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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP CS5 DESIGN 28

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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP CS5 DESIGN 28 Powered By Docstoc
					       Lightening and Darkening with Dodge and Burn Tools                       619

      Use Shadows to lighten or
      darken detail in the darker areas
      of your image, Midtones to
      adjust the tones of average dark-
      ness, and Highlights to make the
      brightest areas even lighter or
      (more frequently) darker.
      In Figure 2-1, the original image
      (top) had mostly dark areas, so
      I dodged the shadows. Note the
      increased detail in the eyes,
      teeth, and hair. I also gave a
      couple swipes to the highlight
      areas with the Burn tool.
   c. Select the amount of the effect to
      apply with each stroke by using
      the Exposure slider or text box.
   d. Enable the airbrush option for a
      softer, more gradual effect.
   e. Check the Protect Tones option.
      This setting provides more
      natural and subtle dodging and
      burning results by preserving
      the hues and tones of the image
      pixels.
    f. If you are using a pressure-
       sensitive tablet, click the last icon.
       Doing so overrides any settings
       you made in the Brush panel.           Figure 2-1: The Dodge and Burn tools are
                                              effective when touching up smaller dark
3. Paint over the areas you want to   and light areas.
   lighten or darken with the toning
   brush, gradually building up the desired effect.                                      Book VIII
                                                                                         Chapter 2
   Using a soft-edged brush is often best when dodging and burning. You
   want to create a realistic, not retouched, appearance.
                                                                                         with Focus and
                                                                                          Toning Tools



   The Exposure control is similar to the Opacity control offered by other
                                                                                           Repairing


   painting tools, but it’s especially important with dodging and burning.
   Using a low value is best (I often work with 10-percent exposure or less)
   so that you can carefully paint in the lightening or darkening you want.
   High exposure values work too quickly and produce unnatural-looking,
   obviously dodged or burned areas in your images.
4. If you go too far, press Ctrl+Z (Ô+Z on the Mac) to reverse your most
   recent stroke.
5. When you finish, choose File➪Save to store the image.
620   Turning Down the Color with the Sponge Tool



Turning Down the Color with the Sponge Tool
         The Sponge tool, which soaks up color like, well, a sponge, reduces the rich-
         ness or intensity (or saturation) of a color in the areas you paint. It can also
         perform the reverse, imbuing a specific area with richer, more vibrant colors.

         Surprisingly, the Sponge tool also works in grayscale mode, pushing light
         and dark pixels toward a middle gray, providing a darkening or lightening
         effect to those pixels. Unlike the Hue/Saturation or Desaturate commands
         (Image➪Adjustments), which work only on layers or selections, you can use
         the Sponge tool on any area that you can paint with a brush.

         You can use the Sponge tool on an image in subtle ways to reduce the satura-
         tion in selected areas for an interesting effect. For example, you may have an
         object that’s the center of attention in your picture simply because the colors
         are so bright (or even garish). The Sponge tool lets you reduce the color satu-
         ration of that area (and only that area) to allow the other sections of your
         image to come to the forefront. You can also use the Sponge tool to make an
         artistic statement: You could reduce or increase the saturation of a single
         person in a group shot to make that person stand out (perhaps as being more
         colorful than the rest). To use the Sponge tool, just follow these steps:

          1. Open an image and select the Sponge tool from the Tools panel.
             Press the O key to choose the Sponge if it’s the active toning tool or
             press Shift+O to cycle through the Sponge, Dodge, and Burn tools until
             the Sponge tool is active.
          2. In the Options bar, make the following changes:
             a. Select a brush from the Brush Preset Picker or the larger Brush panel.
                 Use large, soft brushes to saturate/desaturate a larger area.
                 Smaller brushes are useful mostly when you need to change the satu-
                 ration of a specific small object in an image.
             b. Select either Desaturate (reduce color richness) or Saturate (increase
                color richness) from the Mode pop-up menu.
              c. Select a flow rate (the speed with which the saturation/desaturation effect
                 builds up while you apply the brush) with the Flow slider or text box.
             d. If you want an even softer effect, select the Airbrush icon.
             e. Select the Vibrance option.
                 This setting allows saturation for each color to reach its fullest level,
                 but the setting stops saturation after that point to avoid clipping (when
                 colors fall outside the printable range). At the same time, it allows satu-
                 ration to continue for any colors that haven’t reached the clipping point.
              f. If you are using a pressure-sensitive tablet, click the last icon. Doing so
                 overrides any settings you made in the Brush panel.
                                         Smoothing with the Smudge Tool                621

       3. Paint carefully over the areas you want to saturate or desaturate with
          color.
          In Figure 2-2, I saturated the little girl to make her a focal point and
          desaturated the parents and surroundings.




                                                                           Purestock
          Figure 2-2: The Sponge tool saturates (increases richness) and
          desaturates (decreases richness) color.



Smoothing with the Smudge Tool
      Although grouped among the focus tools, the Smudge tool performs more of
      a warping effect, something like the Warp tool in the Liquify dialog box (see
      Book VII, Chapter 3 for information on this command).
                                                                                             Book VIII
      Smudge pushes your pixels around on the screen as if they consisted of                 Chapter 2
      wet paint, using the color that’s under the cursor when you start to stroke.
      However, don’t view the Smudge tool as a simple distortion tool that pro-
                                                                                             with Focus and

      duces only comical effects. I use it on tiny areas of an image to soften the
                                                                                              Toning Tools

                                                                                               Repairing

      edges of objects in a way that often looks more natural than blurring tools.
      The Smudge tool can come in handy when retouching images to create a
      soft, almost painted look, as shown in Figure 2-3. Just don’t go gung-ho, or
      you may obliterate detail that you want to preserve.

      Smudged areas may be obvious because of their smooth appearance. Adding
      a little texture by using the Noise filter after you smudge is often a good idea
      if you want to blend in a smudged section with its surroundings. You can
      find tips on applying the Noise filter in Book VII, Chapter 2.
622   Smoothing with the Smudge Tool


         To apply the Smudge tool, just follow
         these steps:

          1. Open the image and select the
             Smudge tool from the Tools panel.
          2. Select the settings you want from
             the Options bar:
             a. Select a brush from the Brushes
                panel.
                Use a small brush for smudging
                tiny areas, such as edges.
                Larger brushes produce drastic
                effects, so use them with care.
             b. Select a blending mode from the
                Mode pop-up menu.
             c. Select the strength of the smudg-
                ing effect with the Strength slider
                or text box.
                Low values produce a lighter
                smudging effect; high values                                                 Photodisc

                really push your pixels around.       Figure 2-3: The Smudge tool can give your
                                                      fruit, or other elements, a soft, painted look.
             d. If your image has multiple layers
                and you want Photoshop to use
                the color information from all the visible layers to produce the smudge
                effect, select the Sample All Layers option.
                The smudge still appears only on the active layer, but the look is a
                bit different, depending on the contents of the underlying layers.
          3. Use the Finger Painting option to begin the smudge by using the
             foreground color.
             You can get some interesting effects with this option. You can switch
             the Smudge tool into Finger Painting mode temporarily by holding down
             the Alt key (the Option key on the Mac) while you drag. If you are using
             a pressure-sensitive tablet, click the last icon. Doing so overrides any
             settings you made in the Brush panel.
          4. Paint over the areas you want to smudge.
          5. Watch the screen carefully while you smudge so that you can redirect
             your daubs to achieve the look you want.
             This tool can be a little on the destructive side. If you’re looking to
             preserve reality, use it with restraint. If you want to get wild, go crazy.
          6. When you finish, choose File➪Save to store your image.
                                                Softening with the Blur Tool             623

Softening with the Blur Tool
       Adding a little blur here and there can
       save an image with a few defects.
       Blurring can also be used for artistic
       effect — say, to add a little motion to a
       soccer ball frozen in time by a too-fast
       shutter speed. You can also blur
       portions of your image to emphasize
       and focus on a particular element, as
       shown in Figure 2-4, where I blurred the
       empty slide cases a bit to draw atten-
       tion to the image. The Photoshop Blur
       tool makes painting your blur effects                                            iStockphoto
       exactly where you want them easy.
                                                      Figure 2-4: Use the Blur tool to soften a
                                                      rough edge or make your element a focal
       The Blur tool doesn’t push pixels
                                                      point by blurring its surroundings.
       around the way the Smudge tool does.
       Instead, the Blur tool decreases the
       contrast among adjacent pixels in the area painted.

       The mechanics of using the Blur tool and several of its options are similar to
       those of the Smudge tool (which I talk about in the preceding section). Just
       follow these steps:

       1. Open an image and select the Blur tool from the Tools panel.
        2. In the Options bar, specify these settings:
           a. Select a brush from the Brush Preset Picker or the larger Brush panel.
               Use a small brush for applying small areas of blur. Use larger brushes
               with caution to, for example, blur the entire background to make a
               foreground object appear sharper in comparison.
           b. Select a blending mode from the Mode pop-up menu.
                                                                                                      Book VIII
            c. Select the strength of the blurring effect with the Strength slider or text box.       Chapter 2
           d. If your image has multiple layers and you want to blur based on the
              pixel information in all the visible layers in your image, select the Use
                                                                                                      with Focus and
                                                                                                       Toning Tools



              All Layers option.
                                                                                                        Repairing



               Selecting this option can produce a smoother blur when you merge
               the layers later.
           e. If you are using a pressure-sensitive tablet, click the last icon. Doing so
              overrides any settings you made in the Brush panel.
        3. Paint over the areas you want to blur.
        4. When you finish, choose File➪Save to store your image.
624   Cranking Up the Focus with the Sharpen Tool



Cranking Up the Focus with the Sharpen Tool
         In theory, the Sharpen tool is nothing more than the Blur tool (discussed in
         the preceding section) in reverse — instead of decreasing contrast among
         pixels, the Sharpen tool increases the contrast. In practice, however, you
         need to use this tool with a bit more care than the Blur tool. Where blurred
         areas tend to fade from a viewer’s notice (at least, in terms of how his or her
         eyes perceive them), sharpened areas of an image jump out at people.

         If you blur an area a little too much,
         you may not even notice. But even a
         small area that has been oversharp-
         ened can change the entire appearance
         of an image — and not flatteringly.

         You can often successfully sharpen
         small areas with the Sharpen tool.
         Sometimes, the eyes in a portrait can
         benefit from a little sharpening, as
         shown in Figure 2-5. Or you might want
         to sharpen an area to make it stand out
         more distinctly against a slightly
         blurred background.

         Follow these simple steps to use the                                            Stockphoto
         Sharpen tool:                                Figure 2-5: Use the Sharpen tool sparingly
                                                      and in small areas, such as in the eyes of
          1. Select the Sharpen tool from the         this portrait.
             Tools panel.
          2. Make the following changes in the Options bar:
             a. Select the brush of your choice from the Brushes panel.
             b. Select a blending mode from the Mode pop-up menu.
             c. Select the strength of the sharpening effect with the Strength slider or
                text box.
                Using a fairly low value (say, 25 percent or less) is a good idea
                because you can build up sharpness slowly, being careful not to
                overdo it. You know you’ve gone too far with the sharpness when
                the pixels start to look noisy and grainy.
             d. Use the information on all your layers for Photoshop’s contrast-increas-
                ing algorithms by selecting the Use All Layers option.
             e. Choose Protect Detail to enhance the details in the image and minimize
                artifacts. If you leave this option unselected, your sharpening is more
                pronounced.
              f. If you are using a pressure-sensitive tablet, click the last icon. This
                 overrides any settings you made in the Brush panel.
                          Cranking Up the Focus with the Sharpen Tool                     625

       3. Paint over the areas you want to sharpen.
       4. When you finish, choose File➪Save to store your image.

      Sharpening increases contrast so be careful when using the Sharpen tool if
      you plan to adjust the Levels or Curves controls, too. Any change that
      increases contrast in the whole image also boosts the contrast of an area
      you’ve sharpened.

      The Unsharp Mask and Smart Sharpen filters offer more options and better
      overall control, so unless you really need to paint the sharpening effect,
      you’re usually better off using a filter. If you really want to apply the effect
      with brushstrokes, you can always apply the Unsharp Mask filter to a whole
      layer, take a snapshot, undo the filter operation, and then use the snapshot
      as a source to paint from, using the History panel. See Book II, Chapter 4 for
      information on how to paint from the History panel. Finally, for maximum
      flexibility, try using Smart Filters, which enable you to endlessly edit your
      filter. For more on Smart Filters, see Book VII, Chapter 1.


Putting It Together

      Fixing an Underexposed Foreground
      Sometimes, editing tools just don’t cut the mustard when it comes to fixing large areas of
      an underexposed image. Instead, you have to use three tools together to repair the dam-
      age: a filter, a fill, and a blend mode.

      If you’re like me, you’ve taken at least a couple photos where your subject was lit from
      behind, thereby underexposing the foreground and burying the subject in the shadows.
      You can try the Shadows/Highlights adjustment, on the Image➪Adjustments menu,
      which usually does a good job of fixing the problem. But if you’re not satisfied with that
      adjustment, you can follow this old-school method. Or you can even go for a combo plate
      and use them both. Follow these steps to bring your subject back into the light:

      1.   Open the image in need of repair.                                                      Book VIII
                                                                                                  Chapter 2
      2.   Choose Image➪Duplicate.
      3.   In the dialog box that appears, name
                                                                                                  with Focus and
                                                                                                   Toning Tools



           the duplicate file (I named mine Nick
                                                                                                    Repairing


           after my friend) and click OK.
      4.   On the duplicate image, choose
           Image➪Mode➪Grayscale. Click
           Discard in the dialog box that appears
           to discard the color information.
           Photoshop has now stripped the color
           from the image. Don’t worry; this is just an intermediary step.
                                                                                    continued
626   Cranking Up the Focus with the Sharpen Tool

  continued
          5.   On the duplicate image, choose Filter➪Blur➪Gaussian Blur. In the Gaussian Blur
               dialog box, enter a radius value and click OK.
               For a low-resolution image (72 ppi), a value of 5 pixels is enough. For higher-
               resolution images (300 ppi), use 20
               pixels. Your goal is to get rid of the
               detail in the image.
          6.   Return to the original image and
               choose Select➪Load Selection.
               In the Load Selection dialog box,
               make sure the Document drop-down
               list shows your file from Step 2.
          7.   Select Gray for the Channel. Select
               the Invert box. In the Operation area,
               leave the setting as New Selection,
               as shown in the figure. Click OK to
               load the selection.
               You’re loading the only available
               channel in the duplicate grayscale
               image as a selection. A selection
               outline appears, which corresponds
               to the blurry gray areas in your
               duplicate image.
          8.   Choose Edit➪Fill.
          9.   In the Fill dialog box that appears,
               shown in the figure, select 50% Gray
               from the Use pop-up menu. Select
               Color Dodge from the Mode pop-up
               menu. Leave the Opacity at 100%.
               Click OK.
               Although Photoshop fills the selec-
               tion with 50-percent gray, the Color
               Dodge mode lightens the pixels in
               the image, creating a kind of bleach-
               ing effect.
        10.    You can now see the subject of
               your image in a better light, like in
               my image.
       Chapter 3: Fixing Flaws and
       Removing What’s Not Wanted
       In This Chapter
       ✓ Making copies with the Clone Stamp tool
       ✓ Healing digitally with the Healing Brush tool
       ✓ Applying patches with the Patch tool
       ✓ Zapping with the Spot Healing Brush tool
       ✓ Applying color with the Color Replacement tool
       ✓ Eliminating red-eye
       ✓ Using Vanishing Point



       S    ay that you want to duplicate an element in your image. That’s easy
            enough, right? Make a selection and copy and paste it into the new
       location. Presto. That works fine most of the time. But what if the element
       has a shadow behind it, next to it, above it, or below it? What a pain. The
       better method is to clone the element by using the Clone Stamp tool. It’s
       quick, easy, and no one will know that only one element was
       there originally.

       Here’s another hypothetical situation: What if some
       unsightly flaw mars your otherwise perfect image?
       Or maybe the corporate executive, whose head shot
       you took last week, has requested a little digital
       Botox around the eyes and mouth.

       In this chapter, I reveal secrets of cloning that won’t
       make medical ethicists scream. I show you how to
       heal scars, scratches, and other imperfections with-
       out calling a plastic surgeon. And you can use
       Vanishing Point to add or remove windows or doors
       without forking out a dime to a contractor.



Cloning with the Clone Stamp Tool
       The Clone Stamp tool, one of Photoshop’s more popular tools, always
       arouses a “Wow,” “Cool,” or similar remark of approval when demonstrated.
628   Cloning with the Clone Stamp Tool


         Believe it or not, you can also reach for this tool when retouching imperfec-
         tions, such as scratches, scars, bruises, and other minor flaws. In fact, that
         used to be one of its major functions. In some retouching instances, it does a
         great job, although the advent of the Healing Brush and Patch tools has rele-
         gated the Clone Stamp tool more to the pure cloning functions and less to
         the hard-core retouching jobs.


         Using the Clone Stamp tool
         The Clone Stamp tool works its magic by taking sampled pixels from one
         area and cloning (or copying) them onto another area. Cloning often works
         better than making a selection and then copying and pasting it because clon-
         ing allows you to retain soft edges on details such as shadows, giving you a
         more realistic duplicate image. To assist you with your cloning tasks, the
         Clone Source panel enables you to see a preview (in an overlay style) of the
         source pixels you’re cloning.

         Follow these steps to clone an element without any genetic engineering:

          1. Open an image and select the Clone Stamp tool from the Tools panel.
             Press the S key (or Shift+S if the Pattern Stamp is currently active) on
             the keyboard.
             You have several options to choose from on the Options bar.
          2. Select a brush and change its size or hardness in the Brush Preset
             Picker to better control the area that you’re cloning.
             For more information on brushes, see Book IV, Chapter 1.
             I recommend having your Clone Stamp tool cursor display your Full Size
             Brush Tip so you can judge the amount of the area you’re cloning. To do
             so, choose Edit➪Preferences➪Cursors (Photoshop➪Preferences➪
             Cursors on the Mac). Select the Full Size Brush Tip radio button in the
             Painting Cursors area of the dialog box.
             I used a 65-pixel, feathered brush.
             Click the Tablet icon (at the end of the Options bar) to control the size
             of the brush. The pressure you apply will then override any settings in
             the Brush panel.
          3. Select the blend mode of your choice on the Options bar.
             Selecting a mode such as Difference, Multiply, or Color can produce
             some interesting special effects. For more on modes, see Book V,
             Chapter 3. I left my setting at Normal.
          4. To make the clone more or less opaque, use the Opacity slider or text
             box on the Options bar.
             I left the opacity at 100%. If you are using a pressure-sensitive tablet, and
             you want the pressure you apply to set the opacity, click the Tablet
             Opacity icon.

				
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