性工作方式有以下几类:
flexitime(弹性工作时间)       ,也作 flexible working hours, flextime,指将员工工作时
间分为核心时间和弹性时间。核心时间(例如早上 10 点到 12 点,下午 2 点到 4 点)为员
工必须工作时间,其余时间定为弹性时间,即员工自己选择的工作时间,这样员工可灵活
决定上下班时间。员工每天工作时间相同(例如每天 8 小时)                       ,但实际到公司上班的时间
每天不同。
compressed work weeks(压缩工作周)   ,指以每天较长工作时间的工作日,换取每周较少
的工作日。例如员工每周需要工作 40 小时,在压缩工作周安排下,员工不一定要工作 5
天,每天 8 小时,他们可选择每天工作 10 小时,每周工作 4 天。
permanent part-time(长期兼职)和 job sharing(工作分担)          ,即雇用一些不愿全时间
工作的员工,其工作时间虽不是整天整周,工作时间却定期不变(例如某私人企业定期雇
用会计师在每个工作日下班后为其处理财务账目)                   。工作分担即一份全职工作由两人分担,
平分工作时间或按需要分摊工作时间。
                            ,
flexiplace ( 弹 性 工 作 地 点 ) 指 员 工 通 过 电 脑 网 络 和 其 他 通 讯 方 法 在 家 工 作
(homeworking)   。员工可节省往返公司的时间,但此方法只适用于某些动脑和 IT 专业的
员工,例如文字秘书、软件编程员、报刊编辑、作家等。
Suggested answers:
Ex 1
Options 2000 is a system of flexible working introduced by BT. A large proportion of office
based staff work from home with 24-hour access to BT’s intranet. These staff work in virtual
project teams, only meeting when it is necessary.

Ex 2
BACC BCBB
Exam focus: Listening Test Part Three
Candidates listen to a 4-5 minute recording of two or three speakers and answer eight
multiple-choice questions. The recording is heard twice. This task tests ability to listen for
specific information.
The questions follow the order of the recording and are clearly signposted by the speaker.
Incorrect options are included in the recording in order to distract unwary candidates.

EX 5 Reports
Resource Planning Manager: Assessment of Suitability for Home-based Working

Introduction
The purpose of this report is to assess the suitability of my position as Resource Planning
Manager for home-based working.

Findings
My working pattern and that of my colleagues varies from week to week. During certain periods
a large proportion of my time is spent doing fieldwork. This is followed by office-based work
collating and recording the data collected. Once the results have been recorded, I proofread the
colour copies of all reports and maps.
As regards communication with colleagues, department meetings are held once a fortnight. At all
other times, the individual members of the team communicate either face-to-face or by phone,
depending on their location. Apart from official meetings, the same results can be achieved
whether I am in the office or working elsewhere.

Conclusion
It is clear that I would be able to undertake the same duties while working from home for a large
proportion of my time. Clearly, some days would be spent in the office for face-to-face
communication with colleagues. It would also be necessary to use the technical facilities of the
office at times. However, in order to be able to work effectively from home, I would need to be
provided with a networked computer and printer.

Recommendations
I would suggest that I should be given the necessary equipment to work partially from home for
a trial period. After this time, further consultation should take place in order to reassess the
situation.




Homework:
Self-study 1b
          Unit 2 a                       Stocks & shares
Teaching Objective:
1. To enable Ss to talk about financial trends
2. To enable Ss to describe trends in writing
3. To practise listening for specific information
4. To review language of similarity and difference


Share prices
相关背景知识
                   国际股票市场与股票价格指数
国际股票市场(International stock market)指各国进行股票买卖的交易市场。它是世界各
国通过发行股票的形式,吸收中长期资金和投资资本的场所。股票的发行和买卖交易是通
过发行市场(也叫一级市场)         (security primary market)和二级市场(security secondary
market)实现的。二级市场是对已发行的股票进行买卖的市场,通常是在各国股票市场如
证券交易所、证券公司等进行再交易实现的。
目前世界上主要的证券交易所有:
纽约证券交易所(New York Stock Exchange)    、美国证券交易所(American Stock Exchange,
Amex) 、伦敦证券交易所(London Stock Exchange)       、东京证券交易所(Tokyo Security
         、
Exchange) 香港股票交易所                              、
                  (Hong Kong Stock Exchange) 上海证券交易所  (Shanghai Stock
Exchange)等。

股票价格指数(stock price index)指用以反映股票市场价格变化、普遍为人们接受并用于
分析判断股份趋势的数字。它是由上述各证券交易所通过抽样上市公司股票加权平均计算
得出的有关市场价格综合走势资料,并每日在主要财经媒体公布。
上述世界各主要证券交易所编制的股票指数有:
美 国 标 准 — — 普 尔 股 票 指 数 ( Standard &. Poor’s Indexes ) 道 • 琼 斯 股 价 平 均 指 数
                                                      ;
(Dow-Jones Averages);伦敦《金融时报》指数(London Financial Times Stock Exchange
Index);东京证券交易所股价指数(Tokyo Topix Index)           ;日京道•琼斯平均股价(Tokyo
              ;上海证券交易所股票指数(Shanghai Stock Index)等。
Nikkei Average)

graph 走势图,曲线图
share price 股票价格
listings 股票行情表,股票牌价表
price/earning ratio 市盈率,简称 P/E
earnings per share 每股收益,简称 EPS
security 这里指有价证券,包括了股票(stock)和债券(bond)
名词解释
NASDAQ
纳斯达克,全称为 National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation(全美证
券交易协会自动报价系统)        ,简称纳斯达克股票市场,是美国高科技公司和中小企业上市
交易最大的市场。
NASDAQ-100
纳斯达克 100 种股票指数,     指采用纳斯达克市场上有代表性的 100 种股票价格编制的指数,
反映纳斯达克股票市场整体价格波动状况。
Financial Times
伦敦《金融时报》        ,该报为英国 12 家全国性日报之一,1888 年创办,是英国金融市场的喉
舌,也是世界上有代表性的著名金融商情报纸。


Suggested answers:
Ex2
1、F 该句意为:          “与前一天相比股价变化(增减)情况。                           ”相关信息在 f 代表的 Chng,
它在股票牌价表上为 change(增减)的缩写。
2、A 该句意为:          “付给持股者所投资每一美元资金的回报”                             。相关信息在 a 代表的 Div,
它在股票牌价表上为 dividend(股息,红利)的缩写。
    E
3、 该句意为:          “前一天收盘价” 相关信息在 e 代表的 last,
                                     。                                 它在股票牌价表上表示             “前
日收盘价”       。
4、C 该句意为:          “公司在前一天的股票交易量”                     。相关信息在 c 字母代表的 Vol 100s,
它在股票牌价表上为 volume(成交股数)的缩写,100s 指 100 股单位,通常股票最低
交易单位为一手即 100 股。
5、D 该句意为:           “前一天最高价和最低价”                 。相关信息在 d 字母代表的 High、Low,它
在股票牌价表上表示“最高价最低价”                          。
    B
6、 该句意为:          “市盈率    (等于现有股价除以每股收益)。                      ” 相关信息在 b 字母代表的 P/E,
它在股票牌价表上为 price/earning ratio(市盈率)的缩写。
Ex3
Individual might invest in shares: to make a quick profit prom privatizations, to get a better
return on long-term investment than in a traditional savings scheme, as part of a benefits package
(share options), to become eligible for shareholder perks, to support a company they like
Companies might invest in shares: to avoid paying tax, to reinvest profits, to increase company
pension funds, to have a participating interest in other companies, (in stock swaps with other
companies, in hostile takeover bids etc.), to consolidate strategic alliances


Market trends
Suggested answers:
EX1
Internet share prices have fluctuated wildly over the past twelve months. Prices were very high
earlier this year but have recently collapsed.
EX2
B C A C B A B A


Describing graphs
EX2
Upward trend soaring fallen               recovery     peaking
EX3
Adjectives: typical, upward, sharp, current, strong, recent
Adverbs: fairly, predictable, finally
Verbs: going, took off, soaring, fallen, panic, doubled, peaking, has collapsed
Nouns: trend, gains, level, losses, recovery, value
Prepositions with time phrases: over the last twelve months, in the first six months, by December
last year, in January, by February/May, in the last four weeks
Prepositions with figures: from, to almost/over, at nearly/just over, by nearly, down almost
EX4
Sample answer:
Both IBM and AOL shares showed a general up word trend the end of 1998.However while
AOL shares then continue to rise steadily over the next three months; the price of IBM shares
fell slightly .By March 1999 both shares were worth about $100.
AOL shares then shot up, almost doubling in value within four weeks. They peaked at $180 in
mid-April before collapsing to just over $100 by June 1999.During this time, IBM shares made a
steady recovery, finishing at just over $100,almost equal to AOL.


Homework
P20 Writing: look at the share prices of IBM Corporation and America Online, Inc. over a
twelve-month period. Write a 120-140 word report comparing the performance of the two
shares.
Self study Unit 2a
EXAME FOCUS P28
Read the memo below about sales people’s performance.
Choose the best word to fill each gap.
There is an example at the beginning (0)
Example
0 A exceeded B excelled C overtook D overcame
Salesperson of the month
Our salesperson of the month is Kurt Steiner from Stuttgart, who wins four bottles of the finest
champagne. Kurt achieved sales worth 150,000, which means that he (0)… his monthly target by
over 40,000. Congratulations Kurt!
There was another excellent performance in Switzerland from Cecile Fourget, who almost won
the prize on account of her (1)… high sales figures throughout June. Another Swiss salesperson
with very good (2)… in June was Marie Dupont, with total sales of more than 130,000.
After a bad start to the month, sales in London (3)… swiftly, mainly due to the superb
performance of Mike McGillis. Mike was successful in winning a major (4)… with LTV
Production, which will be worth over 120,000 for the company.
In France, Claudette Le Blanc from Lyon sold 70,000 worth of business. This will obviously go
a long (5)… towards increasing the turnover of one of our newest sites, which has been forced to
(6)… at a loss for the last six months. Our Lisieux centre has also done well, with one of the
newest (7)… of our French sales team, Jerome Zola, selling 50,000 worth of business.
As for Finland, our (8)… figures suggest that sales are well down compared to the same period
last year. However, we expect that the situation will (9)… quickly once the recession is over.
Finally, just a reminder that our bonus scheme runs until the end of this week, so get your (10)…
out to clients as quickly as possible. Who knows, you might be our next ‘salesperson of the
month’!
练习
1 A usually B regularly C consistently D evenly
2 A levels B results C grades D marks
3 A recovered B regained C restored D repaired
4 A commission B agreement C contract D arrangement
5 A route B distance C run D way
6 A manage B act C operate D work
7 A members B delegates C associates D partners
8 A immediate B actual C instant D current
9 A increase B improve C enlarge D elevate
10 A statements B invoices C charges D accounts
题解:salesperson of the month 可译为“本月最佳销售员”                    。
英语常用“名词+ of +时间名词”的结构,表示某一时期“最佳”“引人注目”的人或物。                     ,
如:Book of the Year(年度最佳图书)             ;Personages of 2000(2000 年风云人物)等。
CBACD CADBB
1 选 C。consistently 指“一直,一贯”             。该句子意为“在整个六月份,她的销售额一直保
持高居不下。       ”
2 选 B。results 以复数形式出现,常表示“成绩,业绩”                           ,符合文中语义。此句意为“另一
个在六月份业绩极佳的瑞士推销员是……”                         。
3 选 A。四个选项都有“失而复得,恢复”之意,但用法不同。A 项 recover 作不及物动
词,可指在经济上复苏;其他三个选项 regain,restore 和 repair 作“恢复”解只作及物动
词。文中说“伦敦的销售额迅速复苏”                      ,是不及物用法,故选 A。
4 选 C。contract 意为“合同”         ,联系上下文,这里说的是他与 LTV 生产公司签订了一笔大
合同,为公司赢得了一笔超过 12 万英镑的合同。A 项 commission 在商务英语里多指“佣
           ;B
金,回扣” 项 agreement 意为“协议,条约”                       ;D 项 arrangement 意为“安排”     ,均与语
义不符。
5 选 D。Go a long(或 good,great)way(toward)是英语习语,意为“有很大作用,大
有帮助”     ,其意义与文中语境恰切。此句意为“这显然有助于提高新店址的营业额”                                     。
6 选 C。从上下文看,这句话意思应为“亏本(at a loss)经营”                           。四个选项中,只有 operate
有“经营”义,其他三个选项:manage 管理,act 行动,work 工作。
7 选 A。team member(团队成员)是常见的搭配,其他三个选项:delegates 代表,代表
团成员;associates 同事;partners 贸易伙伴。
8 选 D。   四个选项分别为:          immediate 即刻的;      actual 现时的,    当时的; instant 即时的;current
目前的,从下文“compared to the same period last year”           (与去年同时期相比较)         ,可判断 D
项为正确答案。
9 选 B。上文说目前销售额与去年同期相比严重下降。随后的 however 一词,暗示了语义
上的转折,加上后面说的“一旦萧条过去”                          ,显然这里表示这种情况会迅速好转。四个选
项中,只有 improve 在语义上最连贯。
10 选 B。invoices(销售发票)          ,指销售商品的公司开给购买者的列有所发货物或服务的清
                                   (a
单及这些货物或服务应付款的凭证 piece of paper showing goods or services that have been
provided and the amount of money that has to be paid for them),代表了货物的销售权证。在
大宗买卖或商业交易中,一般卖方先向买方开具一份所购物品的清单,即 invoice,然后买
方根据 invoice 中所列物品的名称、数量、价格和金额向卖方付款。买方付款后,会收到
一份卖方开出的证明已经付清该款的正式凭证, receipt,                    即          即我们平常说的可供报销的        “发
票” 。该句意为“最后提醒大家,我们的有奖销售活动到本周末结束,因此,请尽快向客
户寄出销售发票。          ”其他三个选项:statements(清单、报表、说明)                   ;charges(费用、开支)     ;
accounts(账户、财务科目)仅仅是与财务相关的概念,并非本题所要求的法定销售发票
凭证。故选 B。
          Unit 2 b                Mergers &acquisitions
Teaching Objective:
1. To enable Ss to talk about mergers and acquisitions
2. To practise reading and listening for specific information
3. To practise a collaborative speaking task
4. To review aspects of cohesion


Understanding mergers
相关背景知识
merger, consolidation, acquisition, takeover
关于收购兼并,英语里有几个词都表达这一概念,但意义略有不同。
merger 和 consolidation 都指“合并”            ,但 merger(兼并)指的是出价公司 A 收购目标公
司 B,合并成一个公司 A,也称“吸收合并”                        ;consolidation 指两公司 A、B 合并创立新公
                          。
司 C,也称“创立合并” acquisition(购并)                   ,指一家公司全部或部分买下另一家公司,
取得所有权;takeover(接管,收购)                    ,包括三种形式:acquisition(购并)    、proxy contest
(收购委托书)和 going private(私有化)                  。
收购通常分为两种:善意收购(friendly takeover)和恶意收购(hostile takeover)                   。
善意收购 是指确定目标后,出价公司首先与目标公司接触,取得对方同意并谈判收购条
件,最后达成一致意见而完成收购活动,善意收购有助于减低收购行动的成本和风险,使
双方充分沟通,但购并时间较长,出价公司可能会牺牲部分价值。
恶意收购 是指出价公司在收购目标公司股权时,虽然面对强烈抗拒,却依然强行收购;
或出价公司事先不与目标公司接触和协商,而突然提出公开出价收购。恶意收购的好处在
于出价公司可以完成处于主动位置,而且行动迅速,时间短,但风险较大。
merger 兼并,吸收合并
acquire 购入,取得所有权
mergers and acquisitions 兼并和收购,公司并购,简称 M&A
plummet (价格)骤跌,股价崩盘
economies of scale 规模效益,规模经济,也作 scale economies
operator 运营商,运营公司
deregulation (价格、费用等)撤销管制
over-capacity 生产能力过剩,产能过剩
WebTV 网络视频,网络电视
equity stake 股权
R&D Research and Development 研究与开发,研发,研发部门
portfolio (私人投资者或金融机构的)投资组合,产品组合
risk-free venture 无风险商业活动,无风险投资
destabilising 使(政府、经济等)不稳定的,破环的
Exxon 埃克森石油公司(美国)
Mobil 美孚石油公司(美国)
Deutsche Bank 德国德意志银行
Bankers Trust 美国银行家信托公司(信孚银行)
Siemens 西门子公司(德国电器、电子制造商)
Matra 马特拉(法国高科技企业集团)
Alstom 阿尔斯通公司(法国电力设备商及运输系统公司)
Vodafone 沃达芬公司(英国移动电话运营商)
AirTouch Communications 空中联系通信公司(美国公司,被英国沃达芬公司收购)
VodafoneAirTouch 沃达芬空中联系公司
AT&T American Telephone and Telegraph 美国电话电报公司
Media One 传媒一号公司(英国互联网和移动电话运营商)
BMW 宝马汽车公司(德国)
Rover Group 路华集团(英国汽车制造商,也译为陆虎汽车)
Zeneca 杰尼卡(英国制药公司)
Astra 艾斯特拉制药公司(瑞典)
AstraZeneca 艾斯特拉杰尼卡公司
Losec 洛赛克,艾斯特拉制药公司生产的治溃疡药
Daimler-Chrysler 戴姆勒—克莱斯勒公司(德国汽车制造商)

Consortium: a group of people, countries, companies, etc,. who are working together on a
particular project. 财团,银团,联营企业
Economy of scale: It refers to the ability to increase the output of a product with specialization
owning to larger scale and lower unit cost. Economy of scale is derived by spreading fixed cost
over a larger output.
Stock swap: 1.An acquisition in which the acquiring company uses its own stock to pay for the
acquired company.2.A method of exercising stock options where shares that the holder already
owns are used to buy new shares at the exercise price.
A stock swap, also known as a share swap, is a business takeover or acquisition in which the
acquiring company uses its own stock to pay for the acquired company. Each shareholder of the
newly acquired company receives a certain number of shares of the acquiring company's stock
for each share of stock they previously held in the acquired company. Sometimes some
shareholders are required to wait for an agreed-upon period of time before they are allowed to
sell their new shares of stock.
Alternatively, it is a method of exercising stock options where shares that the holder already
owns are used to buy new shares at the exercise price.
It is one of the poison pill strategies used to avoid a hostile takeover bid by another company.
Suggested Answers:
EX1
Possible reasons: to reduce costs, to expand the company, to enter new markets, to buy market
share, to buy brands or patents, to buy a distribution channel, to complement a product portfolio
Possible problems: a hostile takeover may lead to resentment, the difficulty of combining
different company/national cultures, job losses due to restructuring, the merger may be referred
to a monopolies commission
EX2
Benefits
Can increase efficiency
Can remain competitive in a global market
Can enter new markets
Can diversify and extend their product range
Can acquire product patents
Can make short-term savings and attract shareholder
Problems
Merging of different cultures can have a destabilizing effect on the workforce
Projected efficiencies may not be delivered
There may be redundancies as a result of restructuring
There is no evidence that long-term value is added to company performance

T refer back to Ex1 and ask Ss the reason behind each merger/acquisition mentioned in the
article

Deutsche Bank: to buy market share
Siemens: to enter a new market
Vodafone: to expand the company/enter new markets
Microsoft: to diversify/buy distribution channels
BMW/Rover: to extend BMW’s product portfolio/to raise capital for Rover
Zeneca: to expand/buy patents
T may also wish to point out that Vodafone AirTouch merged with Bell Atlantic to create a
pan-American network. In February 2000 vodafone AirTouch launched a hostile takeover bid for
the German telecoms operator Mannesmann, a move which resulted in the world’s largest ever
merger.
EX3
B C D A C A
解析:
1 问:  “埃克森和美孚兼并是为了什么目的?”
答: “降低成本,提高收益”(B)          。
相关信息在第一段最后一句中                “为了取得规模效益”             (sought to achieve economies of scale)。
其它选项意思分别为:A—进入新的海外市场;C—创建世界最大公司;D—通过压价与对
手竞争。
2 问:  “沃达芬公司通过何种方法收购了空中联系公司?”
答: “以股票交换作为交易的一部分。(C)                ”
相关信息在第三段中“现金和股票的掉换交易”                           (cash and stock swap) 。该方法意味着空中
联系公司的股东除了能拿到现金,还能拿到沃达芬公司的股票。
3 问:  “什么是微软对美国电信电话公司收购传媒一号公司的兴趣所在?”
答: “此举能帮助微软打进新市场。(D)               ”
相关信息在第五段中。这里重要的是抓住“扩大经营品种,从事有线电视、移动通讯和网
络视频业务”     (diversifying into cable and mobile telecommunications as well as WebTV)  一句。
4 问:  “为什么宝马公司的收购行为对劳埃公司有益?”
答: “劳埃公司可以借此筹集资本。(A)               ”
相关信息在倒数第四段中“为这家生存艰难的英国汽车制造商注入了急需的资金。                                                      ”
(injected much needed investment into the struggling UK car manufacturer)。
5 问:  “戴姆勒—克莱斯勒公司面临的主要挑战是什么?”
答: “经理们可能无法有效共事。(C)             ”
相关信息在倒数第二段。文中先是提到购并带来的不同公司甚至民族文化冲突可能会对某
一方公司的员工力量产生破坏性影响,从而也许意味着无法实现预期效益,接着以戴姆勒
—克莱勒斯公司为例,说明它就是这样一个公司。虽然文中没有直接提到经理,但经理也
是员工的一部分,由此可判断 C 为正确答案。
6 问:  “兼并的公司通常靠什么增加短期收益?”
答: “消减合并后的公司劳力成本。 (A)              ”
相关信息在最后一段“通过对营销和管理部门等重复机构进行重组,减少员工总数。                                                    ”
payroll 一词原指“工资表,在职人员名单”                    ,这里引申为“员工总数”              。


A merger of equals
Definition:
The combination of two firms of about the same size to form a single company. In a merger of
equals, shareholders from both firms surrender their shares and receive securities issued by the
new company.
A merger of equals is the most accurate definition of a merger. Most merger activity, even
friendly takeovers, sees one company acquire another. When one company is an acquirer, it is

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proper to call the transaction an acquisition. Because one company is the purchaser and the other
is for sale, such a transaction cannot be viewed as a merger of equals.
For example, the creation of DaimlerChrysler saw both Daimler-Benz and Chrysler cease to
exist. Because neither firm acquired the other and a new company was formed, this is considered
a merger of equals.
Suggested answers:
EX1
1. all-share          2. science-based 3. (long-term) growth 4. (worldwide)presence
5. third largest      6. innovation-led 7.academic institutions 8. restructuring
9. next three years   10. administration 11.(executive) team    12. strategy and policy


Homework
Self-study unit 2b
EX1, EX2, EX3, EX4




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并购(M&A)
One plus one makes three: this equation is the special alchemy of a merger or an acquisition. The
key principle behind buying a company is to create shareholder value over and above that of the
sum of the two companies. Two companies together are more valuable than two separate
companies - at least, that's the reasoning behind M&A.
1+1=3,这对并购来说是个神奇的不等式。基本原理是并购后的企业价值要大于两个独立
的 公 司 价 值 的 简 单 相 加 。 并 购 后 的 企 业 价 值 增 大 —— 至 少 这 是 M&A(Mergers &
Acquisitions)的理由。

This rationale is particularly alluring to companies when times are tough. Strong companies will
act to buy other companies to create a more competitive, cost-efficient company. The companies
will come together hoping to gain a greater market share or to achieve greater efficiency.
Because of these potential benefits, target companies will often agree to be purchased when they
know they cannot survive alone.
当一个公司经营不善时,M&A 的不等式是非常吸引人的。强势的公司将会通过购买另一
个公司来获得更多竞争力、更高的效率。更多的市场占有率、更高的效率——两个公司满
怀着美好的希望走到了一起。当意识到无法独立生存,为了获得的可能利益,被收购的公
司将乐于接受重组并购的方案。
Distinction between Mergers and Acquisitions
Although they are often uttered in the same breath and used as though they were synonymous,
the terms merger and acquisition mean slightly different things.
兼并和收购的区别
尽管这两个词经常作为近义词连在一起出现,两个词义之间还是有细微的差别的。
When one company takes over another and clearly established itself as the new owner, the
purchase is called an acquisition. From a legal point of view, the target company ceases to exist,
the buyer "swallows" the business and the buyer's stock continues to be traded.
当一个公司接管了另一个公司,并作为新的所有者确立了自己的统治地位,那么这样的行
为被称之为收购。从法律的角度上来说,被收购的公司已经不存在了,采购者吞并了其业
务而继续存在于股份交易市场上。
In the pure sense of the term, a merger happens when two firms, often of about the same size,
agree to go forward as a single new company rather than remain separately owned and operated.
This kind of action is more precisely referred to as a "merger of equals." Both companies' stocks
are surrendered and new company stock is issued in its place. For example, both Daimler-Benz
and Chrysler ceased to exist when the two firms merged, and a new company, DaimlerChrysler,
was created.
严格意义上来讲,兼并发生在两个实力相当的公司。双方达成协议成立一个新的公司来取
代原来两个公司单独运营。这种情况更精确的被称为“对等兼并”。原来两个公司的股份将
会被新公司的一支股份替代。例如,戴姆勒·奔驰和克莱斯勒兼并成为新的戴姆勒·克莱斯
勒公司。

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In practice, however, actual mergers of equals don't happen very often. Usually, one company
will buy another and, as part of the deal's terms, simply allow the acquired firm to proclaim that
the action is a merger of equals, even if it's technically an acquisition. Being bought out often
carries negative connotations, therefore, by describing the deal as a merger, deal makers and top
managers try to make the takeover more palatable.
然而实际中,对等兼并不会经常发生。一般当一个公司收购另一个公司时,作为协议的一
部分,被收购的公司被允许对外宣称为“对等兼并”,尽管从技术角度来说这场行为更符合
“收购”的定义。毕竟收购听起来不是那么顺耳,这个名词经常会带来一些消极的影响,收
购团队和经理很还是有必要做一些美化和修饰的。
A purchase deal will also be called a merger when both CEOs agree that joining together is in
the best interest of both of their companies. But when the deal is unfriendly - that is, when the
target company does not want to be purchased - it is always regarded as an acquisition.
当双方都认同兼并会带来利益最大化时,收购交易也会被称为兼并。但当恶意收购发生,
即被收购方不愿意接受被兼并时,通常另一方会宣布收购。
Whether a purchase is considered a merger or an acquisition really depends on whether the
purchase is friendly or hostile and how it is announced. In other words, the real difference lies in
how the purchase is communicated to and received by the target company's board of directors,
employees and shareholders.
一场这样的商业行为究竟应该被称为兼并还是收购,主要是取决于双方的态度,是友好的
还是恶意的,还包括如何对外宣布。换言之,本质上的两者区别在于被收购方的高层、董
事会、员工等如何接受这场交易。
Synergy
Synergy is the magic force that allows for enhanced cost efficiencies of the new business.
Synergy takes the form of revenue enhancement and cost savings. By merging, the companies
hope to benefit from the following:
协同效应:
协同效应是指由并购而来的新业务所产生的成本效率提高。主要指收入提高和成本降低两
方面。通过并购,企业希望从下面的方法中获得最大利益:
Staff reductions - As every employee knows, mergers tend to mean job losses. Consider all the
money saved from reducing the number of staff members from accounting, marketing and other
departments. Job cuts will also include the former CEO, who typically leaves with a
compensation package.
裁员 - 每个员工都知道,并购意味着裁员。会计、市场等部门的员工数量减少将直接带来
人力成本降低。原来的管理团队也可能会被削减,当然会有赔偿金。
Economies of scale - Yes, size matters. Whether it's purchasing stationery or a new corporate IT
system, a bigger company placing the orders can save more on costs. Mergers also translate into
improved purchasing power to buy equipment or office supplies - when placing larger orders,
companies have a greater ability to negotiate prices with their suppliers.
规模效应 - 是的,规模是个问题。是多买些文具,还是新建一个 IT 系统?公司越大,做

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同样一件事情的单位成本就越低。兼并也通常为新公司的采购带来了话语权——金额更高
的订单,通常可在供货商那里获得谈判优势。
Acquiring new technology - To stay competitive, companies need to stay on top of technological
developments and their business applications. By buying a smaller company with unique
technologies, a large company can maintain or develop a competitive edge.
获得新技术 - 为了保持竞争力,                    企业要保留原有核心技术和商务应用。                          一些大公司经常通
过收购小型的高科技公司来保持发展自己处于技术竞争的前沿。
Improved market reach and industry visibility - Companies buy companies to reach new markets
and grow revenues and earnings. A merge may expand two companies' marketing and
distribution, giving them new sales opportunities. A merger can also improve a company's
standing in the investment community: bigger firms often have an easier time raising capital than
smaller ones.
开拓市场和巩固行业地位 - 企业之间经常通过并购来开拓市场,                                          提高利润和收入。           一场成
功的并购,可以拓展两个企业的市场和分销渠道,让他们抓住的商机。一场并购同样可以
巩固企业行业地位:资本金更大的企业在投资方面比小企业更有优势。
That said, achieving synergy is easier said than done - it is not automatically realized once two
companies merge. Sure, there ought to be economies of scale when two businesses are combined,
but sometimes a merger does just the opposite. In many cases, one and one add up to less than
two.
虽然这么说,协同效应说到比做到容易——并不是两个企业一兼并,它就自动产生了。确
实,两个企业的联合存在规模经济,但是有时,一场并购会背离其初衷。很多例子表明,
1+1 小于 2。
Sadly, synergy opportunities may exist only in the minds of the corporate leaders and the deal
makers. Where there is no value to be created, the CEO and investment bankers - who have
much to gain from a successful M&A deal - will try to create an image of enhanced value. The
market, however, eventually sees through this and penalizes the company by assigning it a
discounted share price. We'll talk more about why M&A may fail in a later section of this
tutorial.
遗憾的是,协同效应通常只存在于管理团队和交易者中。尽管没有价值增值,管理高层和
投行咨询们会试图勾勒出一幅美好的蓝图,                            因为并购成功会给他们带来更大的利益。                           最终,
市场会检验这一切并导致股价下跌。在其他的部分会解释为什么并购通常会失败。
Varieties of Mergers
From the perspective of business structures, there is a whole host of different mergers. Here are a
few types, distinguished by the relationship between the two companies that are merging:
并购的多样化:
从不同的业务结构来看,                并购形式多样化。            下面根据两个公司的业务关系,                     举出一些类型:

Horizontal merger - Two companies that are in direct competition and share the same product
lines and markets.

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水平兼并型 - 两个企业是直接的竞争对手,并拥有同样的产品和市场;
Vertical merger - A customer and company or a supplier and company. Think of a cone supplier
merging with an ice cream maker.
垂直兼并型 - 上下游企业的兼并,比如饼桶制造企业和冰激凌企业的兼并;
Market-extension merger - Two companies that sell the same products in different markets.
市场拓展型 - 两个公司生产同样的产品,却拥有不同的市场;
Product-extension merger - Two companies selling different but related products in the same
market.
产品拓展型 - 两个公司在同一市场销售不同但相关的产品;
Conglomeration - Two companies that have no common business areas.
集成型 - 两个公司没有业务联系;
There are two types of mergers that are distinguished by how the merger is financed. Each has
certain implications for the companies involved and for investors:
从融资的角度,可以把并购分为两种类型。每种类型显示了投资方和参与方:
Purchase Mergers - As the name suggests, this kind of merger occurs when one company
purchases another. The purchase is made with cash or through the issue of some kind of debt
instrument; the sale is taxable.
单方收购 - 就像名字表述的一样,                    是指一方收购了另一方。                 收购方通过现金或其他形式的
债务转换等来完成采购行为,收入是要含税的。
Acquiring companies often prefer this type of merger because it can provide them with a tax
benefit. Acquired assets can be written-up to the actual purchase price, and the difference
between the book value and the purchase price of the assets can depreciate annually, reducing
taxes payable by the acquiring company. We will discuss this further in part four of this tutorial.
由于从税收方面带来利益,收购方通常乐于这样做。固定资产可以按照实际价值取得,而
账面价值和实际价值之间的差额可以每年以折旧的方式抵税。这个在其他的章节也会讨论
到。
Consolidation Mergers - With this merger, a brand new company is formed and both companies
are bought and combined under the new entity. The tax terms are the same as those of a purchase
merger
双方合并 - 在这种情况下,                  两个公司替代由一个新公司来整体运营。                         税务操作和单方收购
类似。




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          Unit 3 a                         Trade fairs
Teaching Objective:
1. To enable Ss to talk about trade fairs
2. To enable Ss to write formal business letters
3. To practise a collaborative speaking task
4. To review the present simple referring to future time


Exhibiting at a trade fair
Glossary
exhibitor 参加展览会的厂商、公司,参展者,参展商
top drawer 一流水平,最高地位,最上层,顶级
accessories 装饰品,首饰,衣饰
hand-picked 精选的,仔细挑选的
相关背景知识
A trade fair (or trade show) is an exhibition organised so that companies in a specific industry
can showcase and demonstrate their latest products, service, study activities of rivals and
examine recent trends and opportunities. Some trade fairs are open to the public, while others
can only be attended by company representatives (members of the trade) and members of the
press, therefore tradeshows are classified as either "Public" or "Trade Only". They are held on a
continuing basis in virtually all markets and normally attract companies from around the globe.
Trade fairs often involve a considerable marketing investment by participating companies. Costs
include space rental, design and construction of trade show displays, telecommunications and
networking, travel, accommodations, and promotional literature and items to give to attendees.
In addition, costs are incurred at the show for services such as electrical, booth cleaning, internet
services, and drayage (also known as material handling).
Consequently, cities often promote trade shows as a means of economic development.
The Canton Fair (Chinese: 广交会) is a trade fair held in the spring and autumn seasons each
year since the spring of 1957 in Guangzhou, China. The Fair is co-hosted by the Ministry of
Commerce of China and People's Government of Guangdong Province, and organized by China
Foreign Trade Centre. Its full name since 2007 is the China Import and Export Fair (中国进出口
商品交易会) renamed from Chinese Export Commodities Fair (中国出口商品交易会) [1]. It is
the largest trade fair in China . Among China's largest trade fairs, it has the largest assortment of
products, the highest attendance, and the largest number of business deals made at the fair. Like
many trade fairs it has several traditions and functions as a comprehensive event of international
importance.


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在英语语境中,广告作为一种推销手段,必须具备“推销能力”       (selling power)和“记忆
价值”(memory value),使人听到或读到广告后能产生购物的欲望,并能过目不忘。
一般来说,文字性英文广告由标题、正文、口号、和商标四部分组成,但有时各部分单独
出现也称为广告。
·广告标题顾名思义是表现广告主题的短文或句子。
·广告正文是广告文稿的中心,对商品的特点、使用方法及售后服务等提供详细的说明。
·广告口号指的是名牌产品拥有的简短、醒目的广告语,它可以是一个词、一个短语或一
个句子,它通常出现于正文后面,一般为短小精悍便于记忆的词组和句子。
·商标名则是商品的重要标志,突出特点为简洁。

标题中 Top Drawer 是一英国会展主办公司名称及商标,                      其字面意为      “一流水平,  最高地位,
最佳质量” (having a high social standing or being of very good quality),根据商标特点,可
译为          。
  “顶尖公司” Top Drawer Summer 为该公司所承办的展销会名称,                          可译为“顶尖之夏”。

翻译
1、 More than 150 exhibitors will be attending Top Drawer Summer for the first time, giving
buyers a unique chance to meet the people who will be making tomorrow’s headlines.
2、 Can you afford not to be seen there ?

1、 短语 make(hit, catch, grab, capture)the headlines 意为“作为重要新闻见报;被媒体大
肆宣扬” 。这里实际上使用了一个修辞手法“换喻”                        (metonymy),即用一个事物的名称替
换与它有连带关系的事物的名称,使语言简洁生动。headlines(头版头条新闻,头版重要
新闻)在此换指“媒体的大肆宣扬”                 ;tomorrow 换指“未来”      。另 buyers(买家)一词联系
上下文,指的并非普通消费者,而是零售业上、下游(upstream and downstream)环节的
专业采购者。该句在这里译为:              “150 多家参展商将首次在‘顶尖之夏’展销会上亮相,它
将为客户提供独特机会,结识有望在未来成为媒体关注焦点的成功商家。                                 ”
2、 该句为广告口号。其字面意思为“你舍得不在那里露面吗?”根据汉语习惯,也为了
更清楚地表达原意,实现该广告在汉语里的预期译文功能,可转换视角,译为:                                 “你舍得
放弃这个展示自己的绝好机会吗?”


Suggested answers:
EX1
Benefits for exhibitors: media exposure for the industry as a whole and for specific companies,
and opportunity to show their wares to an interested public, to find out what is happening in the
industry and to evaluate the competition.
Benefits for visitors: the ease of judging relative standards and prices, and opportunity to find
out what is happening in the industry, the convenience of everything in one place, a chance to
talk to exhibitors.
EX2

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T point out that the ‘buyers’ referred to in the advertisement are not members of the public but
professional buyers from the retail sector.
The exhibition: It is called Top Drawer. It exhibits design-led home accessories and personal
gift items. The three-day exhibition takes place at Earls Court Two in London twice a year (May
and autumn).
The exhibitors: 550 exhibitors are selected on the basis of quality, talent and originality. Over
150 places are kept for new exhibitors.
The visitors: Each exhibition attracts about 20,000 professional buyers from the UK and abroad.


Replying to an enquiry
Important Language to Remember
The Start:
Dear Mr, Ms (Mrs, Miss VERY IMPORTANT use Ms for women unless asked to use Mrs or
Miss)
Thanking the Potential Customer for His/Her Interest:
Thank you for your letter of ... enquiring (asking for information) about ...
We would like to thank you for your letter of ... enquiring (asking for information) about ...
Providing Requested Materials:
We are pleased to enclose ...
Enclosed you will find ...
We enclose ...
Providing Additional Information:
We would also like to inform you ...
Regarding your question about ...
In answer to your question (enquiry) about ...
Closing a Letter Hoping for Future Business:
We look forward to ... hearing from you / receiving your order / welcoming you as our client
(customer).
Signature:
Yours sincerely (remember use 'Yours faithfully' when you don't know the name of the person
you are writing and 'Yours sincerely' when you do.


Suggested Answers:
EX1
Dates, duration location, size, focus (for trade/public), stand size, cost, facilities (car parking,
catering etc.)




                                                                                                 38
EX4
Standard letter phrases
These standard phrases probably helped Ss to order the beginning and ending of the letter:
Thank you for your interest …
As requested, I enclose…
If you require and further information… do not hesitate to …
I look forward to hearing from you
Yours sincerely.
Main points
The writer refers to the reader’s request for information before giving information about Top
Drawer. The second and third paragraphs are quite general about Top Drawer. (Ss might wish to
discuss whether it is more logical to mention the location or the history of Top Drawer first.) The
writer then mentions the selection process relating to exhibitors. The letter finishes by telling the
reader what action to take in he/she is interested in exhibiting.
Supporting ideas
In Paragraph 3 the second sentence (Both summer and autumn exhibitions…) provides support
for the first sentence (Now it its eighteenth year, Top Drawer continues to be the showcase…)
Linking words
Consequently (Para. 4)
Therefore (Para. 5)


EX7 Writing
Sample answer for writing (219words)
Dear Mr Zampieri
With reference to your letter dated 14 June ,in which you requested information about A Cut
Above, please find enclosed details about our company and the service we offer.
Our aim is always to provide our clients with the best food entertainment and location .By
choosing A Cut Above, you can relax and enjoy your special occasion while we do all the work.
Events catered for by A Cut Above include corporate functions such as conventions and
Christmas balls and also family celebrations as birthdays ,weddings and anniversaries.
A Cut Above offers a variety of service from simply providing a gourmet to helping you choose
the tight venue and organize entertainment. We specialize in using our experience to meet your
needs. To help us achieve this aim, we always arrange a meeting with a new client well before
the date of any event in order to discuss the various possibilities.
As you can appreciate, we are unable to give quotations before our initial briefing with a client
as price per head varies with choice of menu.
To arrange a meeting or any further information, please do not hesitate to contact Elena Polidoro
or myself on 01623713698.
A Cut Above looks forward to hearing from you.

                                                                                                  39
Yours sincerely
Sinead Walsh


Homework
Self-study 3a EX1




                    40
Here are a few practical tips on writing business letter to help you when writing that next letter:
Who is the reader? In a business letter, it is usually employees, customers, suppliers or the public.
When you are writing business letter, imagine that you are in the readers' position. Are they
happy, frustrated or merely inconvenienced? What essential information does that person need to
know through this communication? What are their expectations when they open the letter? Have
you addressed all of these issues? By doing this, you will show the reader that you can relate to
them and the situation. This will build a relationship between the two of you.
Be Responsive
If you are responding to or with a letter, address the inquiry or problem. Most of the time,
companies rely too much on a handful of form letters to answer all situations. This shows that
you do not understand their needs. When you considered you reader as above, you will be able
to respond to them.
Be Personal
Letters are written by people to people. Don't address it "to whom it may concern" if it is
possible. Whatever you do, do not use a photocopied form letter. Please see how to use a form
letter for the proper use of form letter if you have to use it. You cannot build a relationship with
canned impersonal letters. But also don't be too informal. Avoid using colloquial language or
slang such as "you know" or "I mean" or "wanna".
Be concise and to the point
When writing business letter, explain your position in as little words as possible. Spell out what
you can and what they need to do. Use clear and easy to understand language so that any
misunderstanding can be minimized. Think before you write. Ask yourself why you are writing?
What is it that you want to achieve? Use this 5 step process:
List out the topics you want to cover. Do not worry about the order.
In each topic, list keywords, examples, arguments and facts.
Review each topic in your outline for relevance to your aim and audience.
Cut out anything that's not relevant.
Sort the information into the best order for your readers.
Be friendly, build the relationship
Don't use cold, formal language. Some people have the perception that when writing business
letter, they must big words. To them this is a sign of literacy. Some 'big words' have no substitute,
but do use the word correctly. You want the reader to feel like they are reading a letter from
someone who cares.
Emphases the positive
Talk about what you can do not what you can't. For example, if a product is out of stock, don't
tell the customer you are unable to fill the order, instead, tell them the product is very popular
and you have sold out. Then tell them when you can get the order to them.
Stay away from negative words. For example, your complaint about our product, instead, sorry
our product was not up to your expectations.

                                                                                                  41
Be Prompt
If you cannot respond fully in less than a week, tell them so and say when they can expect a
respond from you.
Check Spelling, Grammar & Facts
Always make sure you are 100% correct in spelling, grammar and facts. Use the spell and
grammar checker from your word processor. If you are not very good or need more help, get
someone to edit the letter.
Use the correct format
This section is too big, so go to Business Letter Format to find out more. There are also
examples of Writing Business Letter there.



The Paper       There are different kinds of paper. I recommend using the 20lb for normal use
                and 32lb for important letters like resume cover letters and thank you letters.
Color           White is the standard and should usually be used. Light tints (grey, blue, green,
                etc) are also becoming popular. Do not use any strong colour unless you know
                it is acceptable to the reader.
Size            To me only the Letter or A4 are the only acceptable sizes. There are other sizes
                but I don’t recommend it unless you are in the creative field.
Layout          In a business letter format, there are many layouts; the three most popular are
                the semi-blocked, blocked and full-blocked. Whatever layout you wish to use,
                it doesn’t really matter. As for me, I prefer the full-blocked simply because it is
                easier to type on the computer.
Margins         Left and Right 1 Inch
                Top and Bottom 1 ½ Inch
Spacing         Most letters are single spaced. Use double space for short letters. Leave one
                blank line between paragraphs, 2 Blank lines before the complementary close
                (i.e. Sincerely) and 3 to 4 lines for the signature.
Salutation      Always use the name of the individual if you know it.
                Dear Amy: (personal friend or close business associate)
                Dear Mrs. Rider:
                Dear Miss Spears:
                Dear Ms. Tyler: (use Ms. If you don’t know the marital status or the
                preference)
                Dear Mr. Farnham:
                Dear Dr. Doom:
                Dear Sir Elton John:
                If you don’t know the name of the individual, address it to the individual’s title
                                                                                                  42
                in the company and then use dear Sir or Madam: Here is an example:
                Head of Human Resource
                ABC Company
                123 Sesame Street
                Dear Sir or Madam:
                But please only use this if you really cannot find out the name of the person.
                Most companies will tell you who the person is. All it takes is a phone call.
                If you are addressing to an organization and not an individual, then use the
                following:
                Ladies and Gentlemen:
                And if you want to highlight the letter to an individual(s) in the organization,
                use the attention line as follows:
                Attention: Miss J. Fonda, CEO and Mr. M. Jackson, CFO
                Ladies and Gentlemen:
                If you are addressing officials, it requires a more formal format. See Addressing
                Business Letters for Officials for more information.

Complimentary For a normal business letter format, I prefer to use Regards, Sincerely, and
close         Sincerely yours. Other acceptable formal business letter close includes
              Cordially, Cordially yours, Very sincerely yours, Very cordially yours, Yours
              very truly, Very truly yours and if the person is of high stature, Respectfully
              yours.
Subject Line    Sometimes to speed up the handling of your mail, it may be wise to use a
                subject line.
                Dear Mr. M. Jackson:
                Subject: Order No. 456-9A6
Signature       Do use a title (Mr., Miss, Ms) to indicate your preference and you gender and
                give you First and Last Name.
                Example:
                Sincerely,




                  Ms. Tony Braxton




                                                                                              43
          Unit 3 b                Entering a market
Teaching Objective:
1. To enable Ss to talk about doing business abroad
2. To practise reading and listening for specific information
3. To practise giving a short talk
4. To practise letter writing
5. To review articles


Researching a market
Glossary
pledged investment 合同投资,允诺投资
exports 出口产品
strength 强项,优势
substantial opportunities 大量机会
profile 概况,简介
joint venture 合资企业
literature 印刷广告,产品宣传资料
mailshot (邮寄给潜在客户的)广告宣传信函
What research would a company do before entering a foreign market?
Suggested answer:
Research into the demand for the product, market conditions, currency exchange rates,
import/export mechanisms or tariffs, ways of doing business (eg. Through agents), etiquette in
that culture, cultural differences.
EX2
The text is published by the DTI (Department of Trade and Industry) in the UK. The text
is aimed at British companies considering doing business with China.
EX3
1) The UK is the leading European investor in China and the main EU source of technology.
2) Financial services, aviation, telecommunications and environmental technology.
3) Using an agent or distributor based in Hong Kong, identifying end users, entering into joint
     ventures.
4) Long term commitment, ability to research the market thoroughly and forge relationships
     with the Chinese.
5) Initially, because the Chinese tend not to respond to mail shorts or faxes from unknown
     sources. Later on, visits will be necessary as business partnerships develop.


                                                                                            44
EX5
T introduces Ss to Speaking Test Part Two. T stresses the importance of having a maximum of
three main points and supporting and illustrating these main points briefly. T also encourages Ss
to think of an opening and closing sentence for their talk. T may wish to refer Ss to the
framework for planning short talks on page 74. Ss take turns to make and listen to each other’s
short talks. Those listening should be encouraged to make notes and ask questions at the end. T
may wish to ask Ss to use the Short Talk section of the Speaking Test Assessment Sheet on P76
to evaluate each other’s performance. Before the lesson, T should have made photocopies of the
Assessment Sheet for Ss to use.
Exam focus: Speaking Test Part Two
Each candidate chooses a topic from a list of three options (one general, one general business
and one specialized business topic) and speaks about it for one minute. To avoid overlap, the
candidates receive different lists. When each candidate has finished speaking, the other
candidates have an opportunity to ask one or two questions. Candidates can take notes during the
other candidates’ presentations.
Candidates have one minute to think about what they want to say and should use the time to
make notes. Ss are expected to plan, organize and present their ideas clearly. They should use
appropriate phrases to structure their talk.
This exercise differs from the exam in that here there are only two topics to choose from. In the
exam itself candidates choose from there options.
P 40 self study unit 3b EX2
1 invest in (投资)。此句意为:许多英国金融服务公司对在中国投资特别有兴趣。
2 intend to(打算)     。此句意为:若打算使用视听设备,务必提前通知主人。
3 amount to(达到)       。此句意为:今年英国对中国的出口估计达到 10 多亿英镑。
4 build on(指望,依赖)           。此句意为:进入中国市场后,许多英国公司如今期待着依靠这
一成功获得更大的利润。look 一词后面常接动词不定式表示“期待、盼望”                                              ;短语 build on
the success of something 有“依赖某个成功获得更大进步”之意。
5 allow for(考虑到,顾及,为……留出余地)                       。此句意为:进入中国市场,公司必须到考
虑到地区差别。
6 participate in(参加)      。此句意为:另一条建议是,英国公司最好尽可能多地参加当地举
办的各种商品交易会和展销会。
7 respond to(回复)       。此句意为:邮寄广告不是明智之举,因为中国人很少会对此予以回
复。
8 enquire about(询问)       。此句意为:客人应该询问主人的孩子情况,因为家庭在中国人心
目中摆在第一位。


Business practices in China
Q : What advice would you give Foreign people visiting china on business?

                                                                                              45
Suggested answers:
EX1
1.standards and expectations 2. preparatory work 3. late (for meetings) 4. congestion
5.senior manager            6. business cards   7.brief introduction 8. audio-visual aids
9. (special) dinner        10. children          11. hospitality     12.(sightseeing)(trips)
Exam focus: Listening Test Part One
Candidates listen to a presentation and complete each of the gaps in the text with up to three
words or a number. There are twelve gaps in total. The recording is heard twice. This task tests
the ability to listen for and note specific information.
Candidates have 45 seconds to read through the input before listening and should use the time to
think about what might fit in the gaps. The questions follow the order of the recording.
Candidates are expected to write the exact words used in the recording. Provided that the words
written are recognizable, candidates are not penalized for incorrect spelling.
EX3
Dear Chen
I was very pleased to receive your letter. As requested, I enclose some advice visiting Milan.
There are lots of good hotels near the Fiera and I recommend .the Hotel Wagner; it is about a
ten-minute walk from the trade fair but also has metro and tram connections. The public
transport system here is quite reliable and I do not think you need to hire a car; the traffic in
Milan can be a bit chaotic.
Finding somewhere to eat in the evening should be easy. There are plenty of restaurants and
pizzerias near the hotel. My favorite is Nove Cento, which serves excellent seafood pasta.
It is different to know what to recommend for sightseeing as the city has so mach to offer. If you
are interested in art, then the world famous ‘Last Supper’ by Leonardo da Vinci is a short tram
ride from the hotel or you could visit the Brera art gallery. There is also the Duomo, Milan’ s
huge gothic cathedral .If you are interested in football, there should be a midweek match
featuring either AC or Inter Milan. Alternatively, you could visit the fashion area around via
Montenapoleone.
Thank you for inviting me for a meal one evening during your stay. I would be very happy you
accept.
I look forward to hearing from you nearer the time .We can then make arrangements for where
and when we are going to meet.
Beat regards
Mautizio

Grammar:                                  Articles
The uses of the indefinite, definite and zero article which appear in the text are as follows.
Indefinite article (a/an)
When something is unspecific- one of many, precisely which one is not important:

                                                                                                 46
There are a number of different strategies for entering the Chinese market.
When something is mentioned for the first time, before a shared context has been established:
There is a growing private sector within China itself.
Definite article (the)
When the reference to something is clear because it is the only one:
China (has) one fifth of the world’s population.
When the reference to something is clear because it is defined:
Success in China will require… the ability to research the market.
When the reference to something is clear because a shared context has already been established:
It will almost always be necessary to visit the market.
When referring to superlatives:
The UK is acknowledged to be the leading European investor in China and the main EU source
of technology.
When referring to a nationality:
The Chinese rarely respond to mailshots.
When the name of the country is plural or is made up of an adjective and a general noun:
The UK is acknowledged to be the leading European investor in China.
When referring to a region within a country:
Agents are often able to generate sales in mainland China, particularly in the south.
No article is used
With most country names:
Further visits to China will be necessary.
With uncountable nouns referring to a general concept:
Success in China will require long term commitment.
When referring to general plural nouns:
The Chinese very rarely respond to mailshots.
When referring to general plural or uncountable nouns qualified by an adjective:
China, with … one of the fastest rates of economic growth, is a major target for global business.

T may wish to remind Ss that, as a basic rule, a singular countable noun cannot stand alone in
English but needs to be preceded by a determiner: my, his, that, next, a, the, some. T may also
wish to remind Ss that an uncountable noun never takes a/an.
Ss should also be aware that nouns followed by of are often preceded by the…the main source
of…


Homework
Self-study 3b
Writing in P38

                                                                                               47
          Unit 4a                The future of work
Teaching Objective:
1. To enable Ss to talk about changes in working practices
2. To practise reading and listening for specific information
3. To review the language of predictions


Visions
1. Reading
1) vision 和 dream 在汉语中均可译为“梦想”                  ,但 vision 更多暗含对未来的想象与希望
   (what you imagine or hope a future situation or society would be like)。在当今时代,谈
   梦想用 vision 可能比用 dream 更带有前瞻意味,更符合潮流。
2) as good as it gets 用来强调,      意为 “极好”                      ,
                                            (extremely good) 与固定短语 as good as they
   come 意同。
3) crystal clear 指“  (想水晶一样)清澈,透明”              ,常用来形容水或钻石等。它还可与信息
   (message)     或陈述    (statement)搭配,    表示  “明了易懂”        的。   如: crystal clear diamond;
                                                                      a
   a crystal clear presentation 条理清楚的陈述。
4) You knew…一句,要注意前后使用的不同时态。汉语没有时态的变化,时间前后往往
   通过具体词汇表示,而英语可以单纯通过时态表示。理解和翻译时要注意把原文中用
   语法手段表示的内容用具体汉语词汇明示出来。
5) Personal (work) organizer 可指一般记事本,但现在常用来指袖珍个人电子记事器,或
   译“电子商务通”(a small computer that functions like a kind of diary which you can add
   pages to or remove pages from to keep the information up to date.) 文中可译为“电子工
   作记事器”
6) Briefing 情况通报会,照应上文中提到的 meeting。
相关背景知识:
在电脑应用已高度普及的今天,沟通无国界已经成为现实,未来社会一定是电子化和互联
网络的时代。通讯上班(telecommuting)               ,即不用去办公室而在家里或世界各地用电话、
传真、网络等通讯设备和办公室连接上班的电子联网办公方式,将会成为未来的流行工作
方式。   移动个人信息系统( mobile personal information systems) 的发展将使人们越来越依赖
电脑处理生活琐事和各项工作。未来电子化工作方式会更体现出人才资源共享的特点。人
们不一定都是某个公司的固定员工,员工不再归某个部门所独有,也不必按部门划分,而
是完全按项目小组方式组合、完成目标、解散,再重新组合完成新的项目。网上求职、招
聘等人力资源管理方式也会越来越盛行。未来的工作者以题材决定了本单元中有大量与计
算机和创新工作方法相关的词语。
Suggested answer:
What year do you think the author is writing about?

                                                                                       48
In the near future, maybe in two for three years. Part of it is already the reality.
What would be the advantages/disadvantages of this lifestyle?
Advantages
Have virtual project teams that discuss tasks on line
Work can be done anywhere and anytime
Possible to give distant job brief
Have more leisure time
Can ensure high efficiency, raise productivity, etc
Disadvantages
Difficult to specify individual task
Affected by Internet technologies
Indifferent(machine-like)attitude caused by lack of face-to-face contacts
Possibility of circulating too much irrelevant information, etc.
Hard to differentiate between work-time and private time
Potential system failures caused by virus/hacking

Predictions
Exam focus:
Candidates read five topic-related texts and eight statements. Ss then match each statement with
the text it refers to. This tests ability to read for gist and specific information. Candidates should
check that each text has been used at least once.
Suggested answers:
EX1
1. Megan      2.Scott     3.Joshua       4. Jeanne      5.Janice    6. Megan 7. Joshua       8. Scott
EX2
Will definitely +verb (Megan)
‘ll undoubtedly+verb (Joshua)
will/’ll +verb (Jeanne, Janice, Scott)
is certainly going to +verb (Megan)
are going to + verb (Janice)
is set to +verb(Janice)
‘re bound to + verb (Joshua)
‘s likely to + verb (Jeanne)
will probably +verb (Jeanne)
may +verb (Megan)

Reality
Radar chart/diagram
雷达辐射图,也称“蜘蛛网状结构图”为经济分析图表形式之一,该图图形样子酷似雷达

                                                                                                   49
屏幕上显示的形状,顾得此名。以下调查结果运用了雷达辐射图原理,按百分比20%、
40%、60%、80%、100%分五个等级,分析比较迁址前后在英国航空公司员工
工作条件的各个方面发生的变化。以该图为例,图1时分析工作方式的8个方面,按4条
对角线组成相关因素区域象限或向量(vectors)。图 2 是分析工作环境变化的 10 个方面,
按 5 条对角线组成相关因素区域象限。
Suggested answers:
EX1
1. C         2. A      3.B          4. B         5.C          6.B           7.B        8.A
EX2
T points out that the ideal rating is at the outer edge of the diagram, i.e. any solid lines that are
nearer to the outside than the broken lines represent an improvement brought about by Waterside.
Ss discuss both diagrams.
Based on a comparison and analysis of conditions Pre-Waterside and Post-Waterside shown in
the radar chart/diagram, be move has changed working conditions for BA staff in some aspects.
In the way they work, there have been big improvements in aspects such as “Surroundings help
informal meetings”, “Can contribute to discussions” and “Can obtain information to do my job”.
The change is mostly felt in “Can obtain information to do my job” and “Can do confidential
work easily”, with the former improvement by 20% from 40% to over 60% and the latter
degenerating by 20% from 60% to below 40%.
There is not much change in other aspects.
In office environment, the move has brought about positive changes to the following there
aspects, namely, “Workstation meets needs”, “Workstation is comfortable” and “Can photocopy
when I need to”/ They have improved by 20%.
On the other hand, working conditions concerning “Voicemail is effective”, “Voicemail is easy
to use” and “Can print when I need to” are not as good as before.


Homework
Self-study unit 4a




                                                                                                  50
          Unit 4 b                         e-business
Teaching Objective:
1. To enable Ss to talk about e-business
2. To practise reading for specific information
3. To practise listening for gist and specific information
4. To practise describing trends in writing
5. To review the future perfect and future continuous


What is e-business?
This unit focuses on e-business and e-commerce. The term e-commerce is connected with
retailing and describes company to consumer communication using the Internet, e.g. when a
customer orders and pays for books over the Internet. The term e-business is broader, referring to
the transformation of fundamental business processes through the use of Internet technologies. It
refers to the way internal business processes and communication with suppliers etc. are carried
out via computer-networks that use Web-compatible software.
T needs to be aware that “customer” referred to in the discussion of e-business is not the
individual consumer who buys over the Internet but the company which buys the goods supplied
by another company.
1. Speaking
How often do you use the Internet and for what reasons?
Surfing the web; read news and stories; find reference/resources; buy things; read and send
e-mails; check stock quotes; talk with people in chat rooms; listen to music; pay bills; download
pictures.
1) 在本文中有关电子商务的讨论中,                       “顾客”     (customer)一词是指经济学意义上的概念,
    它与“厂商”相对应。不仅指通过网上购物的个体消费者,也指购买另一家公司(厂
    商)货物的公司。
2) invoice 和 receipt 在汉语里均被称作“发票”                     ,但两者不同。Invoice 指销售商品的公
    司开给购买者的列有所发货物或服务的清单及这些货物或服务付款的凭证(a piece of
    paper showing goods or services that have been provided and the amount of money that has
    to be paid for them) ,即“发货清单,销售发票”                   。而 receipt 则指买方付款后收到的证
    明已经付清该款的正式凭证( a piece of paper that proves that money or goods have been
    received), 也就是可做报销凭证的正式收据,俗称“发票”                                  ,与汉语日常说的不可作
    报销凭证的“收据”不同。
很多国家的发票,也就是 invoice 的作用是告诉你“你需要付多少钱”
给了钱以后你会得到一个收据,也就是 receipt
我们国家的发票的作用是告诉你“你因此付出了多少钱”

                                                                                               51
中国的收据呢,可以理解为非正式的发票。

Suggested answers:
EX2
e-business: The transformation of key business processes through the use of Internet
technologies.
Benefits: Can streamline business processes to improve operating efficiencies. All the processes
contributing to the overall customer experience can be improved (customer relationship
management etc.). Can analyses past customer behavior to anticipate customers’ needs. Can
allow suppliers and customers controlled access to the data they need, so that business processes
can be managed beyond the individual organization (e.g. sharing sales forecasts, managing
inventories, optimizing deliveries.)
e-commerce: The ability to offer goods and services to the consumer over the Web.
Benefits: Can present goods more effectively, take orders and invoice on-line, automate
customer account enquiries and handle transactions electronically. This means improved margins
for the business and a faster, more responsive service for customers.
EX4
Possible difficulties for companies: cost of installing systems and training staff, need to
provide 24-hour service/back-up, keeping up-to-date with technical advances, potential systems
failures (viruses/Millennium bug)
Possible difficulties for customers: need to have up-to-date, reliable Internet access (for
e-commerce customers), lack of confidence in system security.


The advantages of e-business
Suggested answer:
EX1 listening
H      G      C       D          F        /        J       I        O       M       N
EX3
In 1997e-commerce was very limited. However, since then, there has been a steady growth
worldwide. This trend looks set to continue into the next century, with revenue from e-commerce
reading almost $200billion by 2003.
Like e-commerce, e-business has shown steady growth with revenue tripling over the past three
years. However, during the next three years there will undoubtedly be a far more dramatic
increase in e-business revenue .It is thought that by 2003it will have reached over$ 800billion.


Homework
Self-study Unit 4b

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Supplementary reading material
 E-business versus e-commerce
Interchangeable terms?
The terms ‘e-commerce’ and ‘e-business’ are often used interchangeably but what do these
words really mean?
e-commerce refers to online transactions - buying and selling of goods and/or services over the
Internet.
e-business covers online transactions, but also extends to all Internet based interactions with
business partners, suppliers and customers such as: selling direct to consumers, manufacturers
and suppliers; monitoring and exchanging information; auctioning surplus inventory; and
collaborative product design. These online interactions are aimed at improving or transforming
business processes and efficiency.
Potential e-business benefits include:
Improved accuracy, quality and time required for updating and delivering information on
products and/or services.
Access for customers to catalogues and prices - 24 hours x 7 days.
Improved ease, speed and immediacy of customer ordering.
Enhanced market, industry or competitor intelligence acquired through information gathering
and research activities.
New distribution channels via the electronic delivery of some products and services, for example,
product design collaboration, publications, software, translation services, banking, etc.
Expansion of customer base and growth in export opportunities.
Reduces routine administrative tasks (invoices and order records) freeing staff to focus on more
strategic activities.


 A website was once a luxury, now it's a necessity...
To compete in the modern marketplace every business must take advantage of the possibilities
available through the Internet. A professional designed website demonstrates a real
commitment to delivering newer, faster and easier ways for customers to do business with
you. In addition it is a more cost effective way of communicating with the global
community. Establishing an on-line presence can appear expensive, but the potential cost
savings and opportunities provide the opportunity to revise the way you do business.
Some potential benefits are:
               Increased Sales
a website can be accessed 24 hours a day, 7days a week
Transactions and communications can be completed online
Provide product details
Electronic marketing and advertising


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Reduced Costs
Introduce online transactions
Automate customer service
Produce online publications
Market electronically
Enhanced Customer service
Allow customers to see order detail
Provide after-sales information
Provide accounts data online
Maximise marketing effectiveness
Re-enforce the brand
Produce an online company brochure
Publish an online company newsletter
Publish case studies and testimonials
Publish industry articles
Improve trading relationships
Put inventory online
Manage remote manufacturing online
Develop an online distribution process
Introduce electronic procurement
Improve communication
Provide electronic messaging
Provide internal access to the Internet
Provide online quality and training systems




                                              54
                Unit 5 a                     Staff motivation
Teaching Objective:
1. To enable Ss to talk about motivation at work
2. To practise reports writing
3. To practise listening for gist
4. To practise reading for gist and specific information
5. To review formal language


What motivates staff?
EX1
Managers assume that the goals of employees are those of the company.
Agree/why
The employees’ interests are in line with those of the company.
The employees’ goals such as improved benefits/pay rise/career development/ more bonus/ good
opportunities of promotion are based on the company’s goals to maximize profitability, to
improve overall strength of the labour forces, to achieve good sales, to continue company growth
etc.
Disagree/Why not
The employees’ interests may not be in line with those of the company.
The employees’ goals may be short-term and practical e.g. higher salary, better benefits, better
working conditions, quicker promotion (internal recruitment), etc.
While those of the company are long-term and integrated, e.g. steady and sustainable growth of
the company, increase of market share, better quality of the labour forces (outside recruitment),
maximization of profitability, increase of capital accumulation and project investment, etc.
Motivation stems from job satisfaction and not financial reward.
Agree/why
Job satisfaction is the pleasure one feels when one does the job.
It is something spiritual.
To do a meaningful job, to be happy at work and to be recognized are more important.
When one is secured with basic material life, he would be in need of spiritual satisfaction.
Many people are motivated by a rich and interesting job or by their interest in certain job rather
than in only financial reward.
Disagree/ Why not
Everything in modern society is based on money.
Financial reward provides the basis of job satisfaction.
Financial reward is more tangible.

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Spiritual satisfaction is guaranteed by material security.
Business success is measured in terms of the money one earns.
Without financial reward, there is no talking about motivation
Yes and no
That depends on whether you are practical-minded or spiritual-minded.
Motivations stems from both job satisfaction and financial reward.
EX2
The writer is skeptical. He sees so-called ‘new’ motivational techniques as old ideas repackaged.
He also questions whether these techniques are ever put into practice successfully.


A motivation survey
Suggested answers
EX1
H F          E B        C
Exam focus: Listening Test Part Two
Candidates listen to five short topic-related extracts and complete two tasks, which may involve
identifying any combination of the following for each extract: speaker, topic, function, opinion
or feelings. The five extracts are heard twice. Both tasks test candidates’ ability to listen for gist
and specific information.
Candidates should be aware that each extract contains both a Task One answer and a Task Two
answer. Some candidates may prefer to deal with Task One during the first listening and Task
Two during the second listening. However, the first part of each extract tends to deal with Task
One and the second part with Task Two; it is therefore advisable to attempt the two tasks
simultaneously for each extract. Incorrect options are included in the recordings in order to
distract unwary candidates.
This exercise differs from the exam in that here there is only one task. In the exam itself
candidates have to do two tasks simultaneously as they listen to each extract.
EX2
In this exercise Ss will focus on features of formal language, which will help them in their
writing. T asks Ss to search through the incomplete report to find examples of the points related
to formal language. T should point out that the reports which Ss have to write in the exam do not
need to be extremely formal; however, the style needs to be consistent.
Passives
The findings are based on interviews…
Unless these issues are addressed…
Impersonal language
The above examples of the passive plus the following:
This report presents the results of …

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It is clear that…
… there are significant levels of dissatisfaction
Formal vocabulary
Findings, significant levels, regarding, certain issues, addressed, as a matter of urgency,
consequent, undoubtedly
Noun phrases
Survey of staff motivation
Levels of dissatisfaction
Consequent demotivation
Negative impact on the performance of the company
EX3
Findings
A number of employees clearly suffer from a lack of motivation as a result of dissatisfaction in
one or more areas of their work. The key findings are outlined below:
1.Staff feel undervalued by the company, both on a financial and level. It is general felt that the
company ‘s competitors offer higher levels remuneration. The perception that manager is
unappreciative of staff efforts is particularly noticeable in the Sales Department.
2.Certain employees feel under-challenged. The company is clearly not exploiting the potential
of its human resource.
3.There appears to be a breakdown of communication in the Production Department. The
confusion and resultant ill feeling towards managers has the potential to disrupt production
cycles.
Recommendations
We strongly recommend the following measures:
1. An evaluation of job profiles throughout the company to assess whether skills could be
      utilized more efficiently
2. A review of the current salary structure involving comparison with similar organizations.
It is also essential to investigate and take action regarding communication in the Production and
Sales Departments.


Homework
Self-study Unit 5a
Design a questionnaire to find what motivates your fellow students in English lessons.




                                                                                                57
What Motivates Staff?
Good wages and pleasant working conditions are important, but true motivation stems from
something deeper.
I used to think that staff motivation was as simple as offering a special parking space for
Employee of the Month or sponsoring an employee night at the minor league ballpark. It turns
out that motivating employees is a lot more complicated than that, and many employers
(including physicians) have been going about it all wrong.
In a study conducted by Kenneth Kovach of George Mason University, 1,000 employees and
100 of their bosses were asked to list the things that they believe motivate employees.[1] There
was no overlap at the top of the two lists. Bosses thought employees would be motivated by
good wages and job security, while employees listed factors such as participating in interesting
work, feeling appreciated at work and "being in on things." They ranked job security and good
wages as important but lower on the list.
Kovach's findings are consistent with other well-regarded motivational theories, such as
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs.[2] At the bottom of Maslow's pyramid are food, shelter
and clothing, the most basic human needs, which motivate us to get out of bed in the morning
and go to work. Once those basic needs are met, according to Maslow, we are motivated by
higher factors, such as autonomy and self-esteem, although not everyone is motivated by the
same thing.
Another researcher that expanded on this idea was Frederick Herzberg. The late professor of
management and psychology helped distinguish between "hygiene" factors and true
"motivators."Hygiene factors are the external elements that impact staff, including the following:
                                 Supervision,
                                 Company policy and administration,
                                 Working conditions,
                                 Salary,
                                 Interpersonal relationships,
                                 Job status,
                                 Job security.
Motivators are the internal elements that impact staff, such as the following:
                                    Achievement,
                                    Recognition for achievement,
                                    Growth or advancement,
                                    Responsibility,
                                    The work itself.
Herzberg found that while the hygiene issues do not actually motivate staff, they are necessary to
prevent dissatisfaction and are an essential foundation to motivation. Therefore, employers
cannot afford to ignore hygiene factors but should not mistake them for true motivators. At the

                                                                                               58
same time, employers cannot neglect the motivators. Without them, physicians might be able to
create a decent work environment, but their staff will never be inspired to improve their level of
performance. A physician who aspires to a well-run, high-performing practice must be mindful
of both.
Making Progress
To provide a truly motivational climate for your employees, begin with the hygiene issues and
take steps to secure them. For example, you may need to rethink a contentious company policy,
institute supervisor training or assess whether your wages and benefits are competitive.
Once the hygiene issues are in order, begin developing the motivators. Start by asking yourself
the following questions, suggested by Kovach. Better yet, ask for your staff's input on these
issues:
               Do you thank staff for a job well done?
               Is feedback timely and specific?
               Do you make time to meet with and listen to staff on a regular basis?
               Is your workplace open, trusting and fun?
               Do you encourage and reward initiative and new ideas?
               Do you share information about your organization with staff on a regular basis?
               Do you involve staff in decisions, especially those that will affect them?
               Do you provide staff with a sense of ownership of their jobs and the unit as a whole?
               Do you give your employees a chance to succeed?
               Do you reward staff based on their performance?
Next, meet with staff members individually, perhaps at their yearly performance evaluations, to
identify opportunities and obstacles. Find out what they like about their jobs and what they wish
they could change. Based on what you learn, don't be afraid to throw out old processes, send
your nurse for training or redesign job functions to promote achievement and responsibility.
Herzberg offers these ideas:[4]
Remove some controls involved in an employee's job but retain accountability;
Increase individuals' accountability for their own work;
Delegate to employees not just a portion of a task but the complete natural unit of work (e.g., an entire division
or area);
Circulate monthly financial or status reports to all staff, not just supervisors;
Assign specific or specialized tasks to individuals, enabling them to become experts.
These efforts aren't simple, but they will make your office a more rewarding place to work - for
everyone.




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          Unit 5 b                            Recruitment
Teaching Objective:
1. To enable Ss to talk about recruitment
2. To practise giving a short talk
3. To practise text level reading skills
4. To practise listening for specific information
5. To practise letter writing


Recruitment methods
1. Speaking
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the following?
Internal recruitment
Job advertisements
Recruitment agencies
Headhunting
Suggested answer:
Internal recruitment ad: The candidates already know the job and the company
Disad: No new impetus. The same mindset. An internal candidate is not necessarily the best
person on the market.
Job advertisements        ad: Wide audience. Can potentially reach the best on the market. Fresh
attitudes.     Disad: High processing costs: a large number of applicants need to be processed.
Recruitment agencies ad: Can be selective. Can potentially get the best person for the job
quickly.       Disad: Expensive.
Headhunting              ad: Can select high quality candidates. Headhunters know the market
and the best people. Can access people not actively on the job market.
Disad: Very expensive in the short term.
2. Reading
1) headhunt 猎头,“挖才”,物色人才
headhunter 猎头公司
headhunting 猎头(的做法),搜罗高级主管人才(的做法),亦作 executive search
2)A niche market is a focused, targetable portion of a market.
By definition, then, a business that focuses on a niche market is addressing a need for a product
or service that is not being addressed by mainstream providers. You can think of a niche market
as a narrowly defined group of potential customers.
For instance, instead of offering cleaning services, a business might establish a niche market by
specializing in blind cleaning services.

                                                                                              60
Why should you bother to establish a niche market? Because of the great advantage of being
alone there; other small businesses may not be aware of your particular niche market, and large
businesses won't want to bother with it.
The trick to capitalizing on a niche market is to find or develop a market niche that has
customers who are accessible, that is growing fast enough, and that is not owned by one
established vendor already.
Also Known As: Market niche, niche marketing, niche business.
3)An Achilles’s heel is a fatal weakness in spite of overall strength, actually or potentially
leading to downfall. Achilles’ heel 致命伤 典故出自荷马史诗《伊利亚特》                         (The Iliad)   。阿基
里斯是古希腊神话中最伟大的英雄之一。相传,他的母亲是一位女神,在他降生之初,女
神为了使他长生不死,将他浸入冥河洗礼。阿基里斯从此刀枪不入,百毒不侵,只有一点
除外———他的脚踵当时被女神提在手中,未能浸入冥河,于是“阿基里斯之踵”就成了
这位英雄的唯一弱点。在漫长的特洛亚战争中,阿基里斯一直是希腊人最勇敢的将领。在
十年战争即将结束时,敌方将领在众神的示意下,抓住了阿基里斯的弱点,一箭射中他的
脚踵,阿基里斯最终不治而亡。
4)on-line newsgroup 是一种 forum(论坛)形式。 网上新闻讨论组,一种类似于公告板的
实事讨论网,由互联网用户自发组成,其成员借助新闻阅读器登陆到各新闻服务网上去订
阅自己感兴趣的专题讨论文章,读后可投稿就这些文章所讨论的主题发表自己的意见。
Suggested answers:
EX2
A emphasizing 强调 B exemplifying 举例 C comparing 比较 D explaining E contrasting 对比
EX3
B       E      A       F
EX4
Most of the reference words refer clearly to the preceding single nouns. The only ones which
refer to a passage of text are the following.
This: referring to the belief that traditional advertising would not be specific enough (Para1,
line5)
This information: referring to the information gained by the headhunter navigating round the
department (Para. 3, line 5)
All of this: referring to everything mentioned in the preceding paragraphs (para. 4, line 1)
This process: referring to the process of keeping a record of all names (para. 4, line2)


The headhunting process
1. Listening
Exam focus: listening Test part one
Candidates listen to a presentation and complete each of the gaps in the text with up to three
words or a number. There are twelve gaps in total. The recording is heard twice. This task tests

                                                                                             61
the ability to listen for and note specific information.
Candidates have 45 seconds to read through the input before listening and should use the time to
think about what might fit in the gaps. The questions follow the order of the recording.
Candidates are expected to write the exact words used in the recording. Provided that the words
written are recognizable, candidates are not penalized for incorrect spelling.
Suggested answers:
EX1
1. agency recruitment        2. skills shortages     3. desk research      4. neutral location
5. presents his findings 6. offer process            7.first annual salary 8. a retainer
9. strengths and weaknesses 10. key players 11. (commercially) sensitive 12. motivated
EX2
Purpose
To explain how headhunting works and illustrate its benefits.
Content
Guy’s main points include an overview of recruitment methods in general, the headhunting
process, remuneration and the benefits of using headhunters. Sometimes he does not support his
main points: they are sufficient in themselves. At other times, Guy supports his point by gibing
more detail (e.g. about the advantages of using a headhunter in the penultimate paragraph). At
times Guy rephrases what he has said for emphasis (e.g. the final sentence).
Organisation
Guy orders his main points by gibing an overview of how his area fits in with other recruitment
methods. He then talks through the chronological sequence of headhunting. Finally, he stresses
the benefits of headhunting. Guy introduces his talk by introducing himself and describing his
topic. He concludes by stressing to the audience the benefits of what he does.
Language
Guy uses linking words and phrases in the following areas: sequencing words ( first, then,
afterwards, when, finally), explaining /rephrasing (which is, otherwise known as, in other
words)and emphasizing (this is particularly the case in…). He also uses phrases to signpost his
talk (I’m here to tell you a little bit about…) and signal what follows (The advantage of a good
headhunter is that …)
EX4
Dear Mr. Jacobs
I am writing to apply for the position of Sales Adviser for the North East Region, which was
advertised in the Herald International yesterday.
Although I am currently working in the Marketing Department of large multinational, I would
appreciate the opportunity to work for a rapidly expanding young company such as yours.
As you can see from my enclosed CV, I obtained an honors degree in Sales and marketing from
Nottingham University in 1994.I thoroughly enjoyed the six months I spent working in Sales at
Boots plc as part of the course. During this time I gained invaluable insights into the nature of

                                                                                              62
sales. After leaving university I initially spent time working for a small local film before finding
my current job and I feel that I am more suited to the dynamics and varied demands of a smaller
firm.
Not only has my work experience familiarized me with the challenges faced by the industry
taday but ,having been brought up in the north east ,I know the region ,its problems and its
undoubted potential .As a result ,I feel that I would be able to your customers on both a
professional and a personal level.
I am available for interview from 15 September and would be pleased to discuss my CV with
you in more detail then.
I look forward to hearing from you .
Yours sincerely


Homework
Exam focus: Writing Test Part Two (Letter)
For Writing Test Part Two, candidates write a 200-250 word formal business letter or report. All
the points in the rubric (题目) must be included in the answer. The task tests the ability to
produce an appropriate piece of extended directed writing.
For the letter, candidates are expected to plan, organize and present heir ideas clearly. Letters
should be divided into clear paragraphs. Although candidates should not write addresses, they
are expected to know letter layout and conventions, including appropriate salutations and
closures. Typical written functional phrases should be used.
Writing:
Find a job advertisement and write a 200-250 words letter of application. Include your reasons
for applying and explain what you can bring to the job.




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          Unit 6a                          Corporate culture
Teaching Objective:
1. To enable Ss to talk about company culture
2. To practise reading and listening for specific information
3. To review gerunds and infinitives


What shapes corporate culture?
1. Speaking
What can the following tell you about a company’s culture?
Mission statement 公司宗旨
Organizational hierarchy 组织层级
Company buildings 公司大楼
Dress code 着装要求
Suggested answers:
Mission statement: Clearly explains a company’s goals and focus. The fact that a company has
a formal mission statement suggests it is organized and keen on promoting a cohesive attitude
within the staff. The fact that the mission statement needs to be explicit may suggest there is
some diversity of attitudes within the staff.
Organizational hierarchy: Can show how traditional a company is, whether power is
centralized and the extent to which employees are empowered.
Company buildings: Can reflect attitudes to hierarchy and relative importance of staff, e.g.
through impressive offices, separate floors or separated dining room of senior staff.
Dress Code: Can influence or reflect the degree of formality in a company.
2. Reading
1. IKEA 宜家家居公司, 于 1943 年由其创始人英格瓦·坎普拉德(Ingvar Kamprad)在瑞
   典创立。
2. the cornerstone of sth. “是..的基础”      ,如:Hard work is the cornerstone of success. 努力
   工作是成功的基础。
3. to see the person behind the professional 这里是一个换喻,看到隐藏在专业技术人员身
   份后面普通人的一面。
4. Retail is detail, 是零售业界的一句名言,意指零售业即包含一连串琐碎的内容,零售业
   务须注重细节。例如:消费者不同的需求,价格、款式、颜色、尺寸、时尚、潮流等;
   流通环节的采购、质量、服务;经营环节的网点布置、市场营销、竞争对手研究等。
   宜家家居公司的创始人就是凭着这个信念造就了家喻户晓的宜家家居公司。
Suggested answers:
Company values: simplicity, humility, thrift, responsibility, enthusiasm, and flexibility

                                                                                            64
Company policies: absence of status symbols (e.g. no first-class hotels, directors’ dining rooms
or flashy cars), recruitment of people who share the company’s values, internal promotion,
listening to and encouraging new ideas and initiatives, managers being involved in details.
Staff profile: People share IKEA’s basic values and are also strong enough to question and
change things if necessary. People are both internally promoted and recruited from outside.
People have a sense of responsibility and can follow things up. Managers need to be willing to
be involved in detail.
                                        The IKEA Way
IKEA offers a wide range of well-designed, functional home furnishing products at prices so low
that as many people as possible will be able to afford them. This is the idea at the heart of
everything IKEA does, from product development and purchases to how we sell our products in
IKEA stores globally.
Anybody can make a good-quality product for a high price, or a poor-quality product for a low
price. But to make good products at low prices, you need to develop methods that are both
cost-effective and innovative. This has been IKEA's focus since its beginnings in Småland,
Sweden. Maximising the use of raw materials and production adaptation to meet people's needs
and preferences has meant that our costs are low. The IKEA way of doing things is to pass these
cost savings on to you, our customers.


The IKEA way
3. Listening 1
Suggested answers
A C B         C B A         B C
4. Listening 2
Anti-bureaucrat weeks 反官僚周
Management by running around 四处奔波、事必躬亲式的管理
Believe in a relaxed, open-plan office atmosphere 相信宽松、敞开式的办公气氛会带来好的
效果
No security available behind status or closed doors 不再拥有躲在身份标志和紧闭的房门后所
带来的安全感


Suggested answers
Speaker 1: simplicity, humility, a sense of responsibility
Speaker 2: simplicity, openness
Speaker 3: humility, openness, enthusiasm, simplicity
Speaker 4: simplicity
Speaker 5: thrift


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Homework
Finish Self-study Unit 6a
Visit the www.ikea.com website and prepare a short presentation about IKEA’s history and
global expansion.



A sample answer for writing :
Rob Davies founded limitless Horizons, our travel agency and advisory service specializing in
adventure holidays in remote locations, in 1989. We do not arrange accommodation in
well-know resorts, thus encouraging travelers to discover the real country they are visiting. We
constantly seek out new adventure holidays, which will allow travelers to mix with local people
rather than retreat to the beach or their hotel.
Although all our advice is impartial, it is influenced by certain core values:
1. Respect for local values and practice
2. Respect for individual needs and independence
3. Belief in the need to limit the environmental impact of our activities.
We believe that as privileged visitors to sometimes-fragile environments, we should take nothing
but photographs and leave nothing but footprints.
Where possible, we encourage the use of small independent companies, We also insist on local
guides and seek to house travelers in modest accommodation .Our clients can look forward to
living the local culture and eating the
local cuisine; Limitless Horizons rejects the concept of the Coca-Cola trek.
Our representatives are constantly traveling in order to update and check our information. These
trips are funded solely by Limitless Horizons. We pay our way, accepting no hand-outs or free
flights, thus that the only factors influencing our advice to you are your needs and those of the
area you wish to visit.




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What is IKEA way?
When you think of IKEA, you might think of well-designed chairs, bookcases, or a comfy sofa.
Aw, stop. We're blushing. But behind our great furnishings, there's a great story that goes into
them. It's our social and environmental responsibility program called The IKEA Way — our
commitment to doing the right thing for our planet, and everyone on it.
The IKEA Way is our promise. We promise that we're working towards having an overall
positive impact on people and the environment. In other words, we're going to be nice to people
and nice to the planet. Sounds ambitious for a global company? It shouldn't. We believe it's just
part of smart business, but more than that — it's the right thing to do.
We're all for being 'green' — it's a lovely colour! — but it's more than that. It's about people too.
And it's not just one action or one product. After all, whoever heard of a movement that included
just one act? It's about everything we do. Our products. Who makes them. Where they come
from. And even the way we ask you to buy them.
As we said, it's a promise. Our word. Our pinky swear. And we take that seriously. So we have
ways to make sure we keep setting and meeting our goals — Key Performance Indicators to
measure our progress and dozens of partners like Tree Canada and UNICEF to advise us.
It's our way. The IKEA Way. Although you probably won't think of it every time you sit in our
chairs, look in our bookcases or jump on our sofas, it's built into everything we do. And by
simply doing those things, you're starting to help too.
Distribution
IKEA has 27 distribution centres and 11 customer distribution centres in 16 countries. Using flat
packs, transporting goods where possible by rail and sea, and utilising fuel-saving techniques
allows us to be cost-effective and environmentally friendly.
Range
Today's IKEA range consists of about 9,500 home furnishing articles, designed to be functional
and good looking but at a low price. Each item is developed by IKEA of Sweden, which is also
responsible for giving each product its unique name, such as BILLY and KLIPPAN.
Purchasing
IKEA has 41 trading service offices in 30 countries. This allows us to be close to our suppliers -
about 1,380 in 54 countries - so we can monitor production, test new ideas, negotiate prices and
check quality while keeping an eye on social and working conditions.
Top five purchasing countries
China 21%, Poland 17%, Italy 8%, Sweden 6% and Germany 6%.
Sales
At the end of the 2008 financial year, there were 253 IKEA Group stores in 24 countries
stocking everything for home furnishing under one roof. Last year 565 million customers visited
an IKEA store, gaining inspiration from our displays which show IKEA products in actual room
settings. For the latest store information, To read more, please visit IKEA Group stores.
Top five sales countries

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Germany 15%, USA 10%, France 10%, UK 7%, and Sweden 6%.
The IKEA story began in 1943 in the small village of Agunnaryd in Sweden, when founder
Ingvar Kamprad was just 17. Since then, the IKEA Group has grown into a major retail
experience with around 128,000 co-workers in 24 countries/territories generating annual sales of
more than 21.1 billion euros.
IKEA history - how it all began
The following history shows how over six decades IKEA went from the woods of southern
Sweden to being a major retail experience in 40 countries/territories around the world.
The IKEA story begins in 1926 when founder Ingvar Kamprad is born in Småland in southern
Sweden. He is raised on 'Elmtaryd', a farm near the small village of Agunnaryd. Even as a young
boy Ingvar knows he wants to develop a business.
1920s
At the age of five Ingvar Kamprad starts selling matches to his nearby neighbours and by the
time he is seven, he starts selling further afield, using his bicycle. He finds that he can buy
matches in bulk cheaply in Stockholm and re-sell them individually at a very low price but still
make a good profit. From matches he expands to selling flower seeds, greeting cards, Christmas
tree decorations, and later pencils and ball-point pens.
1940s-1950s
The roots of a furniture dealer. Ingvar Kamprad is entrepreneurial in developing IKEA into a
furniture retailer. This period sees the exploration of furniture design, self assembly, advertising,
the use of a catalogue and a showroom to reach the many people.
1960s-1970s
The IKEA concept starts to take shape. New IKEA stores open and hero products are developed
such as POÄNG and BILLY bookcase. It is a time where concept takes shape and is documented
in Ingvar Kamprad's The Testament of a Furniture Dealer.
1980s
IKEA expands dramatically into new markets such as USA, Italy, France and the UK. More
IKEA classics arrive such as KLIPPAN, LACK and MOMENT. IKEA begins to take the form of
today's modern IKEA.
1990s
IKEA grows even more. Children's IKEA is introduced and the focus is on home furnishing
solutions to meet the needs of families with children. The IKEA Group is formed and
responsibility for people and the environment is seen as a prerequisite for doing good business.
2000s
IKEA expands into even more markets such as Japan and Russia. Everything for the bedroom
and kitchen is explored and presented in co-ordinated furnishing solutions. This period also sees
the successes of several partnerships regarding social and environmental projects.




                                                                                                  68
           Unit 6b                          Cultural diversity
Teaching Objective:
1.   To enable Ss to talk about culture differences
2.   To practise text level reading skills
3.   To practise reading and listening for specific information
4.   to practise a collaborative speaking task
5.   To practise letter writing
6.   To review language for agreeing/disagreeing


How culture influence business
1. Speaking
What factors affect decision-making in these areas in your country?
Recruiting new employees
Promoting staff
Fixing salary levels
Making staff redundant
Suggested answers:
In China, recruitment is based mainly on college graduates
Sometimes based on nepotism or networking
Recruit family or friends even if they aren’t the right people for the job
Often promote on the basis of seniority rather than merit
Based mainly on appraisal from management team meetings and subjective judgement
Salary levels are fixed out of egalitarian consideration with small salary gap between staff
Pay according to hierarchical levels
Seldom lay off staff unless someone seriously violates regulations
The more senior an employee is, the less likely he is made redundant
Being a mediocre employee with average performance is not a major factor to consider when
making staff redundancy.
2. Reading
National cultures, international business
Essentially, there are two types of interviews conducted by law enforcement officers,
structured (formal) and non-structured (informal) interviews.
The structured interview is what we think of as a classic interview setting and is certainly what is
portrayed on television and the movies as the most prevalent form of interviewing in police work.
The media has portrayed this scenario so often that most people assume that all interviews are
conducted at police stations.

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Usually (on television), the interview takes place in a police station interrogation room and at
least two officers (usually Detectives) take turns grilling some hapless suspect until he/she
finally gives in, usually out of exhaustion.
Most interview and interrogation training in the past has dealt with developing techniques
dealing with the structured interview process, including a detailed examination of such topics as
the correct placement of furniture in an interrogation room, the most psychologically
advantageous color to paint the walls, the height of chairs, etc.
Although structured interviews do indeed take place every day in agencies throughout the world,
they represent only a tiny fraction of the total number of interviews being conducted by law
enforcement.
The overwhelming majority of citizen contacts and interviews are conducted on the street by
front line law enforcement officers in non-structured settings.
Think about the very nature of police work; for every formal interview being conducted in a
police station by Detectives, how many officers are out there on the street talking with suspects,
witnesses and victims? How many interviews are impromptu, versus carefully planned out?
If the vast majority of interviews are being conducted in non-structured settings, we should
direct the upgrading of our interviewing techniques toward the informal interview.
The beauty of non-confrontational interviewing methods is that the concept works equally well
in structured and non-structured settings.
Non-confrontational interviewing is designed to work quickly, to work in an emotionally
charged atmosphere, to work in the presence of outside distractions and to work without any
memorization of techniques on the part of the interviewer.
Old-style confrontational interviewing is on the way out and is being replaced by the more
effective, narrative-style non-confrontational interview method.
Exam focus: Reading Test Part Two
Candidates insert six sentences from a list of eight options into gaps in a 450-500 word text. This
tests ability to understand cohesion and coherence above sentence level.
Candidates read the whole text for general understanding and then the options. They re-read the
text and fill any gaps they feel sure of , always reading before and after a gap to ensure a
sentence fits appropriately. They then concentrate on any remaining gaps. Finally, they read their
completed text, checking overall coherence, grammatical agreement and cohesive devices such
as linking words and reference words.
Suggested answers:
1. F
these sensitive areas 指代上面提到的 concerning recruitment, promtion, remuneration and
workforce, 同时下句 on the other hand 表示转折和与上句比较,语义衔接紧密。
2. A
This relationship 照 应 上 文 提 到 的 strong bond ( 紧 密 联 系 ); same nationality 与 下 文
multinationals 构成比较照应关系。

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3.C
这段话有关面试过程。上句提到 common dilemma, 此句则讲到具体形式,上下语义衔接自
然。
4. G
此句具体说明何为 group logic
5. B
此句紧接上句,对何为市场逻辑进一步做出说明,语义联系紧密。
6. D
此句中 this awareness 指代上文 know their own cultural values.

 The result of a survey
Suggested answers:
England—blue         France—brown            Germany – purple
Italy – yellow       Spain—red


Building international teams
3. Speaking 1
Agreeing and disagreeing
We often show agreement by repeating other people’s words or completing their sentences. We
can reinforce a proposal by adding supporting ideas.
I think that’s the best way of doing it.
I think that’s the best way too. And it would save money.
I think we should pay team bonuses.
In order to disagree effectively, it is important to give reasons or ask questions.
It would be a good idea to recruit internationally.
That’s true. But it would be more expensive.
I think it’s important to use Head Office staff.
But who would you choose?


4. Writing
Suggested answers
Dear Jacek
Further to our conversation of 11 November, I am writing to confirm your visit. Since this will
be your first trip to the United Kingdom, I include some information about the way we operate.
The first meeting is scheduled for11: 15am and you should be ready to start promptly. Some
people say that the British have a rather relaxed attitude to time and that starting 15minutes late
is normal. However, Jim Walsh, the Head of Sales, is extremely keen on punctuality, so do not
be tempted to take any risks.

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One difference between this office and yours and that you may notice is the apparent lack of
formality between colleagues here. In Britain it is usual a person’s first name once you have
been introduced and you will usually be invited to do so. Also, please do not be offended if our
staff here does not use your professional tile; only medical doctors are given the title ‘Doctor’
here. As I said, especially between colleagues, it is common simply to use a person’s first name.
A number of our managers are women and you should be aware that that are treated in exactly
the same ways as their male counterparts.
If you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact me on 0171 792 603.
I look forward to seeing you on 8December.
Yours sincerely


Homework
Finish Self-study Unit 6b
Choose a country and research the cultural attitudes which might affect the way you would do
business there. Prepare a brief presentation on your findings.




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Different Styles of Interviews
You may need to prepare for all of the following interview types:
Telephone interviews/One-on-one interviews/Panel interviews/Informal interviews/
Assessment centres
Telephone interviews
Telephone interviews are used by some organisations for financial or geographic reasons or if
the role involves a telephone presence. These interviews are used for screening purposes and are
generally followed by face-to-face interviews. These interviews differ as there is little visual
feedback, which can be daunting. Remember that silence is expected – the interviewer could be
making notes or preparing for the next question. Practice with a friend so that you feel
comfortable with silence and lack of visual cues.
One-on-one interviews
Often used by smaller organisations or third party recruiters (recruitment agencies) short-listing
for a company.
Panel interviews
These are more likely to occur towards the end of the selection process or initially when
applying for more senior positions. They are also quite commonly used during government
practices. The interview tends to be highly structured with individuals asking specific questions.
Panel interviews allow for greater objectivity than one-to-one interviews.
There tends to be three or four people on a panel. Panels comprise of people from various parts
of an organisation and may include representatives from senior management, human resources
and other specialist areas. Try to interact with all panel members equally by using their names
and maintaining consistent eye contact.
Informal interviews
Informal interviews may involve more than one interview. They resemble other interviews in
many respects but are more like a friendly chat than a formal question and answer session. This
can also present an opportunity you to take a look around the work premises, and for other staff
to meet with you.
There are also situations where you are being interviewed in social situations such as cocktail
functions, dinners, and industry events. Don’t let your guard down in these situations: behave
politely at all times. An assessment is being made about your skills! Such skills can include your
interpersonal, communication and team work skills.
Assessment Centres
These include a series of activities designed to assess you on your ability to perform the job
successfully. Possible exercises can include psychometric testing, role play, group exercise and
written exercises.




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           Unit 7a                     Industrial espionage
Teaching Objective:
1. To enable Ss to talk about information security
2. To practise reading to identify the structure of a text
3.To practise listening for gist and specific information
4. To practise a collaborative speaking tas
5. To review asking for clarification
6. To review Conditionals 1 and 2


Research or espionage
Industrial espionage 行业刺探行为
Imitation product 仿制品
Infiltration 渗透
Paranoid 多疑的,偏执狂的
Disgruntled 不满的,不高兴的
Foul play 违规行为,犯规动作 fair play
Court ruling 法庭裁决
Shady practice 不正当做法,暗箱操作
Surveillance equipment 监视器材设备
In-house information security advisor 公司信息安全顾问
Appraisal notes 鉴定,评语
1. Speaking
How can a company access information about competitors? Which methods do you think are
ethically acceptable?
Suggested answers:
Reading about the company in the newspapers, watching TV, looking at Internet information,
talking to people who work fro the company, posing as a potential customer, stealing
information, getting hold of product samples, spying, infiltration, hacking into the computer.
2. Reading
   1) come in from the cold 不再被忽视,从被冷落的状态中卷土重来
   2) nothing like 完全不像,没有什么比得上
   3) one man’s espionage may be another man’s market research strategy. 一个人的刺探行
      为对另一个人来说也许只是市场调查。One man’s meat is another man’s poison.
   4) Beat…(to sth) 抢… 之先,赶在… 前头行动
   5) Own up 常用于口语中,意为“坦白,爽快承认”
   6)

                                                                                           74
Suggested answer:
EX 2
Stealing a sample of the product fro analysis, bugging, infiltration, hacking, copying information
onto a disk and taking it home, leaking inside information, photocopying internal documents.
EX3
1.A 2. F 3. C 4. E 5. G 6. B                    7. D

Ask students to look at P111, finish self study 7a EX1


Information security
Emergency meeting 紧急会议
Up for renewal 准备续签
Get access to 获取,见到
Someone’s passing on that kind of information 有人传递相关情报
Up-to-date security 先进的安全软件
Inside job 内勤,也指内部作案,监守自盗,有内线策应的案子
Pose as a temp 扮成临时雇员
Suggested answer:
EX1
Octacon has lost several important contracts to its rival, Centronics. Centronics
seemed to know when the contracts were up for renewal and had information about
Octacon’s terms and conditions. Octacon needs to find out if one of its staff has
leaked the information or if the company has been infiltrated.
EX2
Action
1. Check CVs and previous employers of everyone who has joined the company
    over the last 12 months.
2. Check appraisal records for anyone in Sales who is unhappy.
3. Check who’s got access to what information
4. Issue individual computer passwords.
5. Check employees’ e-mail.
6. Bring in a security consultant to pose as a temp in the Sales Department.
Implication
1. It will take ages.
2. They need to be thorough. If they don’t find anything in Sales, they need to
    check appraisal records for the whole company.
3. The company would know who was logging on, when and what they were
    looking at.
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4. The company could see who was dissatisfied and then check their appraisal
    notes. But it would be had for morale if anyone found out.
5. She could find out all the gossip. But again, it would be very bad for morale if
    anyone found out.
EX 4
Listening 1: But surely, you don’t think that …?
Listening 2: Which means…, right?
             You don’t think …, do you ?
             Do you mean…?
EX 5
Exam focus: Speaking Test Part Three
Candidates are required to have a brief guided discussion in pairs or threes. They are
given a task sheet which outlines a situation and the points which need to be
discussed and decided together. Candidates have 30 seconds to prepare individually
for the discussion.
Candidates should start by establishing a context (e.g. the type of company they
work for). They are expected to be able to initiate, respond and turn-take
appropriately without intervention by the examiner. Candidates need to be aware
that they are expected to move the discussion towards a decision rather than simply
discuss various options.


Homework
1. Finish self study Unit 7a
2. Speaking: your company wants to create a more open attitude towards internal information.
   Discuss and decide the following.
   What information should be available to staff?
   The implications of the new policy




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           Unit 7b Business ethics
Teaching Objective:
1.   To enable Ss to talk about business ethics
2.   To practice reading for specific information
3.   To practice listening for gist and specific information
4.   To practice giving a short talk
5.   To review Conditional Advanced


What are business ethics?
Integrity 诚信
Bullet point “弹头”圆点,弹点,项目符号,文件中用来导引各重要的圆点符号,也作 bullet
Public sector 公共经济领域
Legal compliance 遵纪守法
Corporate philanthropy 企业慈善行为
Whistle-blower 内部举报人
Political correctness 政治正确性
Legal action 法律诉讼
Ethnic diversity 种族差异
Marching orders 行军令,解雇通知,逐客令
Market penetration 市场渗透
Whizzkid 杰出青年人才,杰出小子
Official warning 正式警告
Benchmark 基价,基准尺度,参考标准
Good press 新闻舆论的好评
Fat cat 有财有势的人,大亨
KPMG 即 KPMG International Consulting, Inc. 毕马威国际咨询公司


1. Speaking
Which of the following statements about ethics do you agree with?
Ethics provide the rules within which an organization must conduct itself.
Ethics show an organisation’s attitude towards society.
Ethics are a source of competitive advantage.
2. Reading
⑴ Get weight (to) 有“重视,加强,为…提出强有力的证据”等义
We should give due weight to economic problems.
To this speculation recent discoveries give further weight.最近的发现进一步加强了这种推测。

                                                                             77
⑵ the most frequently identified as… “最频繁地被认为是…” “被普遍认为是…”


Suggested answers:
EX2
Ss read the survey extract and say what the CEOs considered to be the three most important
features of an ethical organization. T may wish to point out to Ss that the answer can be found in
the main body of the text rather than on the diagram.
Legal compliance, fair employment practices, delivery of high quality goods and services

EX3
Ss read the survey again and decide if the four statements are true or false. When checking the
answers, T asks Ss to identify where the answers appeared in the text.
1. F—It was initially sent to 1,000 CEOs but the sample was then extended to include a further
    225 executives in the public sector.
2. F—Corporate philanthropy was given the least weight when describing ethical
    organizations.
3. T—38% of organizations protect whistle-blowers.
4. F—Security of information was the issue with which respondents were least satisfied.

EX4
Ss find examples of the points related to formal reports. This exercise is designed to focus Ss on
features of formal reports which will help them in their writing.

Report layout
Use of bullet points and visuals, not dense text
Formal vocabulary
Selected, in terms of, in response to, expressed, further, the following points summarize our key
findings, legal compliance, employment practices, corporate philanthropy, participating
organizations, ethical or legal violations, to indicate, level of management attention, of greatest
concern, issue, respondents
Ellipsis
…1,000 Canadian companies, which were selected …, In response to an increasing level of
interest which was expressed…, an increase on the 22% which was reported…, … to indicate
the level of management attention each issue received…, Of these issues, the two issues which
were most frequently identified…
Participles
Selected on the basis of size, an increasing level of interest expressed, when executives
responding to our survey, written statements, participating organizations, an increase on the
22% reported, the two most frequently identified

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Ethical issues
EX 1
This exercise practices the skills needed for Listening Test Part Two. Ss listen to a set of five
extracts twice and complete two tasks for each extract. T points out that for the first extract Ss
should answer questions 1 and 6, for the second extract 2 and 7 etc. T asks Ss to read through the
lists of ethical issues and consequences and think of words or phrases they would expect to hear
connected with each one. For example, for a manager was dismissed, Ss might expect to hear
words such as sacked, fired, made redundant. Ss then listen and match each speaker with an
ethical issue and consequence.
1. F        2. C      3. A      4. H    5. D
6. P        7. I      8. N     9. K    10. M

EX2
Ss work in pairs or small groups and put the five cases of unethical behavior into order of
seriousness. T points out to Ss that they should focus on the specific cases referred to and not the
general concepts. Ss may need to listen to the cassette again or look at the tapescript before
doing this exercise. T may wish to ask Ss if they think the consequences of each action were just
and whether the consequences would have been similar in their country.

EX3
T refers Ss to the example sentences. Ss then read through the tapescript to find further examples
of conditional forms. Ss should be encouraged to categorize examples of conditional forms
rather than discuss each occurrence separately.

EX4
This exercise practice the skills needed for Speaking Test Part Two. When setting up this task. T
may wish to refer Ss to the framework for planning short talks on page 74. Ss take turns to make
and listen to each other’s short talks. Those listening should be encouraged to make notes and
ask questions at the end. T may wish to ask Ss to use the Short Talk section of the Speaking Test
Assessment Sheet on page 76 to evaluate each other’s performance. Before the lesson, T should
have made photocopies of the Assessment Sheet for Ss to use.
How to encourage ethical behaviour from employees
The importance of ethics in today’s business world
1. 加大道德教育投资基金
2. 企业日益面临道德举报压力
3. 职业合格考试被判属歧视
4. 银行被控歧视少数民族员工

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5. 年过半百普遍面临歧视
6. 更多企业接受商业道德观念

如何鼓励员工采取符合道德规范的行为
1. set out an official code of ethical practice 制定正式的道德行为法规条例
2. anonymous system of reporting any breaches of this code 举报违反该条例的匿名系统
3. walk the talk 身体力行
4. put ethics high on the training and staff development agenda 把道德规范列入员工培训和
   发展计划的首要位置

道德规范在当今商界的重要性
1. source from ever greater distances 从更遥远的地域寻求资源
2. exploit the economic advantages of low labour costs in one country and high market value
   in another 利用一个国家的低劳动成本和另一个国家的高市场价值挖掘经济优势。
3. spending ethically 合法消费,符合道德的消费
4. exploitation stories receive very good press 揭露剥削廉价劳动力的新闻受到报刊评论的
   好评
5. fat cat executive salaries 经理人的丰厚薪酬


Homework
Self-study Unit 7b
Visit the KPMG website, www.kpmg.com. Write a 200-250 word report evaluating the site,
recommending improvements and giving reasons for your opinions.




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           Unit 8a                    Global Brands
Teaching Objective:
1.   To enable Ss to talk about global brands
2.   To practise reading for specific information
3.   To practise giving a short talk
4.   To practise report writing
5.   To review inversion


Making brands global
Global brand 全球化品牌,国际品牌
Brand equity 品牌资产
Brand awareness 品牌知名度
Perceived brand quality 心目中的品牌品质
Brand association 品牌联想
Logo 标识
Energizer 兴奋食品,增能食品
Advertising campaign 广告宣传活动
All-American 代表美国的,典型美国理想的
Cultural stereotype 模式化的文化印象,固有文化模式
Global presence 跻身国际市场,参与国际竞争,在国际市场上占有一席之地
Downturn (利润或销售)下降
Local equivalent 当地同类产品
Chic 时髦的,时尚的
Cash voucher 折扣券,优惠券


   1. Speaking
What foreign brands do you buy? Why?
Name brands 名牌
Trendy design 设计流行
After-sales services guaranteed 售后服务好
2. Reading
Suggested answers:
EX3
Coca-cola: globalizes all three aspects
Mars: has global products and a global logo but different concepts are associated with the
chocolate bar.马尔斯巧克力,美国马尔斯公司品牌

                                                                                        81
Hertz: globalizes all three aspects 赫兹,美国汽车租赁公司品牌。该公司为全球最大的国际
汽车租赁公司,在全球 140 个国家拥有 525000 辆营运车的规模,拥有超过 6500 家租车网
点。它与阿维斯(Avis)               、Europcar(欧洲汽车公司)、巴基特(Budget)一道,被视作世界
上排名最前的四大著名汽车租赁公司。
Nike: globalizes all three aspects 耐克,美国体育用品制造商品牌,以生产运动鞋为主。
Barilla: globalizes all three aspects 巴里拉面条,意大利面制造商巴里拉公司产品
Nescafe: has a global concept and a global logo but different products to suit local tastes 雀巢咖
啡,瑞士雀巢公司产品。该公司是世界上最大的食品公司,8500 种食品、饮料和医药用品
均使用雀巢这一品牌,加上各种不同的包装、规格,雀巢公司产品的种类已多达 22000 余
种。
EX4
1. B      2. D      3. A 4. B 5. C          6. C
Exam focus: Reading Test Part Three
Candidates read a 500-600 word text and answer six multiple-choice questions. This tests ability
to read for specific information.
Candidates read the whole text briefly for general understanding and then read the questions and
options. Ss re-read the text and answer the questions they fell sure of. They then concentrate on
scanning the text for the answers to the remaining questions. The questions follow the order of
the text, which should help Ss narrow down the location of a relevant passage in the text.
EX6
Think of an internationally known brand from your country which makes use of cultural
stereotypes. What are the values associated with the stereotypes.
Take internationally-known brands such as Hairer refrigerators for example
Values associated with the stereotype 与这些文化印象相关联的价值观
Caring for people 以人为本
Customization 个性化定制

Promotion a brand
EX1
Ss discuss briefly whether they have bought products from any of the companies shown and give
the reasoning behind their choices.
Status symbol 身份象征
Quality guaranteed 质量保证
Trendy and stylish 时尚
Excellent after-sales service 售后服务优秀
World standards 世界标准
EX2
Ss choose one of the companies and consider each of the points on the diagram in relation to
how the company promotes the brand in their country. T then asks one S per group to summarise

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their ideas informally.
Targeted customer 目标客户
Product range 产品系列
Product adaptation 产品本土化
EX3
This exercise practices the skills needed for Speaking Test Part Two. When setting up this task, T
may wish to refer Ss to the framework for planning short talks on page 74. Ss take turns to make
and listen to each other’s short talks. Those listening should be encouraged to make notes and
ask questions at the end. T may wish to ask Ss to use the Short Talk section of the Speaking test
Assessment Sheet on page 76 to evaluate each other’s performance. Before the lesion, T should
have made photocopies of the Assessment Sheet for Ss to use.
EX 4
This exercise practices the skills needed for Writing Test Part Two. T may wish to ask Ss to
prepare a detailed plan in class showing how they intend to organize their ideas before they write
a proposal for homework. When setting up this task, T reminds Ss that the language used in
proposals is very similar to the language used in reports and my wish to refer Ss back to Unit 1a,
Exam focus: Writing (P70) for useful report language and Units 5a and 7b, which look at
features of formal reports. If Ss do the writing task in class, T may wish to ask Ss to exchange
proposals and give each other feedback using the Writing Assessment Sheet on page 71. Before
the lesson, T should have made photocopies of the Assessment Sheet for Ss to use.

Homework
Self-study Unit 8a
Visit the L’Oreal website at www.loreal.com. Prepare a short presentation on the company’s
brands and markets.




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Global Branding
The Five C's
Communication:
Building familiarity and relevance to consumers is only achieved through effective
communication of the brand message. Foster's spreads its brand message through
promotional programs, sponsorship and public relations.
Continuity:
Brand equity is enhanced by long-term marketing programs to ensure a cumulative
build over time. Australianness is the essence of Foster's brand image is promoted in
every market in the world. All Foster's lager theme advertising is consistent with an
Australian positioning. A powerful range of award winning advertising and
promotional programs has been the driving force of the brand's success.
Consistency:
Global consistency in brand packaging and advertising image portrayal, in both
above and below-the-line programs, builds upon the brand's strengths. Also,
stringent controls are in place to ensure the Foster's experience remains consistent
around the world. This experience guarantees a consistent high-quality product and
brand support that makes Foster's Lager instantly recognisable and familiar to beer
drinkers the world over.
Co-operation:
Foster's seeks partners to build the brand's success through co-operative
arrangements. An impressive international network of major brewing companies,
distributors and hospitality partners make up the worldwide Foster's team. As a
leading world brand, Foster's has secured major licensing and brewing agreements in
the Americas and in Europe. Carlton & United Breweries expands the network in
Australia, while Foster's Brewing International distributes their product to the
Middle East and Africa. Foster's Brewing International also produces Foster's lager
in strategically placed breweries in Asia and the Pacific region.
Control:
Foster's tightly controls the brand and its image to manage, protect and grow the
brand equity worldwide. Foster's Brewing International has strict controls in place to
protect Foster's image, reputation and identity. Their Australian-based marketing
team set the brand direction, uphold standards and promote the latest technology to
develop communications links between their marketing team worldwide. Foster's
has an electronic, virtual global marketing office.




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  Global Branding Versus Local Marketing

Day by day, global branding is becoming a bigger challenge. Why? Because it's no
longer possible to isolate a brand and its reputation.
You might think you've created an excellent strategy for your brand in one local
market, only to realize that the rest of the world has access to that same local
communication. This exposure destroys any possibility of separating your local
branding strategy from your global branding strategy.
This unavoidable exposure of your local brand-building strategy in the international
arena is part of the growing difficulties that attend global brand building. Related to
this complication are the internal issues that arise. For example, how can
corporations handle the local and global mix in their marketing departments? Is
every local marketing department now obsolete? Can local marketing be taken over
by a single department of centralized marketing functions?
Such issues are the result of the speed and spread of communications. The Internet
has enabled every consumer to access every piece of communication in the world.
Good old concepts like running test markets have been dramatically altered because
of the increasing proximity among markets. True separation among markets has
disappeared.
When Coca-Cola selected Australia as the test market for the first non-Coca-Cola
drink it had launched in years, most of the world watched the experiment, and
almost as many people participated in the experiment from outside the test market.
This might very well have been the strategy's intention. However, if the objective
was to test a new product in a local market, the strategy clearly failed.
Global communication is more or less forcing brand builders around the world to
adjust their approaches. They're having to forego the strategy that provides local
marketing teams with full autonomy. So, how should we handle the brand
challenge?
First of all, the local brand is not dead. But some of the activities that are used to
promote it are now obsolete. I would separate local brand-building activities from
global brand-building activities on the promotional side, as McDonald's has done.
Ronald McDonald is the key in-store promotional figure. Very seldom do you see
him on television commercials and, when you do, you see him publicizing in-store
promotions.
Ronald, very cleverly, has become McDonald's point of differentiation in each
market. He celebrates Christmas in Northern Europe and the Chinese New Year in
Hong Kong. He promotes McDonald's wine in France and McDonald's Filet-o-Fish
in Australia. But he never appears in globally accessible media. McDonald's' global
messages come through television commercials. The corporation produces local
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adaptations of these, too. But you can see McDonald's local twists are substantially
stronger in the in-store promotions than on television.
The purpose of global brand management is to conceive of and control a brand's
global direction, and this is done by defining and communicating the brand's core
values. The execution of this communication lies in devising and consistently
applying a specific style, tone, and image.
The role of local brand management is to refine the communication of the brand's
core values by adjusting their execution to communicate meaningfully with each
local market. If a local event like the Chinese New Year is taking place, it's the local
brand-builder's task to ensure the brand leveraging on it. Local brand building
depends on an acute awareness of local trends; it's all about leveraging knowledge
that the international marketing department has no access to or sympathy with.
The global marketing department is the strategic group. The local team is the tactical
group. Both need to work hand in hand.
Sound easy? Give it a go, and you'll realize that it isn't. But hopefully, I've helped
explain this fairly complex reality. Now it's your turn to execute it.




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           Unit 8b                    Global sourcing
Teaching Objective:
1.   To enable Ss to talk about suppliers
2.   To practise reading for specific information
3.   To practise a collaborative speaking task
4.   To practise report writing


Choosing a supplier
Time to market 市场时效性 In commerce, time to market (TTM) is the length of time it takes
from a product being conceived until its being available for sale. TTM is important in industries
where products are outmoded quickly. A common assumption is that TTM matters most for
first-of-a-kind products, but actually the leader often has the luxury of time, while the clock is
clearly running for the followers.
为了适应快速变化的市场,提高自己的市场竞争能力,加速产品问世的时效性已成了企业
获得成功的关键。许多企业致力于利用信息技术和资源的优化利用,加快企业新产品的开
发,进而达到产品(特别是有自主知识产权的新产品)上市快、质量高、成本低、收效好
的目的。这也就是所谓的市场时效性(time to market)                           ,即在最短时间内把一种技术转化为
产品推向市场并取得成功。它与 time to volume(快速扩大产量)、Time to money(全球运筹、
实时变现)一道被称为生产经营中的“3T”成功策略。
Du Pont 杜邦公司(美国化工产品生产经营公司)
Conoco 大陆石油公司(美国)                 ,杜邦下属企业
QuayWest 西码头服装公司(英国)


1. Speaking
What types of supplier does your company use? What criteria does your company apply when
choosing suppliers?
Suggested answers:
EX1
Ss discuss briefly what type of suppliers their company uses and its criteria for choosing them. T
may wish to point out that suppliers include not only providers of materials needed for
production but also providers of services such as computer support. Most companies are also
likely to need suppliers of stationery and refreshments (e.g. for coffee and snack dispensers).
Criteria 标准
Competitively priced 价格优惠
Professional and standard performance 符合行业标准的专业服务
Reliable quality 质量保证

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Speedy and reliable delivery 送货快捷可靠
Personalized service 个性化服务


2. Reading
Ss complete the table with the measurements. T may wish to point out that warranty dollars
refers to the amount of money spent repairing or replacing sub-standard goods or services when
they are under warranty.
Main criteria when choosing a supplier


Criteria                         Definitions                      Measurements
Cost                             Cost    relative     to    our   $ per unit
                                 competitors
Quality                          Conformance to standards         Per cent defective
                                 Performance                      Satisfaction surveys
                                 Reliability                      Warranty dollars spent
Delivery                         Speed                            Time to market
                                 Reliability                      Total number of days late
Flexibility                      Product range                    Number of items in the
                                 New product introduction         catalogue
                                                                  Number of new product
                                                                  launches a year


Cost 指与竞争对手相比较的费用,以美元单价计算
Quality 指与标准的符合程度、总体表现和可靠性,以瑕疵百分比、满意度调查结果及保
修费支出情况衡量。       Conformance(符合)等于 conformity; warranty dollars 指为保修所耗费的
资金,这方面的钱越多,说明产品质量越不好。
Delivery 指速度和可靠性,以市场时效性和未及时交货总天数衡量
Flexibility 指产品种类和新产品投放情况,以商品目录表上的品种数量及一年中新产品投
放市场次数衡量。


Supplier relationships
1. Listening
Suggested answers:
EX1
This exercise practice the skills needed for Listening Test Part Three. T asks Ss to read through
the questions before listening. When checking the answers, T may wish to ask Ss to identify
where the answers appeared in the tapescript.
1. C            2. B             3. A              4. B

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5. B           6. C             7. A               8. C
2. Speaking
EX2
What would be the most suitable type of supplier relationship in the following situations? Would
it make sense for these companies to source globally?
A car manufacturer sourcing a brake system
A toy company sourcing a range of plastic dolls
A restaurant sourcing its food supplies
Suggested answer:
Car manufacturer
Some kin of strategic alliance would be sensible here as the company might need to develop the
brake system in conjunction with the supplier. Quality and responsiveness are likely to be key
criteria. Some car companies even go so far as to integrate certain suppliers into their own
factories. Car companies do have relationships with overseas suppliers; however, the speed and
reliability of deliveries might be an issue.
Toy Company
It would probably be logical to source the dolls globally as they are a commodity product and
price would be the deciding factor. It would not be logical to enter into any long-term
relationship with the supplier as the company would want to be free to choose on the basis of
price.
Restaurant
Any decision as to a supplier would depend on the restaurant. Most restaurants buy locally. They
probably do not enter into strategic relationships with suppliers so that they are free to shop
around on the basis of quality, freshness, seasonal availability and price. However, large food
chains (e.g.McDonalds) buy staple foods from key suppliers to ensure standardization of quality
throughout the world.


Global sourcing
1. Reading
EX1
This exercise practice the skills needed for Reading Test Part One. Ss read the texts and
statements and match each statement with a company. Ss should be encouraged to pay attention
to the use of qualifiers (relatively, expensive etc.). T then asks Ss to award a rating for price,
quality, delivery and flexibility for each company—five being the highest and one the lowest
score.
1. Hai Xin 2. Consort          3. Samokovska          4. Namlong
5. Shiva       6. Consort      7. Shiva               8. Samokovska
Suggested answer:

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Consort         Price 5     Quality 2     Delivery 3     Flexibility 3
Samokovska      Price 2     Quality 5     Delivery 4     Flexibility 2
Namlong         Price 2     Quality 3     Delivery 5     Flexibility 3
Shiva           Price 4     Quality 4     Delivery 2     Flexibility 3
Hai Xin         Price 3     Quality 3     Delivery 3     Flexibility 4

Exam focus: Reading Test Part One
Candidates read five topic-related texts and eight statements. Ss then match each statement with
the text it refers to. This tests ability to read for gist and specific information.
Candidates should check that each text has been used at least once.

1. supplier 不光指提供生产所需材料的公司,还指提供服务或者文具、点心(咖啡、小
   吃)等。
2. have serious PR implication 中 implications 一词除“含义”这一常见义外,其复数形式
   还常指“涉及的问题,可能发生的后果”等义。这里所谓“涉及严重的公共问题”指
   这家供应商质量无法保证,与其建立关系可能会给公司形象造成损害。
3. at short notice 提前很短的时间通知
4. family-owned business 等于 family business 家族式企业(公司)  。
5. in relation to 有“涉及,与…相比”等义。
6. turn around 在这里做“使…好转”之义。
2. Speaking
You work in the QuayWest Purchasing Department. Discuss and decide the following.
Your key criteria for suppliers of the new range of leisurewear
Which of the five suppliers would be the most suitable


Homework
Self-study Unit 8b
Write a 200-250 word report recommending the most suitable supplier for QuayWest and giving
reasons for your decision.




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