Working with Professional Color Correctors 599 ✓ If your display is set to Light, adjust your highlights by moving points in the top-right of the curve, shadows by adjusting points in the bottom-left of the curve, and midtones by moving points in the center of the curve. ✓ A gently sloped S-shaped curve increases contrast, especially in the highlight and shadow areas. Using a curve like this also helps to define the midtones. ✓ For ultimate control, Photoshop lets you draw a curve with the precise shape you want, creating an arbitrary curve or map. Click the Pencil tool and then draw peaks and valleys in the Curves dialog box. Watch the changes in your original image. ✓ You can also add points to the curve by holding down Ctrl (Ô on the Mac) and clicking your image. Adding points is beneficial if you want to preserve an area in your image. ✓ If you want to adjust the color in your image, select your desired chan- nel from the Channel pop-up menu and then adjust the curve. For more on channels, see Book VI. Arbitrary maps, such as the one shown in Figure 1-17, create distinctive solarization color effects when Photoshop warps the colors of your image. They’re fun to play with, maybe useful now and then, but not nearly as prac- tical as S curves. Book VIII Chapter 1 Enhancing Images with Adjustments Corbis Digital Stock Figure 1-17: Going crazy with the Curves maps can result in a solarization-like effect. 600 Working with Professional Color Correctors After you create a custom curve, you may want to save it (a good idea) to load and apply it to other photos with similar contrast issues. Click the Preset Options button (just to the left of the OK button) and select Save Preset from the pop-up menu that appears. Converting to Black & White Photoshop provides a great way to convert a color image to grayscale with the Black & White feature. For other ways to make your image grayscale, see Book II, Chapter 2 and the section “Washing Out Color with Desaturate,” ear- lier in this chapter. The great thing about the Black & White feature is that, like the Channel Mixer (which you can read about in Book VI, Chapter 1), you have a lot of control over how your colors are converted. Here’s how to go to grayscale by using Black & White: 1. Choose Image➪Adjustments➪Black & White. Your Black and White dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 1-18. In addition, Photoshop automatically applies a default conversion to your image. Dreamstime Figure 1-18: Convert color images to grayscale with the Black & White adjustment. 2. Adjust the conversion to your liking by doing one of the following: • Choose a Preset: Select a preset conversion (or a custom one you saved previously) from the pop-up menu. Note that you can also use one of the presets as a starting point and then adjust from there. • Click Auto: This option analyzes your image’s color values and then converts to grayscale, while trying to maximize your gray tonal val- ues. Again, this conversion can be used as a starting point. Working with Professional Color Correctors 601 • Adjust the sliders: Do your own thing. Drag the sliders left to darken and right to lighten the tones. That’s what I did in my example in Figure 1-18. Note that your mouse turns into an eyedropper when you move or click over your image. Click areas of your image to high- light that dominant color in your dialog box. Click and drag on the image itself with the eyedropper to move the color slider for that color, making it darker or lighter. 3. If desired, select the Tint button to apply a tone of color to the black- and-white image. Adjust the Hue and Saturation sliders to choose a tint color and inten- sity of that color. Click the color swatch to access the Color Picker, where you can select another color. If you totally goof up your image, hold down Alt (Option on the Mac) and click the color chip to reset that adjustment. To reset all adjustments, hold down Alt (Option on the Mac) to convert the Cancel button into Reset, and then click that button. After you establish a custom conversion setting, save it to apply to other similar images by selecting Save Preset from the Preset Options pop-up menu, just to the left of the OK button. Getting colorful with Hue/Saturation Photoshop’s Hue/Saturation controls let you adjust colors based on their hue, saturation, and lightness. The Hue/Saturation dialog box doesn’t work with the Red, Green, and Blue (or Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black) channels of an image. Instead, it operates on the different colors, or hues. You can select all the colors (Master) or one color to modify from the Edit pop-up menu. Three sliders are in the Hue/Saturation dialog box. (See Figure 1-19.) ✓ Hue: Shifts all the colors clockwise or counterclockwise around the color wheel, depending on the direction you move the slider. I moved Book VIII my Hue slider to the left to turn the image green and purple. Chapter 1 ✓ Saturation: Increases or decreases the richness of the colors in an Enhancing Images with Adjustments image. I moved my Saturation slider to the right to increase the satura- tion and make the image almost glow. ✓ Lightness: Modifies the brightness values. You can adjust any of these values by moving the sliders and watching the results in the image window. The top color bar at the bottom of the dialog box represents the colors in their order on the color wheel before you made any adjustment. The lower color bar shows how the modifications you make affect the colors. 602 Working with Professional Color Correctors ImageState Figure 1-19: The Hue/Saturation command enables you to adjust colors based on their hue (color), saturation (intensity), or lightness (brightness). Select the slider (the pointing finger icon) to adjust your Hue and Saturation values. With the icon selected, drag directly on your image to adjust the Saturation. Hold down the Ctrl (Ô on the Mac) key and drag on your image to adjust the Hue. When you select an individual color to adjust, sliders appear between the color bars so that you can define the range of color to be adjusted. You can select, add, or subtract colors from the range by selecting one of the Eyedropper tools and clicking in the image. You can also select a Hue/Saturation preset, such as Old Style or Sepia, from the Preset pop-up menu in the Hue/Saturation dialog box. The Hue/Saturation dialog box also lets you colorize images, a useful option for creating sepia-colored images, like in the Putting It Together project “Making a New Photo Look Old,” in this chapter. Using the Colorize option Use the Colorize option in the Hue/Saturation dialog box to change the color of any selected area to a new, solid color. This option is unlike the Hue Working with Professional Color Correctors 603 slider, which changes only individual pixels based on their present color values. Just follow these steps: 1. Open an image and access the Hue/Saturation dialog box by choosing Image➪Adjustments➪Hue/Saturation or pressing Ctrl+U (Ô+U on the Mac). 2. Select the Colorize option. 3. Drag the Hue slider in either direction to change a color. Photoshop doesn’t colorize pure white pixels and pure black pixels because colorization affects only gray pixels (from a brightness value of 1 to 254). You can also adjust the Saturation and Lightness, if desired. Pumping up the Vibrance Think of the Vibrance adjustment as a souped-up, more intelligent Hue/ Saturation command. This adjustment increases the saturation in an image but does it in a nonlinear fashion. Therefore, pixels with a lower saturation get more adjustment, and pixels with a higher saturation get less. As a bonus, the adjustment includes a built-in skin-tone protector to prevent faces from becoming overly red. Choose Image➪Adjustments➪Vibrance. In the Vibrance dialog box, move the Vibrance and Saturation sliders to the right to increase each. But use a light touch with this adjustment. A little goes a long way, as shown in Figure 1-20. Book VIII Chapter 1 Enhancing Images with Adjustments Figure 1-20: The Vibrance command increases saturation in a nonlinear way. 604 Working with Professional Color Correctors Putting It Together Making a New Photo Look Old Black-and-white photography is a newer phenomenon than you might think. Daguerreo- types and other early photographs frequently had a brownish or bluish tone to them. You can create sepia-toned masterpieces of your own. (Or, if you want, you can create a tint in green, blue, or another shade.) Toned pictures can create a mood or otherwise transform a mundane photo into something interesting. In this Putting It Together project, I chose a recent photo of a boy and his donkey in Java, Indonesia. Without any nasty anachronisms, such as automobiles or satellite dishes, aging this image is easy. The Photoshop Hue/Saturation feature is all you need to perform this time-traveling magic. Just follow these easy steps: 1. Open the image in Photoshop and convert it to black and white by choosing Image➪Adjustments➪ Black & White. Click OK. You choose this command rather than the Image➪Mode➪Grayscale command to convert the photo to black and white because you’re going to Corbis Digital Stock continue to work with it as a color image — the image just won’t have colors until you add them. For more info on the Black & White adjustment, see the earlier sec- tion, “Converting to Black & White.” 2. Choose Image➪Adjustments➪ Hue/Saturation. The Hue/Saturation dialog box appears. 3. Select the Colorize check box so that you can add color to the image. 4. Adjust the Hue slider to produce the tone you’re looking for. Corbis Digital Stock To produce a rich sepia tone, move the Hue slider to the far left. If you prefer green, blue, or some other shade, you can experiment with this slider to get the exact color you want. 5. Adjust the Saturation slider to modify the richness of the color. I used a setting of 25, as shown in the figure. When you move the slider to the right, the color becomes more pure. You end up with a striking red at the far-right position. Matching Color between Documents 605 6. Adjust the Lightness slider to lighten or darken the photo, depending on your mood. Generally, you want to leave the Lightness slider at the default middle position. To create a darker, moodier picture, move it to the left; to produce a more faded look, move it to the right. 7. When you’re satisfied with your changes, click OK. Now, my photo looks like a vintage postcard. You can create similar effects by using the Photo- shop Duotones, Tritones, and Quadtones features. See Book II, Chapter 2 for more information on these tools. You can also try the Tint options in the Black & White adjustment. (See the section “Converting to Black & White,” in this chapter.) Corbis Digital Stock Matching Color between Documents The Match Color command enables you to match colors in a single image or between images — a source image and a target image. But it doesn’t stop there. You can also match colors between layers or even selections. You can further refine your correction by adjusting the luminance and color intensity (saturation). This command is great for getting rid of colorcasts in a single image. It also works wonders for matching the color of the lighting between two images or layers — for example, use it if you want to realistically composite an image shot under fluorescent lighting and one shot in natural light. The Match Color command works only with RGB images, but be sure to apply this command before you perform any color conversions. Book VIII Chapter 1 Follow these steps to use the Match Color command to match one image Enhancing Images with another: with Adjustments 1. Open the two images you want to match. If you want, you can make selections in one or both of those images — for example, if you’re creating a composite image from two separate images and want to match the lighting color or skin tones. Without selections, the overall target image is matched to the source image. In my example in Figure 1-21, I selected an image taken outdoors in natural 606 Matching Color between Documents light and one taken inside under fluorescent lights (which give that image a nasty green colorcast). I want to use the girl in each image in a composite and therefore want to try to match the skin tones. Figure 1-21: The Match Color command lets you match colors within a single image or between two images. 2. Make sure your target image (the one that needs to be corrected) is the active file, and choose Image➪Adjustments➪Match Color. If you’re using a specific layer in your target image, select that layer prior to choosing the command. Make sure you select the Preview option so that you can view your adjustments on the fly. 3. In the Match Color dialog box, shown in Figure 1-22, select your source image from the Source pop-up menu in the Image Statistics area. Select None if you’re working with only one image (if the source image and target image are the same). Remember, the source image contains the colors you want to match in the target image. 4. If you’re using a particular layer in your source image, select it from the Layer pop-up menu. Or choose the Merged option to match the colors from all the layers. Matching Color between Documents 607 Figure 1-22: Match color between two images with different lighting. 5. If you have selections in your images, you can select one of the follow- ing options: • If you have a selection in your target image but want to match the colors from the whole image, select the Ignore Selection when Applying Adjustment option. • Select the Use Selection in Source to Calculate Colors option if you want to use the colors in the selection in the source image to calcu- late the adjustment. Deselect this option to ignore the selection in Book VIII the source image and match the colors from the entire source image. Chapter 1 • Select the Use Selection in Target to Calculate Adjustment option if Enhancing Images with Adjustments you have a selection in the target image and want to use the colors in the selection to calculate the adjustment. If it’s deselected, the adjustment is calculated using the colors of the whole image. 6. Select the Neutralize option to remove any colorcasts in the target image. When using the Match Color command, your cursor becomes the Eyedropper tool. This allows you to sample colors on your images and look at the color values in the Info panel while making your adjustments. 608 Switching Colors with Replace Color 7. Adjust the luminance by moving the slider or entering a value. A higher value increases the brightness in the target image. A lower value decreases brightness. 8. Adjust the color intensity of your target image. A higher value increases the color saturation, and a lower value decreases the saturation. Moving the slider to 1 desaturates the image to grayscale. 9. Use the Fade option to control the amount of adjustment that is applied to the target image, moving the slider to the right to reduce the amount. If you move the slider all the way to the right, the image returns to its original colors. 10. If you want to save your settings to use on other images, click the Save Statistics button. Then, in the Save dialog box that appears, name the file, specify the location, and click Save. To reload the settings later, click the Load Statistics button and navigate to the file. 11. Click OK to apply the adjustment and exit the dialog box. Figure 1-23: These tones My image, shown in Figure 1-23, has less of that are a better match with the nasty green cast from the fluorescent lighting. target image. Switching Colors with Replace Color The Replace Color command creates interesting creative effects by allowing you to substitute one set of colors for another. It builds a mask, using colors you select, and then replaces the selected colors with others that you spec- ify. You can adjust hue, saturation, and lightness of the masked colors. Just follow these steps: 1. Choose Image➪Adjustments➪Replace Color. The Replace Color dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 1-24. 2. Choose either Selection or Image: • Selection: Shows the mask in the Preview window. The masked area is black, semitransparent areas are shades of gray, and unmasked areas are white.
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