Lightening and Darkening with Dodge and Burn Tools 619 Use Shadows to lighten or darken detail in the darker areas of your image, Midtones to adjust the tones of average dark- ness, and Highlights to make the brightest areas even lighter or (more frequently) darker. In Figure 2-1, the original image (top) had mostly dark areas, so I dodged the shadows. Note the increased detail in the eyes, teeth, and hair. I also gave a couple swipes to the highlight areas with the Burn tool. c. Select the amount of the effect to apply with each stroke by using the Exposure slider or text box. d. Enable the airbrush option for a softer, more gradual effect. e. Check the Protect Tones option. This setting provides more natural and subtle dodging and burning results by preserving the hues and tones of the image pixels. f. If you are using a pressure- sensitive tablet, click the last icon. Doing so overrides any settings you made in the Brush panel. Figure 2-1: The Dodge and Burn tools are effective when touching up smaller dark 3. Paint over the areas you want to and light areas. lighten or darken with the toning brush, gradually building up the desired effect. Book VIII Chapter 2 Using a soft-edged brush is often best when dodging and burning. You want to create a realistic, not retouched, appearance. with Focus and Toning Tools The Exposure control is similar to the Opacity control offered by other Repairing painting tools, but it’s especially important with dodging and burning. Using a low value is best (I often work with 10-percent exposure or less) so that you can carefully paint in the lightening or darkening you want. High exposure values work too quickly and produce unnatural-looking, obviously dodged or burned areas in your images. 4. If you go too far, press Ctrl+Z (Ô+Z on the Mac) to reverse your most recent stroke. 5. When you finish, choose File➪Save to store the image. 620 Turning Down the Color with the Sponge Tool Turning Down the Color with the Sponge Tool The Sponge tool, which soaks up color like, well, a sponge, reduces the rich- ness or intensity (or saturation) of a color in the areas you paint. It can also perform the reverse, imbuing a specific area with richer, more vibrant colors. Surprisingly, the Sponge tool also works in grayscale mode, pushing light and dark pixels toward a middle gray, providing a darkening or lightening effect to those pixels. Unlike the Hue/Saturation or Desaturate commands (Image➪Adjustments), which work only on layers or selections, you can use the Sponge tool on any area that you can paint with a brush. You can use the Sponge tool on an image in subtle ways to reduce the satura- tion in selected areas for an interesting effect. For example, you may have an object that’s the center of attention in your picture simply because the colors are so bright (or even garish). The Sponge tool lets you reduce the color satu- ration of that area (and only that area) to allow the other sections of your image to come to the forefront. You can also use the Sponge tool to make an artistic statement: You could reduce or increase the saturation of a single person in a group shot to make that person stand out (perhaps as being more colorful than the rest). To use the Sponge tool, just follow these steps: 1. Open an image and select the Sponge tool from the Tools panel. Press the O key to choose the Sponge if it’s the active toning tool or press Shift+O to cycle through the Sponge, Dodge, and Burn tools until the Sponge tool is active. 2. In the Options bar, make the following changes: a. Select a brush from the Brush Preset Picker or the larger Brush panel. Use large, soft brushes to saturate/desaturate a larger area. Smaller brushes are useful mostly when you need to change the satu- ration of a specific small object in an image. b. Select either Desaturate (reduce color richness) or Saturate (increase color richness) from the Mode pop-up menu. c. Select a flow rate (the speed with which the saturation/desaturation effect builds up while you apply the brush) with the Flow slider or text box. d. If you want an even softer effect, select the Airbrush icon. e. Select the Vibrance option. This setting allows saturation for each color to reach its fullest level, but the setting stops saturation after that point to avoid clipping (when colors fall outside the printable range). At the same time, it allows satu- ration to continue for any colors that haven’t reached the clipping point. f. If you are using a pressure-sensitive tablet, click the last icon. Doing so overrides any settings you made in the Brush panel. Smoothing with the Smudge Tool 621 3. Paint carefully over the areas you want to saturate or desaturate with color. In Figure 2-2, I saturated the little girl to make her a focal point and desaturated the parents and surroundings. Purestock Figure 2-2: The Sponge tool saturates (increases richness) and desaturates (decreases richness) color. Smoothing with the Smudge Tool Although grouped among the focus tools, the Smudge tool performs more of a warping effect, something like the Warp tool in the Liquify dialog box (see Book VII, Chapter 3 for information on this command). Book VIII Smudge pushes your pixels around on the screen as if they consisted of Chapter 2 wet paint, using the color that’s under the cursor when you start to stroke. However, don’t view the Smudge tool as a simple distortion tool that pro- with Focus and duces only comical effects. I use it on tiny areas of an image to soften the Toning Tools Repairing edges of objects in a way that often looks more natural than blurring tools. The Smudge tool can come in handy when retouching images to create a soft, almost painted look, as shown in Figure 2-3. Just don’t go gung-ho, or you may obliterate detail that you want to preserve. Smudged areas may be obvious because of their smooth appearance. Adding a little texture by using the Noise filter after you smudge is often a good idea if you want to blend in a smudged section with its surroundings. You can find tips on applying the Noise filter in Book VII, Chapter 2. 622 Smoothing with the Smudge Tool To apply the Smudge tool, just follow these steps: 1. Open the image and select the Smudge tool from the Tools panel. 2. Select the settings you want from the Options bar: a. Select a brush from the Brushes panel. Use a small brush for smudging tiny areas, such as edges. Larger brushes produce drastic effects, so use them with care. b. Select a blending mode from the Mode pop-up menu. c. Select the strength of the smudg- ing effect with the Strength slider or text box. Low values produce a lighter smudging effect; high values Photodisc really push your pixels around. Figure 2-3: The Smudge tool can give your fruit, or other elements, a soft, painted look. d. If your image has multiple layers and you want Photoshop to use the color information from all the visible layers to produce the smudge effect, select the Sample All Layers option. The smudge still appears only on the active layer, but the look is a bit different, depending on the contents of the underlying layers. 3. Use the Finger Painting option to begin the smudge by using the foreground color. You can get some interesting effects with this option. You can switch the Smudge tool into Finger Painting mode temporarily by holding down the Alt key (the Option key on the Mac) while you drag. If you are using a pressure-sensitive tablet, click the last icon. Doing so overrides any settings you made in the Brush panel. 4. Paint over the areas you want to smudge. 5. Watch the screen carefully while you smudge so that you can redirect your daubs to achieve the look you want. This tool can be a little on the destructive side. If you’re looking to preserve reality, use it with restraint. If you want to get wild, go crazy. 6. When you finish, choose File➪Save to store your image. Softening with the Blur Tool 623 Softening with the Blur Tool Adding a little blur here and there can save an image with a few defects. Blurring can also be used for artistic effect — say, to add a little motion to a soccer ball frozen in time by a too-fast shutter speed. You can also blur portions of your image to emphasize and focus on a particular element, as shown in Figure 2-4, where I blurred the empty slide cases a bit to draw atten- tion to the image. The Photoshop Blur tool makes painting your blur effects iStockphoto exactly where you want them easy. Figure 2-4: Use the Blur tool to soften a rough edge or make your element a focal The Blur tool doesn’t push pixels point by blurring its surroundings. around the way the Smudge tool does. Instead, the Blur tool decreases the contrast among adjacent pixels in the area painted. The mechanics of using the Blur tool and several of its options are similar to those of the Smudge tool (which I talk about in the preceding section). Just follow these steps: 1. Open an image and select the Blur tool from the Tools panel. 2. In the Options bar, specify these settings: a. Select a brush from the Brush Preset Picker or the larger Brush panel. Use a small brush for applying small areas of blur. Use larger brushes with caution to, for example, blur the entire background to make a foreground object appear sharper in comparison. b. Select a blending mode from the Mode pop-up menu. Book VIII c. Select the strength of the blurring effect with the Strength slider or text box. Chapter 2 d. If your image has multiple layers and you want to blur based on the pixel information in all the visible layers in your image, select the Use with Focus and Toning Tools All Layers option. Repairing Selecting this option can produce a smoother blur when you merge the layers later. e. If you are using a pressure-sensitive tablet, click the last icon. Doing so overrides any settings you made in the Brush panel. 3. Paint over the areas you want to blur. 4. When you finish, choose File➪Save to store your image. 624 Cranking Up the Focus with the Sharpen Tool Cranking Up the Focus with the Sharpen Tool In theory, the Sharpen tool is nothing more than the Blur tool (discussed in the preceding section) in reverse — instead of decreasing contrast among pixels, the Sharpen tool increases the contrast. In practice, however, you need to use this tool with a bit more care than the Blur tool. Where blurred areas tend to fade from a viewer’s notice (at least, in terms of how his or her eyes perceive them), sharpened areas of an image jump out at people. If you blur an area a little too much, you may not even notice. But even a small area that has been oversharp- ened can change the entire appearance of an image — and not flatteringly. You can often successfully sharpen small areas with the Sharpen tool. Sometimes, the eyes in a portrait can benefit from a little sharpening, as shown in Figure 2-5. Or you might want to sharpen an area to make it stand out more distinctly against a slightly blurred background. Follow these simple steps to use the Stockphoto Sharpen tool: Figure 2-5: Use the Sharpen tool sparingly and in small areas, such as in the eyes of 1. Select the Sharpen tool from the this portrait. Tools panel. 2. Make the following changes in the Options bar: a. Select the brush of your choice from the Brushes panel. b. Select a blending mode from the Mode pop-up menu. c. Select the strength of the sharpening effect with the Strength slider or text box. Using a fairly low value (say, 25 percent or less) is a good idea because you can build up sharpness slowly, being careful not to overdo it. You know you’ve gone too far with the sharpness when the pixels start to look noisy and grainy. d. Use the information on all your layers for Photoshop’s contrast-increas- ing algorithms by selecting the Use All Layers option. e. Choose Protect Detail to enhance the details in the image and minimize artifacts. If you leave this option unselected, your sharpening is more pronounced. f. If you are using a pressure-sensitive tablet, click the last icon. This overrides any settings you made in the Brush panel. Cranking Up the Focus with the Sharpen Tool 625 3. Paint over the areas you want to sharpen. 4. When you finish, choose File➪Save to store your image. Sharpening increases contrast so be careful when using the Sharpen tool if you plan to adjust the Levels or Curves controls, too. Any change that increases contrast in the whole image also boosts the contrast of an area you’ve sharpened. The Unsharp Mask and Smart Sharpen filters offer more options and better overall control, so unless you really need to paint the sharpening effect, you’re usually better off using a filter. If you really want to apply the effect with brushstrokes, you can always apply the Unsharp Mask filter to a whole layer, take a snapshot, undo the filter operation, and then use the snapshot as a source to paint from, using the History panel. See Book II, Chapter 4 for information on how to paint from the History panel. Finally, for maximum flexibility, try using Smart Filters, which enable you to endlessly edit your filter. For more on Smart Filters, see Book VII, Chapter 1. Putting It Together Fixing an Underexposed Foreground Sometimes, editing tools just don’t cut the mustard when it comes to ﬁxing large areas of an underexposed image. Instead, you have to use three tools together to repair the dam- age: a ﬁlter, a ﬁll, and a blend mode. If you’re like me, you’ve taken at least a couple photos where your subject was lit from behind, thereby underexposing the foreground and burying the subject in the shadows. You can try the Shadows/Highlights adjustment, on the Image➪Adjustments menu, which usually does a good job of ﬁxing the problem. But if you’re not satisﬁed with that adjustment, you can follow this old-school method. Or you can even go for a combo plate and use them both. Follow these steps to bring your subject back into the light: 1. Open the image in need of repair. Book VIII Chapter 2 2. Choose Image➪Duplicate. 3. In the dialog box that appears, name with Focus and Toning Tools the duplicate file (I named mine Nick Repairing after my friend) and click OK. 4. On the duplicate image, choose Image➪Mode➪Grayscale. Click Discard in the dialog box that appears to discard the color information. Photoshop has now stripped the color from the image. Don’t worry; this is just an intermediary step. continued 626 Cranking Up the Focus with the Sharpen Tool continued 5. On the duplicate image, choose Filter➪Blur➪Gaussian Blur. In the Gaussian Blur dialog box, enter a radius value and click OK. For a low-resolution image (72 ppi), a value of 5 pixels is enough. For higher- resolution images (300 ppi), use 20 pixels. Your goal is to get rid of the detail in the image. 6. Return to the original image and choose Select➪Load Selection. In the Load Selection dialog box, make sure the Document drop-down list shows your file from Step 2. 7. Select Gray for the Channel. Select the Invert box. In the Operation area, leave the setting as New Selection, as shown in the figure. Click OK to load the selection. You’re loading the only available channel in the duplicate grayscale image as a selection. A selection outline appears, which corresponds to the blurry gray areas in your duplicate image. 8. Choose Edit➪Fill. 9. In the Fill dialog box that appears, shown in the figure, select 50% Gray from the Use pop-up menu. Select Color Dodge from the Mode pop-up menu. Leave the Opacity at 100%. Click OK. Although Photoshop fills the selec- tion with 50-percent gray, the Color Dodge mode lightens the pixels in the image, creating a kind of bleach- ing effect. 10. You can now see the subject of your image in a better light, like in my image. Chapter 3: Fixing Flaws and Removing What’s Not Wanted In This Chapter ✓ Making copies with the Clone Stamp tool ✓ Healing digitally with the Healing Brush tool ✓ Applying patches with the Patch tool ✓ Zapping with the Spot Healing Brush tool ✓ Applying color with the Color Replacement tool ✓ Eliminating red-eye ✓ Using Vanishing Point S ay that you want to duplicate an element in your image. That’s easy enough, right? Make a selection and copy and paste it into the new location. Presto. That works fine most of the time. But what if the element has a shadow behind it, next to it, above it, or below it? What a pain. The better method is to clone the element by using the Clone Stamp tool. It’s quick, easy, and no one will know that only one element was there originally. Here’s another hypothetical situation: What if some unsightly flaw mars your otherwise perfect image? Or maybe the corporate executive, whose head shot you took last week, has requested a little digital Botox around the eyes and mouth. In this chapter, I reveal secrets of cloning that won’t make medical ethicists scream. I show you how to heal scars, scratches, and other imperfections with- out calling a plastic surgeon. And you can use Vanishing Point to add or remove windows or doors without forking out a dime to a contractor. Cloning with the Clone Stamp Tool The Clone Stamp tool, one of Photoshop’s more popular tools, always arouses a “Wow,” “Cool,” or similar remark of approval when demonstrated. 628 Cloning with the Clone Stamp Tool Believe it or not, you can also reach for this tool when retouching imperfec- tions, such as scratches, scars, bruises, and other minor flaws. In fact, that used to be one of its major functions. In some retouching instances, it does a great job, although the advent of the Healing Brush and Patch tools has rele- gated the Clone Stamp tool more to the pure cloning functions and less to the hard-core retouching jobs. Using the Clone Stamp tool The Clone Stamp tool works its magic by taking sampled pixels from one area and cloning (or copying) them onto another area. Cloning often works better than making a selection and then copying and pasting it because clon- ing allows you to retain soft edges on details such as shadows, giving you a more realistic duplicate image. To assist you with your cloning tasks, the Clone Source panel enables you to see a preview (in an overlay style) of the source pixels you’re cloning. Follow these steps to clone an element without any genetic engineering: 1. Open an image and select the Clone Stamp tool from the Tools panel. Press the S key (or Shift+S if the Pattern Stamp is currently active) on the keyboard. You have several options to choose from on the Options bar. 2. Select a brush and change its size or hardness in the Brush Preset Picker to better control the area that you’re cloning. For more information on brushes, see Book IV, Chapter 1. I recommend having your Clone Stamp tool cursor display your Full Size Brush Tip so you can judge the amount of the area you’re cloning. To do so, choose Edit➪Preferences➪Cursors (Photoshop➪Preferences➪ Cursors on the Mac). Select the Full Size Brush Tip radio button in the Painting Cursors area of the dialog box. I used a 65-pixel, feathered brush. Click the Tablet icon (at the end of the Options bar) to control the size of the brush. The pressure you apply will then override any settings in the Brush panel. 3. Select the blend mode of your choice on the Options bar. Selecting a mode such as Difference, Multiply, or Color can produce some interesting special effects. For more on modes, see Book V, Chapter 3. I left my setting at Normal. 4. To make the clone more or less opaque, use the Opacity slider or text box on the Options bar. I left the opacity at 100%. If you are using a pressure-sensitive tablet, and you want the pressure you apply to set the opacity, click the Tablet Opacity icon.