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									Proposition

    命题

By 林集果and张宇
                 On Proposition
 The basic meaning which a sentence expresses.
 Propositions consist of

  A: something which is named or talked about
  (known as the argument, or entity)
  B: an assertion or predication which is made about
  the argument
  命题包括(1)提到的或谈论的东西(主目或实
  体)(2)关于主目的表达或述题
                      from Longman Dictionary of Language
    Teaching & Applied Linguistics
命题包括下面2个部分的一项内容:
1)所指称或提到的事物,如“这个人”
2)对它的论述,如“完成了任务”
于是,“这个人完成了任务”就是一个命题

语言中的句子可以直接传达出一个命题,
也可以含蓄着一个以上的命题:
John likes apple
传达出“约翰爱吃苹果”一项命题

John’s friend, Tony, who is a dentist,
likes apple
含蓄着“约翰有一个朋友”,“朋友叫托
 尼”,
“托尼是牙科医生”,“托尼爱吃苹果”等
 命题
(最后一个是主要的)
                       Proposition
 Verb is a core in a sentence, and verb decides the number of
  NP.
When a verb is intransitive, it requires only one NP as the subject
  (external argument )
例句:She sings.
When a verb is transitive, it requires two NPs, one as the subject
  (external argument) and the other as the object (internal
  argument).
例句:She sings a song.
And a ditransitive verb requires three NPs: the subject, external
  argument; direct and indirect object, internal argument.
例句:She buys him a book.
              argument (external, internal)
proposition
              predication

(a proposition comprises a predicate V and a set
  of argument)
argument (论述对象)
一个命题中对其有所说明或议论的对象,
通常是引出命题的指称事物。
如:Jack has a friend 的“杰克”就是
“有一个朋友”的说明对象
predication(谓述部分)
命题中对所指称的事物有所说明
或谈论的部分
如:Jack has a friend中的“有一个朋友”
是对“杰克”的一个说明
                 Discussion
    The differences between Proposition and
     Statement?
1.   句子=主观意愿+命题(客观)
2.   Proposition is a part of a sentence. It is
     objective without any subjective judgement.
3.   Statement concludes proposition.
                 Conclusion



People pay more attention to meaning, such as
  meaning units rather than form of a sentence,
  such as the isolated NPs and VPs in the
  process of communication.
                   Reference
1.   Handout: Chapter 7, from form to meaning,
     written by Professor ZhengChao
2.   Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied
     Linguistics

								
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