Cloning with the Clone Stamp Tool 629 5. Specify how fast the Clone Stamp tool applies the clone by adjusting the Flow Rate percentage. Again, I left my option at 100%. 6. Select the Airbrush option for airbrushing capabilities, if desired. 7. Select or deselect the Aligned option, depending on your preference. With Aligned selected, the clone source moves when you move your cursor to a different location. If you want to clone multiple times from the same location, deselect the Aligned option. I left mine selected. 8. Select the All Layers option from the Sample drop-down list to clone part of an image with multiple layers. Selecting this option enables you to sample pixels in all the visible layers for the clone. If you select the Current Layer option, the Clone Stamp tool clones only from the active layer. If you select the Current and Below option, you sample pixels from the current layer and all layers below it. 9. If you select All Layers in Step 8, you can choose whether to ignore any adjustment layers when cloning. To do so, click the Adjustment Layer icon on the Options bar. By ignoring adjustment layers, you may prevent the bizarre results that can sometimes occur by double-applying your adjustment layers during the cloning process. 10. Choose Window➪Clone Source Transformers to open the Clone Source panel, as shown in Figure 3-1. Specify Sampling sources the following options: • Sampling Sources: In Step 11, you define a sampling source by Alt-clicking (Option- clicking on the Mac) the area of the image that you want to clone. However, if you want to Book VIII create multiple sampling Chapter 3 sources, you can do so in the Clone Source panel by select- Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and ing a different Clone Source Not Wanted button and repeating this Alt- clicking (Option-clicking on the Mac) process on other Overlay areas of your image. You probably don’t need to use Figure 3-1: The Clone Source panel assists in more than one source. the cloning process. Multiple sampling sources are useful for video editors who have to work with tight registration between frames that need cloning. 630 Cloning with the Clone Stamp Tool • Transformations: Adjust the rotation, position, or scale of your clone. Select the link icon to maintain your Width (W) and Height (H) aspect ratio. Click the small curved arrow below the link icon to reset your transformation settings (W, H, and Rotation). I wanted my cloned tiger to be a twin of the one that’s already in the image, so I left the settings at their default. You can use scrubby sliders by hovering over the transformation label (H, W, and so on) of a field and dragging left or right. Hold down Alt (Option on the Mac) while dragging to make your changes slower. Hold down Shift while dragging to make your changes faster. • Overlay: If desired, select the Show Overlay option. Applying an overlay is especially useful when cloning subjects that need to be in alignment with the underlying image. Adjust the Opacity to your desired percentage. I used 30% in my example. If you want, select the Auto-Hide option. If you select this option, when you release your mouse, you see a ghosted preview of how your cloned pixels will appear on the image. While you’re painting, however, the overlay is hidden. Select a blending mode for your overlay from the Blending Mode drop-down list. Depending on your source pixels, a blend mode other than Normal may work better in aligning your cloned image with the underlying image. Check Invert to reverse the colors and tones in your overlay. This setting may also assist you in aligning areas. To display the overlay temporarily, hold down Alt+Shift-click (Option+Shift-click on the Mac) after setting your source. You can drag your overlay around and then, after you have your desired location, release the mouse to set it down. You can find most of the same options in the Clone Source panel pop-up menu. If you select the Clipped option, the overlay is clipped, or contained, only within the boundaries of your brush. In my opinion, this makes it a lot easier to clone exactly what you want. 11. Alt-click (Option-click on the Mac) the area of your image that you want to clone. By clicking the area you want to clone, you’re defining the source. 12. Click or drag along the area where you want the clone to appear, as shown in Figure 3-2. While you drag, Photoshop displays a crosshair icon along with your Clone Stamp cursor. The crosshair represents the source you’re cloning from, and the Clone Stamp cursor shows where the clone is being painted. While you move the mouse, the crosshair moves, as well. This provides a continuous reference to the area of your image that you’re cloning. Keep an eye on the crosshair, or you may clone something you don’t want. Try to clone your entire object in one fell swoop so it doesn’t get fragmented. Cloning with the Clone Stamp Tool 631 Photo Disc/Getty Images Figure 3-2: When using the Clone Stamp tool, drag along the area where you want your clone to appear. When you successfully complete the cloning process, you have two identical objects. Figure 3-3 shows my identical twin Siberian tigers. Book VIII Chapter 3 Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and Not Wanted Figure 3-3: My twin Siberian tigers are the products of cloning. 13. Save the image and close it. 632 Digital Bandaging with the Healing Brush Tool Tips for excellent cloning results Here are a few useful tidbits regarding the Clone Stamp tool: ✓ Use the Clone Stamp tool to fix simple flaws. To clean up a flaw that’s pretty straight, such as a stray hair or scratch, Alt-click (Option-click on the Mac) with the tool to define the source. Then, click at one end of the straight flaw and Shift-click at the other end. The cloned source pixels then cover up the flaw. ✓ Pay attention to the origin point for sampling. Depending on what you’re cloning (for example, when covering up a flaw), if you keep sampling from the same point without ever varying it, the area you’re cloning starts to look like ugly shag carpeting. Or, at best, starts to appear blotchy and overretouched. ✓ Zoom out occasionally to check how your image looks overall. Doing so helps you avoid those funky telltale clone stamp repetitive patterns and blotches. ✓ When cloning patterns, use the Pattern Stamp tool, which shares the flyout menu with the Clone Stamp tool. Select a custom pattern from the Pattern Picker on the Options bar. Drag with the Pattern Stamp tool, and you see the pattern appear. Digital Bandaging with the Healing Brush Tool The Healing Brush and Patch tools are similar to the Clone Stamp tool. They let you clone pixels from one area and apply them to another area. But that’s where the similarities end; the healing tools leave the Clone Stamp tool eating their dust. The problem with the Clone Stamp tool is that it doesn’t take the tonality of the flawed area — the shadows, midtones, and highlights — into consideration. Therefore, if the pixels you’re sampling from aren’t shaded and lit exactly like the ones you’re covering, you have a mismatch in color, which makes seamless and indecipherable repairs hard to achieve. That’s where the Healing Brush tool comes in. This very intelligent tool clones by using the texture from the sampled area (the source) and then the colors around the brush stroke when you paint over the flawed area (the destination). The highlights, midtones, and shadows remain intact, and the result of the repair is more realistic and natural — not retouched and phony. Follow these steps to heal your favorite, but imperfect, photo: 1. Open your image and select the Healing Brush tool. My guy, shown in Figure 3-4, looks like he could stand to get some “work done,” as they say in Hollywood. You can also heal between two images. Just make sure that they have the same color mode. Digital Bandaging with the Healing Brush Tool 633 2. On the Options bar, click the Brush Preset Picker. In the drop-down panel, select your desired diameter and hard- ness, as well as spacing, angle, and roundness if you want, for your brush tip. You will most likely specify your brush settings several times while retouching your image. Using the appropriate brush size for the flaw you’re repairing is important. Click the Tablet icon (at the end of the Options bar) to control the size of the brush. The pressure you apply will then override any settings in the Brush panel. 3. On the Options bar, leave the blending mode set to Normal. You can change your blending mode, if necessary. The Replace mode preserves textures, such as Figure 3-4: The Healing Brush can make Noise or Film Grain, around the these wrinkles practically disappear. edges of your strokes when using a soft brush. For most simple retouching jobs, such as this one, you can leave it at Normal. 4. Select a Source option. You have a choice between Sampled and Pattern: • Sampled: You’ll probably use this option, which uses the pixels from the image, 99 percent of the time. • Pattern: You can probably infer that it uses pixels from a pattern you Book VIII select from the Pattern Picker. Chapter 3 For my example, I’m sticking with Sampled because I don’t think my guy Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and would look that good with a Tie-Dye or Nebula pattern across his face. Not Wanted He’s just way too corporate for that. 5. Select how you want to align the sampled pixels. When you click or drag with the Healing Brush tool, Photoshop displays a crosshair along with the Healing Brush cursor. The crosshair represents the sampling point, also known as the source. While you move the Healing Brush tool, the crosshair also moves, providing a constant reference to the area that you’re sampling. However, if you deselect the Aligned option on the Options bar, Photoshop applies the source pixels 634 Digital Bandaging with the Healing Brush Tool from your original sampling point, despite how many times you stop and start dragging. I left the Aligned option selected in my example. 6. Select the All Layers option from the Sample drop-down panel to heal an image by using all visible layers. Select Current Layer if you want to heal only from the active layer. Choose Current Layer and Below to heal from your active layer and all layers beneath it. You can use the Clone Source panel with the Healing Brush tool and the Clone Stamp tool. For details, see the section “Cloning with the Clone Stamp Tool,” earlier in this chapter. For maximum flexibility, select the Sample All Layers option and, in the Layers panel, add a new, blank layer above the image you want to heal. Select this blank layer and when you heal the image, the pixels appear on the new layer and not on the image itself. You can then adjust opac- ity and blending modes, and make other tweaks to the “healed” pixels. 7. If you selected All Layers in Step 6, you can choose whether to ignore any adjustment layers when healing. By ignoring adjustment layers, you may prevent the bizarre results that can sometimes occur when your adjustment layers get double-applied during the healing process. To do so, click the Adjustment Layer icon on the Options bar. 8. Establish the sampling point by Alt-clicking (Option-clicking on the Mac). Make sure to click the area of your image you want to clone from. In my example, I clicked the smooth area on the chin and por- tions of the forehead. 9. Release the Alt (Option on the Mac) key and click or drag over the area of your image that con- tains the flaw. Pay attention to where the cross- hair is located because that’s the area you’re sampling from. In my example, I brushed over the wrinkles under and around the eyes and on the forehead, as shown in Figure 3-5. I also zapped some dark spots here and there. 10. Save the file, close it, and send in Figure 3-5: In just 5 or 10 minutes, this your invoice for your digital gentleman lost about 10 years. dermabrasion. Patching without Seams 635 Patching without Seams Although the Patch tool is similar to the Healing Brush tool in theory, its applica- tion method is slightly different. Instead of painting over the flaws with a brush, you select your flawed area and apply a patch to that selection. The Patch tool does a good job in fix- ing larger flawed areas or isolated imperfections, rather than a few wrin- kles or scars here and there. What’s more, it’s a breeze to use. Follow these steps to patch an area in need of repair: 1. Open your image and select the Patch tool. It looks like a patch of material. The girl in my image, shown in Figure Figure 3-6: The Patch tool can fix the flaws 3-6, is virtually flawless, although I on the wall. can’t say the same for the wall she’s leaning against. 2. Select Source or Destination on the Options bar. Select Source if you want to select the flawed area. Select Destination if you want to select the good area you want to clone from. Select the Transparent option to patch from your source pixels with less opaqueness. You can use the Clone Source panel with the Patch tool. For Book VIII details, see the section “Cloning Chapter 3 with the Clone Stamp Tool,” earlier in this chapter. Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and Not Wanted 3. Drag around the flawed area of your image, as shown in Figure 3-7. Think of the Patch tool as a kind of super-cloning Lasso tool. Drag completely around the flawed area like you would when selecting with the Lasso tool. If you need to, you can apply a slight feather of 0.5 to 2 pixels, depending on the Figure 3-7: Drag around the flawed area. 636 Zeroing In with the Spot Healing Brush resolution, to soften the edge of the selection. I selected my area without a feather. You can actually select your flawed area with any selection tool you like. If you use another selec- tion tool, after you have your selection, select the Patch tool and proceed to Step 4. 4. Drag your selection to the area on your image that you want to clone (or sample) from, as shown in Figure 3-8. 5. When you release the mouse button, Photoshop patches your Figure 3-8: Drag the selection to the area flawed selection with the cloned you want to sample. pixels. 6. Repeat the process, as needed. After several patches, the wall looks almost as good as the girl, as shown in Figure 3-9. Zeroing In with the Spot Healing Brush Whereas the Healing Brush tool is designed to fix larger flawed areas, the Spot Healing Brush tool is designed for smaller blemishes and little imperfec- tions. The biggest difference between the Healing Brush and the Spot Healing Brush is that the Spot Healing Brush doesn’t require you to specify a sam- pling source. It automatically takes a sample from around the area to be retouched. The good news is it’s quick and easy. The downside is that it doesn’t give you as much control over Figure 3-9: The Patch tool repaired the the sampling source. Consequently, wall. reserve this tool for small and simple flaws. Follow these steps to quickly fix little, nitpicky imperfections with the Spot Healing Brush tool: Zeroing In with the Spot Healing Brush 637 1. Open your image and grab the Spot Healing Brush tool. The small moles in Figure 3-10 are examples of small areas you can fix with the Spot Healing Brush. 2. On the Options bar, click the Brush Preset Picker and select your desired diameter, hardness, and other options for your brush tip. PhotoSpin Try to select a brush that’s a little Figure 3-10: Watch these moles disappear. larger than the flawed area. 3. Select a blending mode from the Options bar. Like the Healing Brush, you can select the Replace mode. Most likely, the Normal mode will work the best. 4. Select a type from the Options bar. You have a choice among Proximity Match, Create Texture, and the new Content Aware: • Proximity Match: Samples the pixels around the edge of the selection to use to fix the flawed area. • Create Texture: Uses all the pixels in the selection to create a texture to fix the flaw. • Content-Aware: Compares and uses actual content from the image close to the flaw. Try using the Content-Aware option when removing large items like cars, litter, scratches on your image, and other annoying elements. 5. Choose Sample All Layers to heal an image by using all visible layers. If you leave this option unselected, you heal only from the active layer. Click the Tablet icon (at the end of Book VIII Chapter 3 the Options bar) to control the size of the brush. The pressure you Removing What’s Fixing Flaws and apply will then override any set- Not Wanted tings in the Brush panel. 6. Click, or click and drag, the area you want to fix. In Figure 3-11, I used the Spot Healing Brush for the moles and spots on the upper lip and cheeks. But for the mole over the eyebrow, Figure 3-11: I used the Spot Healing Brush and I broke out the Healing Brush. I the Healing Brush to remove a few moles. 638 Colorizing with the Color Replacement Tool found I needed more control of the sampling source because the mole is so close to the hair of the eyebrow. For retouching skin, try Proximity Match first and, if it doesn’t work, undo and try Create Texture or Content-Aware. You may get better results filling the flawed area by using the Edit➪Fill command. See how in Book IV, Chapter 2. Colorizing with the Color Replacement Tool The Color Replacement tool allows you to replace the original color of an image with the foreground color. You can use this tool in a variety of ways. Create the look of a hand-painted photo by colorizing a grayscale image. Or maybe you just want to change the color of an object or two, such as a couple flowers in a bouquet. And although Photoshop has a bona-fide Red Eye tool, you can use the Color Replacement tool to easily paint away red-eye. The great thing about the Color Replacement tool is that, like the other healing tools, it completely preserves the tonality of the image. The color that you apply doesn’t obliterate the midtones, shadows, and highlights like it would if you were using the regular Brush tool. The Color Replacement tool works by first sampling the original colors in the image and then replac- ing those colors with the foreground color. By specifying different sampling methods, limits, and tolerance settings, you can control the range of colors that Photoshop replaces. This weapon in the arsenal of retouching tools is a cinch to use. Follow these steps to replace color: 1. Open your image and select the Color Replacement tool. Remember, it shares a flyout menu with the regular Brush and Pencil tools. It looks like a brush with a square and two arrows next to it. You can press B (or Shift+B) to select it. 2. On the Options bar, click the Brush Preset Picker. In the drop-down panel that appears, select your desired diameter, hardness, and other options for your brush tip. 3. On the Options bar, select your desired blend mode: • Color: The default mode that works well for most colorizing jobs. Use this mode if you’re trying to get rid of red-eye. • Hue: Similar to color, but less intense, providing a lighter effect. • Saturation: Set your foreground color to Black in the Tools panel and set the mode to Saturation to convert a color image to grayscale.