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Principles of Sociology and Rural Development

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					                            1




   PRINCIPLES OF SOCIOLOGY
                           and

               Rural Development




                            By

          Prof. Mohamed Nabil Gamie
Department of Rural Development, College of Agriculture,
       Alexandria University, Al-Shatby, Alexandria
                         2012
                                       2


                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

                              SUBJUCT                    PAGE
Benefits of Sociology and Social Science Knowledge         1
  The social Sciences                                      3
  The Distinction Between Factual and Policy Questions     4
  Measurement and the Nature of Social Phenomena           5
  Levels of Measurement and Social Science Data            7
  Benefits of Social Science Knowledge                     9
Micro-Sociology: Testing Interaction Theories             22
  The Rational Choice Proposition                         24
  Interaction Theories                                    26
  Theory Testing: Measurement and Research                33
  The Experiment: Studying group solidarity               36
  Randomization                                           38
  Significance                                            39
  Field Research: Studying Recruitment                    39
Social Processes                                          49
  Primary Processes of Interaction                        49
  Secondary Processes of Interaction                      50
Groups, Organizations and Culture                         52
  Membership of Small Social Groups                       52
  Social Organizations                                    54
Culture, Ethnicity and Social Class                       58
  Values and Norms                                        64
  Geographic Culture                                      68
  What Determines Social Class?                           75
  Social Class Dynamics                                   78
Marriage and the Family                                   81
  Some Definitions                                        81
  Functions                                               82
  Mate Selection: Who is Out of Bounds?                   83
  Mate Selection: Who Should You Marry                    86
  Number of Spouses                                       90
  Economic Considerations of Marriage                     94
                                       3


  Residence Patterns: Where Do Wives and Husbands Live                 98
                              SUBJUCT                                PAGE
  Family Structure                                                     98
Changing Roles of Women                                               110
Demography and Methods of Demographic Analysis                        116
Collectivities                                                        118
Social and Cultural Change of Institutions                            126
  Changing Family Influences                                          126
  Changing Religious Influences                                       127
  Changing Educational Institutions                                   128
  The Influence of Age-Related Micro-cultures on Values               128
  National Cultures                                                   129
Social Change: Development and Global Inequality                      132
  Internal sources of Social change                                   134
  Change and Cultural Lag                                             137
  External Sources of Change                                          138
  The Rise of the West                                                142
  Marx on Capitalism                                                  143
  The Protestant ethics                                               145
  The State Theory of Modernization                                   146
  Dependence and World System Theory                                  148
  Dimensions of Global Inequality                                     153
  Globalization                                                       155
The social Basis of Sustainable Underdevelopment in the Arab World    159
  Introduction                                                        159
  Development in a Sustainable Perspective                            161
  Stagnant Socio-Economic Conditions in the Arab World                162
  Consumerism in the Arab World                                       164
  Stifling Dependency of the Arab World                               167
  Dominance of Traditional Values of Governance                       169
  The Way Out                                                         171
  References.                                                         178
                                                4




    BENEFITS OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
                   KNOWLEDGE

Why do we study sociology? "If we
cannot identify the benefits of sociology
and articulate its future, then it may be           Horowitz4; Lemert5) expressing a real
time to 'turn out the lights, fold our tent,           concern about the benefits of social
and go home. …. The usefulness of the                  science and the future of its impact
social sciences, in general, is being                  upon policy formulation. The feelings
questioned and sometimes attacked. Our                 may be strong but, yet, achievements
challenge is clear. We must continue to                to remedy this situation are not as
work toward a better understanding of                  strongly felt. This is due, among other
the social forces that shape behavior and              factors, to separatism and lack of
social structure at all levels of society,             integration between the efforts of
and we must work toward gaining the                    variant social scientists.
recognition      that    is     due      our
accomplishments."         These        were         Unfortunately,     and     especially    in
introductory statements mentioned by                   developing countries, we find so
Lyson (editor of Rural Sociology journal)              many social scientists not properly
and Tickamyer1 introducing the spring                  aware of the meaning, contents,
1996 special issue of Rural Sociology in               mission, and borderlines of their
which they wanted to 'publish a set of                 disciplines.6 Reading newspapers,
essays that reflect on where sociology has             listening to radio, watching television,
been and what it can offer in the future,' ..          observing and interacting with people
and to 'counter the tone of gloom and
doom that pervades so many recent
                                                         Human Behavior?" Social Forces 74:1197-
appraisals with articles that showcase our
                                                         1206.
strengths, while simultaneously offering a
                                                    3
critical appraisal of sociology and its               Huber, Joan. 1995. "Institutional Perspectives
future.'                                            on Sociology." American Journal of Sociology
                                                    101:194-216.
                                                    4
                                                        Horowitz, Irving Louis. 1993. The
                                                        Decomposition of Sociology. New York:
                                                        Oxford University Press.
                                                    5
                                                        Lemert, Charles. 1995. Sociology After the
The same feelings were held by other                      Crisis. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
   social scientists (Gove2; Huber3;                6
                                                     The distinction between "social sciences,"
                                                    "behavioral sciences," and "humanities" is very
                                                    fuzzy even among social science professionals. I
                                                    have even been told by an eminent American
1
    Tickamyer, Ann R. 1996. "Sex, Lies, and         social scientist who was recently visiting our
                                                    university "we in America have two kinds of
      Statistics: Can Rural Sociology Survive       economists one is social scientist, the other is
      Restructuring? (or) What Is Right with        econometrician." Isn't the econometrician a social
      Rural Sociology and How Can We Fix It."       scientist? Even some professionals limit the
      Rural Sociology 61 (1):5-24.                  behavioral sciences to sociology, psychology and
2
                                                    anthropology as if political science, economics and
    Gove, Walter R. 1995. "Is Sociology the         history deal with anything else but the behavior of
     Integrative Discipline in the Study of         people.
                                                    5


     all present to our minds seemingly                       basically pertained to the notion that
     unconnected, contradictory, chaotic,                     science is a method rather than
     threatening, exciting, interesting, and                  content. However, the present author
     mundane happenings. But the fact                         accepts the use of the word "science"
     remains that in all these episodes                       in a doubly context, generically to
     there are patterns and regularities                      denote science as a method, and
     that      intrinsically    sustain      the              functionally to denote science as a
     continuity of such streams of actions.                   discipline. Thus, the 'science of
     It is the task of social scientists to find              sociology could mean the scientific
     them and make use of them, just as it                    discipline of sociology and/or the
     is the task of physicists and chemists                   scientific method of sociology, i,e., the
     to find patterns and regularities in the                 scientific method in general, but as
     behavior of matter and energy. How                       applied in sociology.
     do social scientists go about this task?           However, for all the good scientific and
Through      a    conventional     science                technological knowledge has done it
   perspective, they do. Starting with the                has led during the postmodern era to
   following statement, "a science in the                 nuclear proliferation, environmental
   particular sense is a body of organized                decline,      increased       inequality,
   knowledge, including a set of logically                wrenching transformations in the
   connected propositions concerning the                  character of work and everyday life,
   behavior of certain phenomena as they                  and a lost sense of security in the
   repeatedly occur under certain given                   workings of the social and natural
   conditions," Biesanz and Biesanz7 start                worlds         (Erikson9;        Sachs10;
   defining science, but in the                           Schumacher11). Even technology,
   immediately following statement they                   created by man, is not fully controlled
   say : "In the general sense, science is                by him (Heibroner12; Westrum13).
   method rather than content, an                         Consequently,        positivism,     the
   approach or attitude of mind that
                                                        9
   leads to systematic knowledge about                       Erikson, Kai T. 1994. A New Species of
   how things work." In his book "The                          Trouble: The Human Experience of Modern
   Scientific Approach" Lastrucci8 states                      Disasters. New York: Norton.
   that science may be defined quite
                                                        10
   accurately and functionally as : "an                        Sachs, Wolfgang (ed.) 1992. The
   objective, logical, and systematic                         Development Dictionary: A Guide to
   method of analysis of phenomena,                           Knowledge as Power. London: Zed Books.
   devised to permit the accumulation of                11
                                                             Schumacher, E. F. 1989. Small is Beautiful:
   reliable knowledge." In this regard,                       Economics as if People Mattered. New
   consensus among social scientists is                       York: Harper & Row, Inc.
                                                        12
                                                             Heibroner, Robert L. 1994. "So machines
7
    Biesanz, John and Mavis Biesanz. 1964.                    make history?" Pp. 53-65 in M. Smith and
     Modern Society: An Introduction to Social                L. Marx (eds.) [1967] Does Technology
     Science. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-               Drive History? The Dilemma of
     Hall, Inc. p. 4.                                         Technological Determinism. Cambridge:
8                                                             M.I.T. Press.
    Lastrucci, Carlo L. 1963. The Scientific
                                                        13
     Approach: Basic Principles of the Scientific            Westrum, Ron. 1991. Technologies and
     Method. Cambridge, Massachusetts:                       Society: The Shaping of People and Things.
     Schenkman Publishing Company, Inc. p. 6.                Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
                                                   6


      traditional science perspective, began                 structures of symbolic human
      to loose appeal to social scientists                   behavior. Thus, symbols, ideas,
      during the last quarter of this century.               thoughts, attitudes, feelings and
      Traditional science has not developed                  sensations,       norms,       values,
      good ways of dealing with ethics,                      organization, planning, behavior, and
      morality and values.                                   use of scientific and indigenous
                                                             knowledge       are    all    integral
A "technological science perspective" was
                                                             components of social phenomena.
   proposed by Warner and England14
   claiming that it "must include ethical              Just for specifying the scope of social
   rules and strategies telling 'how to.' To               sciences, I would like to apologize for
   enact this technological science                        referring to our undergraduate
   perspective, consider the social                        material and mention the definition of
   technology of rural schools, farmer                     social sciences.        Starting with
   cooperatives, or a rural development                    economics, it seems that one of the
   program. A specific design of any of                    most preferable definitions is cited by
   these,.....,should be reproduced over                   Samuelson15 as follows:
   time and space." This mental                        Economics is the study of how men and
   transformation on the part of social                   society choose, with or without the
   scientists is a response to the concept                use of money, to employ scarce,
   of utility of science and a concern for                productive resources, which could
   assessing the benefits of social science               have alternative uses, to produce
   knowledge and research.                                various commodities over time and
     THE SOCIAL SCIENCES                                  distribute them for consumption, now
                                                          and in the future, among various
There are several social sciences that                    people and groups in society.
emphasize different aspects of human
behavior. They use somewhat different                  What we need to emphasize here, as
concepts, and deal with somewhat                         already emphasized by Samuelson in
different kinds of data. The boundary                    his definition, is choose. Thus,
lines between the disciplines are fuzzy,                 economics is a science of choice, that
however, and many problems are                           is, a process of mental practice.
approached with the tools and methods                    Consumer and producer behavior
of several social sciences at the same                   itself is a practice of economics. The
time. This is attributed to the fact that                economist tells them the most
they all share the study of one general                  rational alternatives of choice. We
category of phenomena, i.e., social                      also need to emphasize "with or
phenomena.
                                                         without the use of money," a point
 In      approaching most of these                       which will be discussed later.
      phenomena, social scientists might
                                                       The second of the social sciences is
      use the concepts of two or more
                                                          sociology. It is the systematic study of
      social science disciplines. Social
                                                          the relationships of men in groups
      phenomena,      themselves,      are
                                                          and of groups in society, of how these
      organized,     functionally-oriented
                                                          relationships are patterned and how
14                                                     15
     Warner, Keith W. and J. Lynn England. 1995.            Samuelson, Paul A. 1967. Economics: An
      "A Technological Science Perspective for               Introductory Analysis. New York: McGraw
      Sociology," Rural Sociology 60(4):607-22.              Hill. P. 5.
                                                 7


   they change. It could also be defined                   select and arrange the available data
   as the controlled observation and                       according to his perceptions of their
   interpretation of differing patterns of                 relationships and significance; and
   human relationships, their sources                      while ideally he takes all relevant data
   and consequences.                                       into account, he is dealing by
                                                           definition with past behavior and
The third is anthropology, or particularly
                                                           unique events, and cannot, therefore,
   cultural     anthropology.    It   has
                                                           use many of the techniques of the
   historically concentrated on the ways
                                                           other social sciences.
   of life of small preliterate societies,
   but its perspectives are increasingly                   THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN
   being applied to urban literate                           FACTUAL AND POLICY
   societies as well. The concept of                              QUESTIONS
   culture is its most invaluable                    It is important to distinguish between
   contribution to human knowledge. It                   questions of fact and questions of
   has disproved the old cliché ,"you                    preference. For example, saying that
   can't change human nature," by                        "that music is awful"         is not as
   demonstrating the great variety of                    accurate as to say "I detest that kind of
   definitions of human nature around                    music." All of us are in the habit of
   the world. At the same time it has                    saying things in the form of factual
   demonstrated that human beings                        statements which are actually
   everywhere have much in common.                       expressions of our likes and dislikes.
The fourth social science is psychology.                 However, the more important the
   Psychology     also deals with the                    question, the more important it is to
   behavior of people, but it emphasized                 try to maintain the distinction.
   the individual person, his roles,                 It is important that the social scientist
   attitudes,      perceptions,      and                 make it clear both to himself and to
   motivations as they are shaped by                     the other people when he is engaged
   hereditary and acquired reactions to                  in detached, impersonal, scientific
   environmental stimuli. Conspicuous                    analysis, and when he is engaged in
   among      the     contributions   of                 policy formulation or activation. There
   psychology is the concept of                          is nothing in scientific procedure that
   personality.                                          can tell us what must be done with
Political science , the fifth of the social              verified knowledge. The failure to
    sciences, deals with the governing of                note a separation of roles can
    man, both as formal organization and                 undermine the very utility of the
    as political behavior shaped by that                 scientific procedure. (Lundberg and
    organization and by beliefs and                      Others16). Thus, such questions as
    philosophies of government.                          "What is the best economic system?
                                                         The best sex mores? The best
History is the last of the social sciences. It
                                                         government? The best philosophy?
    has lately approached the study of
                                                         The best art? and so on can be
    human behavior systematically and                    approached scientifically only after the
    objectively. However, there is no                    criterion of goodness has been
    consensual agreement among social
    scientists as to history being classed as
                                                     16
    a social science. It is as much an art as             Lundberg, George A. et. al. 1968. Sociology.
    it is a science, for the historian must                 New York: Harper and Row. P. 18.
                                                  8


   specified. A scientist can then                              see that the only kind of science
   determine which of several proposed                          this principle would favor would be
   alternatives most nearly meets the                           such       as     is      immediately
   specifications. But note that the                            remunerative with a great
   specifications are not scientific                            preference for such as can be kept
   conclusions, nor are they formulated                         secret, like the modern sciences of
   by scientific methods. Here we early                         dyeing and perfumery. Kepler's
   introduce the question of values and                         discovery      rendered       Newton
   their pertinence to policy formulation.                      possible, and Newton rendered
                                                                modern physics possible, with the
While the discovery of something is a
                                                                steam engine, electricity, and all
  question of fact, its use is a question of
                                                                the other sources of               the
  policy. The discovery of Nobel's
                                                                stupendous fortunes of our age.
  dynamite is a fact question, while its
                                                                But Kepler's discovery would not
  use in killing people,            moving
                                                                have been possible without the
  mountains, or offering peace prizes is
                                                                doctrine      of      conics.    Now
  a policy question. Basic social science
                                                                contemporaries of Kepler -such
  research is oriented more to the
                                                                penetrating minds as Descartes
  discovery of basic knowledge (facts),
                                                                and Pascal- were abandoning the
  while applied social science research
                                                                study of geometry....... because
  is oriented more to answering policy
                                                                they said it was so UTTERLY
  questions and making use of such
                                                                USELESS. ............True science is
  basic knowledge. In the natural
                                                                distinctively the study of useless
  sciences, it was not until chemists and
                                                                things, for the useful things will get
  biologists had made considerable
                                                                studied without the aid of scientific
  headway       in     developing      basic
                                                                men. To employ these rare minds
  knowledge in their realms that
                                                                on such work is like running a
  pharmacists and physicians produced
                                                                steam       engine      by    burning
  and applied the wonders of synthetic
                                                                diamonds. (Kronovet and Shirk17).
  chemistry, the vaccines, vitamins, and
  antibiotics to control disease and                  MEASUREMENT AND THE
  promote health. Similarly, the organic
  bond between basic and applied social
                                                        NATURE OF SOCIAL
  science cannot, by any means, be                        PHENOMENA
  undermined. Consequently, if we are                 It is sometimes contended that social
  to search for the benefits of policy                    phenomena are not susceptible to the
  oriented social science research, those                 application of some canons of the
  benefits contributed by basic social                    rigorous      scientific    approach.
  science research will not be alien to                   Measurement, in particular, is
  our quest. Charles Sanders Peirce,                      claimed to be hindered by the
  convincingly illustrating the utility of                following three characteristics of
  basic sciences, states:                                 social phenomena:        (a) inherent
   ....The      old-fashioned         political           subjectivity rather than objectivity,
        economist adored, as alone                        (b) too complex for analysis and (c)
        capable of redeeming the human                17
        race, the glorious principle of                    Kronovet, Esther and Evelyn Shirk. 1967. In
        individual greed,....But it is easy to              Pursuit of Awareness. New York:
                                                            Appleton-Century. P. 415.
                                             9


   human behavior is unpredictable due              perception of crime after it has been
   to the operation of a 'free will.'               only recently understood that the
                                                    causes of crime do not lie simply in
Regarding the first characteristic,
                                                    constitutional factors (either genetic
   subjectivity, human behavior is,
                                                    or developmental ), nor in climatic or
   agreeably, a consequence of mental
                                                    geographic factors, nor in intellectual
   or subjective stimuli, i.e., ideas; but
                                                    factors (at least as measured by I.Q.
   the behavior itself may be quite
                                                    scores), nor in racial or nationality
   objective. Egoism, for example, may
                                                    factors, etc. Furthermore, crime was
   be considered a very subjective
                                                    until relatively recent times viewed
   attitude; but the expression or the
                                                    as one large general problem. But
   consequences of that attitude might
                                                    modern data clearly indicate that
   quite     agreeably     be      defined
                                                    crime is a multi-faceted problem
   operationally by such objective
                                                    composed of many interrelated parts
   manifestations as various acts of
                                                    (e.g., physical factors, environment,
   conspicuous consumption, verbal
                                                    educational level, type and degree of
   expressions of grandeur and various
                                                    law enforcement, social status, family
   acts of disregard for the needs of
                                                    stability, minority status, types of
   others. The cause of human behavior
                                                    definition of the concept 'crime' itself,
   may remain subjective, but the
                                                    etc.) Furthermore, it seems highly
   resultant human behavior could be
                                                    probable today that crime may not
   objectified and measured.
                                                    even be a general problem , just as
The contention that social phenomena                "colds" may not be. This is all
   can hardly be measured because of its            attributed to spelling out the general
   complexity, all depends upon the                 problem of crime into its components
   meaning of complexity. It has not                and handling each according to
   been demonstrated that human                     scientific canons,      thus,    dealing
   behavior is inherently either more or            scientifically, and successfully, with a
   less complex than is the behavior of             once complex social phenomenon.
   an airplane in flight, of a plague of
                                                 Thirdly, contending that measurement of
   smallpox or of the management of a
                                                     social phenomena is impossible to
   factory. Many problems can be solved
                                                     achieve because of the operation of
   once we break them down into
                                                     free will rests upon the specious
   manageable components. Failure to
                                                     theological notion that man behaves
   solve them can take place only if we
                                                     as a so-called free agent. In fact, man
   fail to achieve the answers to most of
                                                     is not truly 'free' to do as he pleases
   their       separate       components.
                                                     because he cannot exercise control
   Complexity is, after all,       not an
                                                     over many physical and biological
   inherent quality of all social
                                                     factors that both limit and influence
   phenomena. To the foreigner, a
                                                     his behavior. Nonhuman phenomena
   language may be a dreadful learning
                                                     are also often unpredictable either
   situation, but to the native, that same
                                                     when they are studied individually
   language is so simple as to defy
                                                     rather than as whole classes, or when
   explanation. Social science research,
                                                     the various influences operating upon
   in the areas of criminology, sociology,
                                                     them are unknown or not measurably
   psychology, and other fields, has
                                                     ascertained.       Which leaves, for
   terminated the once so complex
                                                     example, will fall from which trees in
                                                    10


       the orchard, at what times, and in                       basis of his goals, whereas the social
       what directions is at present                            scientist at the same time may be able
       unpredictable, but no one imputes a                      to predict his choice as a result of
       force of "free will" to such events.                     measuring his goals." Freedom of
       Man and his behavior is also a part of                   choice, i.e., free will, is a vital and
       the universe and that universe is                        peculiar attribute possessed by human
       orderly and regular, leaving the                         beings. Warner and England20 call this
       acceptance of the free-will postulate                    "agency." It is the "ability to choose
       as an invitation to chaos and to a                       between alternative actions and to
       denial of the possibility of developing                  have the choice make a difference."
       social science, let alone science, at                    According to them, agency, purpose,
       all. Lastrucci18 has ably summarized                     and ethics are sufficiently prominent in
       these contentions as follows:                            social phenomena that a model which
And it is most important to remember that                       accounts for their operation is
-although the behavior of a single unit of a                    important. Areas of social activity
class of phenomena is not predictable-                          such as innovation, development,
probability prediction for a group or class                     organizations, education, art, rational
is highly desirable and useful knowledge.                       choice, science, and literature
When one admits the fact that many                              exemplify      valued     and    unique
aspects of human behavior (e.g., dietary                        endeavors; they illustrate the
preferences, death rituals, marriage                            operation of human agency, creativity,
customs, cultural regularities) both                            and morality (Pickering21).
individually and collectively are at present
better understood and therefore more                     More importantly, the free will axiom is
predictable than are many aspects of                       presently regarded as basis for the
physical phenomena (e.g., earthquakes,                     recent "rational choice sociology"
weather, cosmological occurrences, certain                 movement, the movement that
fatal diseases)- then the common notion                    challenged traditional sociological
should soon be dissipated that social or                   answers to the problem of order
psychological problems are inherently too                  which rely on normative consensus or
difficult to formulate and solve according                 domination.        Rational     choice
to empirical scientific methods as practiced               sociologists reframe social order as a
by competent researchers.                                  consequence of voluntary action by
Phillips19 also states that "'free will' may               self-interested individuals. James
    indeed exist -in the sense that the                    Coleman, the founder and leader of
    individual is free to choose among                     this movement, launched a journal
    different courses of action- yet it may                (Rationality and Society) and has also
    still be possible to predict his behavior.             written an elaborate treatment of
    For example, these choices are largely                 sociological rational choice theory:
    based on the individual's goals, and it                Foundations of Social Theory (Coleman
    is possible for the social scientist to                1990) which received the American
    measure these goals. Thus, the                         Sociological Association's       "book
    individual may freely choose on the
                                                         20
                                                              Warner and England. Op. cit.
18                                                       21
     Lastrucci, op. cit., p. 66.                              Pickering, Andrew. 1993. "The Mangle of
19
     Phillips, Bernard S. 1969. Sociology: Social              Practice: Agency and Emergence in the
      Structure and Change. London: Collier-                   Sociology of Science." American Journal of
      Macmillan Limited. P. 5.                                 Sociology 99:559-89.
                                                       11


      prize." The free will, however, is an                        concern instead of being an integral
      expression of values which, in turn,                         and central aspect of the social
      affects the behavior in three ways.                          sciences. This condition, they contend,
      Observed choice, most commonly                               is attributable to the way in which this
      relied upon as the only dependable                           term is most commonly defined. The
      basis for understanding preferences.                         most       popular      definition      of
      Secondly, conversations, a form of                           measurement is provided by Stevens25
      social interaction, just like choice, but                    who wrote: "Measurement is the
      it does not require explicit actions.                        assignment of numbers to objects or
      Thirdly, adaptations people make as                          events      according      to      rules."
      they learn. In his study, "revealed                          Phenomena such as political efficacy,
      preference with a subset of goods,"                          alienation, gross national product,
      Varian22 proposed certain bounds on                          cognitive dissonance...etc. are too
      the expenditures for an omitted                              abstract to be considered "things that
      commodity (or set of commodities)                            can be seen or touched" (the
      which could be used to evaluate                              definition of an object) or merely as a
      learning within a conventional model                         "result, consequence or outcome" (the
      of individual choice. These bounds                           definition of an event). Steven's
      describe the size of change to                               classical definition of measurement is
      rationalize observed expenditures with                       much more appropriate for the
      the strong axioms of revealed                                physical than the social sciences.
      preference.23                                         Measurement is most usefully viewed as
          LEVELS OF                                           "the process of linking abstract
                                                              concepts to empirical indicants"
      MEASUREMENT AND                                         (Carmines and Zeller26) and as a
     SOCIAL SCIENCE DATA                                      process involving an "explicit,
In       spite      of    the     widespread                  organized plan for classifying (and
      acknowledgement of the importance                       often quantifying) the particular
      of good measurement in social science                   sense data at hand -the indicants- in
      research, development of systematic                     terms of the general concept in the
      and      general     approaches      to                 researcher's mind" (Riley27). Thus,
      measurement in social science was not                   classification itself is a form of
      observed      until   quite    recently.                measurement (Lastrucci28).
                              24
      Carmines and Zeller         claim that                Nominal data, the facts that can be
      "historically, measurement has been                     sorted into discrete categories, are
      more of an abstract, almost ritualistic                 the building blocks of social science
                                                              research. The sorting process produces
22
     Varian, Hal R. 1988. "Revealed Preference
                                                            25
      with a Subset of Goods." Journal of                        Stevens. S. S. 1951. "Reliability," pp. 356-
      Economic Theory October : 179-85.                           442 in R.L. Thorndike (ed.) Educational
23
                                                                  Measurement.        Washington,        D.C.:
 For a detailed and provocative discussion on
measurement and role of values in economics see                   American Council on Education.
Smith (1990).                                               26
                                                                 Carmines and Zeller, op. cit. p. 10.
24                                                          27
     Carmines, Edward G. and Richard A. Zeller.                  Riley, M. W. 1963. Sociological Research: A
      1981.      "Reliability     and       Validity               Case Approach. New York: Harcourt Brace
      Assessment," Sage University Papers.                         Jovanovich. P.23.
      Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. P. 9.               28
                                                                 Lastrucci, op. cit. p. 168.
                                                12


   the so-called nominal scales on which             (2) Sociologists and psychologists, who
   a concept is differentiated into                      may use these scales to determine
   qualitatively different categories. If the            whether sex or race or income (or all
   categories provide an ordering of cases               three, measured through multivariate
   from the highest to lowest, best to                   analysis) affect a person's sense of
   worst,...etc., the scale is then                      self-esteem as measured by sample
   recognized       as     ordinal     scale.            surveys. They also might study status
   Accordingly, ordinal scales designate                 by asking respondents to rate
   the relative degree (but not the                      (according     to    prestige)   such
   absolute amount) of an entity.                        occupations as teacher, secretary,
   Although such scales are not as precise               doctor, salesman, and plumber; or
   as interval scales, which provide                     who might study alienation by asking
   measures of how much higher one                       persons of differing socioeconomic
   item is than the others and at which                  backgrounds to rank their attitudes
   measurement, in the common sense of                   toward aspects of society.
   the word, normally begins, ordinal                (3) Public policy analysts, who may ask if a
   scales provide comparisons in which                   particular policy (such as gun control)
   we can have considerable confidence                   is more likely to be adopted in a
   that one stimulus is stronger than                    "reformed"        or      "unreformed"
   another. Nominal and ordinal scales                   legislature. They may also determine
   are so important because they are
                                                         whether there are regional differences
   widely used by students, teachers, and                in the adoption of such policies in
   researchers in the social sciences. The               different parts of the country.
   highest level of measurement is the
   ratio scale which possesses the zero-             (4) Communication researchers, who may
   point of origin. In this case,                        analyze nominal data to determine
   applications        of     mathematical               which media (television, newspapers,
   procedures such        as division and                magazines) are most trusted by
   multiplication       are      warranted.              various subgroups of the population.
   Manipulating units in an interval scale               Using multivariate analysis, they might
   by normal mathematical procedures is                  study the effect of sex, race, or
   a wholly indefensible operation                       urbanization on group attitudes
   common only to naive methodologists.                  toward the media.
Benefits of nominal and ordinal scales are           (5)     Experimental psychologists, who
   not commonly recognized in the                          depend on ordinal data for the analysis
   social sciences. For illustration, these                of psychological variables- reaction to
   scales are particularly useful to:                      stimuli are typically expressed in
                                                           precisely the terms of "more" or "less"
(1) Political scientists, who may seek to                  which require techniques of ordinal
    determine whether ideology affects                     data analysis.
    party identification- and may also
    measure the impact on voters of race,            (6) Economists, who frequently maintain
    education, income, occupation, and so                that consumers cannot state with any
    on. They also might deal in surveys                  degree of reliability the extent to
    asking whether a respondent is                       which     they     prefer competing
    "liberal, moderate, or conservative" on              commodities, but can at least rank
    an ideological continuum.                            order their preferences.
                                                       13


(7) School administrators, who can plan                           says that "after decades of discussion
    programs       incorporating     student                      we are not even close to a professional
    preferences more effectively by asking                        agreement on how to define and
    for a rating (in order of preference) to                      measure the output of banking,
    such questions as: which would you                            insurance, or the stock market. Other
    usually prefer to order if our school                         difficulties arise in conceptualizing the
    cafeteria served sandwiches, salads, or                       output of health services, lawyers, and
    "blue plated" for lunch?)29                                   other consultants, or the capital stock
                                                                  of R&D. Nor are we close to having
Thus, it is important to recognize that
                                                                  measures of such factors as the "work
   measurement does not always have to
                                                                  ethic" or aspects of the property-rights
   be in the form of numbers. Concept
                                                                  system which are likely to contribute
   classification (nominal scales) and
                                                                  much to the observed differences in
   concept ordering (ordinal scales) are
                                                                  productivity         across      nations"
   important forms of measurement                                            31
                                                                  (Griliches ).
   particularly in the realm of social
   science research. In fact, Uslaner , in                        BENEFITS OF SOCIAL
   introducing Rynolds30, claims that :
                                                                 SCIENCE KNOWLEDGE
       "This extension of analysis of nominal
                                                            Knowledge is transferred from one
          data to multivariate situations is
                                                               generation to the other through
          particularly important because it is
                                                               education,      acculturation,     and
          generally not considered in most
                                                               socialization. But the growth of
          books      on      social    science
                                                               knowledge is generated through
          methodology (apparently, it is
                                                               research. Thus, research is responsible
          either considered too difficult or
                                                               for the growth and validation of
          too    obscure).......All  of    the
                                                               existing knowledge. But knowledge for
          techniques of analyzing nominal
                                                               what? Social science research,
          data are in flux. This is a field of
                                                               whether basic, applied, or policy-
          data analysis that is rapidly
                                                               oriented, has an important role in
          growing."
                                                               fostering knowledge and making use
The nature of social science data lends                        of it for the promotion of human
   itself more commonly to nominal and                         welfare in all aspects of material and
   ordinal scales than to interval and                         nonmaterial existence. The theory of
   ratio scales. This does not mean that                       measurement directs us to define the
   we have not already improved                                concept before we move to techniques
   significantly      our measurement                          of measurement. Our present concept
   techniques through using the latter                         is the benefits of social science
   scales. But in many cases, as claimed                       research. The following list of benefits
   by Griliches, the desired data are                          is not certainly claimed to be
   unavailable        because       their                      comprehensive:
   measurement is really difficult. He
                                                            1. Pursuing Man's Mission on Earth: It is
29
 These illustrations are mentioned by Uslaner in
                                                                often said that "man does not live
Hildebrand. et. al.,1977 :5-6 and in Reynolds, 1977:
6.
30                                                          31
     Reynolds, H. T. 1977. "Analysis of Nominal                  Griliches, Zvi. 1991. "The Search for R&D
      Data," Sage University Papers. Beverly                      Spillovers." Scandinavian Journal of
      Hills: Sage Publications.                                   Economics. Supplement , 94:29-47.
                                                  14


     with bread alone." It can also be said               following diagram illustrates the role
     that man does not live for bread alone.              of social sciences (cooperating with
     There must be a reason or wisdom                     other disciplines) in developing the
     behind our creation. The answer to                   universe.
     this question is provided by the Mighty           The benefits of science and fruits of
     Creator in the holy books of heavenly                knowledge are not limited to physical
     religions, by mundane ideologies, and                comfort (food, drink, shelter, clothes,
     by thinkers of all walks of life.                    medicine, landscape...etc.) provided by
     Worship, salvation, enacting God's                   the natural environment but extend to
     prescriptions,     development      and              social and psychic welfare provided by
     reconstruction of the universe are
     alternative answers sharing the                   social environment in addition to spiritual
     common underlying element of utility                  fulfillment provided by the relationship
     and good deeds. Even science,                         of man to his metaphysical
     according to Shryock32 is directed                    environment.        Social      sciences,
     toward increased understanding of                     supported by natural sciences and
     the importance of basic scientific                    humanities (all members of the
     studies, although the "major American                 kingdom of knowledge), take the task
     emphasis continues to relate to                       of developing that substructure of the
     applied studies, or to such types of                  universe       (social     environment)
     basic investigation as seems to                       composed of personalities, groups,
     promise most for utility in the near                  economies, organizations, institutions,
     future." Science has close relationships              communities, societies, and cultures.
     with Puritanism just as it has with
     industrialization. Just as Weber was
     able to trace definite relationships
     between Protestantism and capitalism,
     Merton has explored the relationships
     between Puritanism and science
     (Merton33).
In pursuit of his mission, reconstruction
   and development of the universe (that
   portion of the universe he is in contact
   with), man has to develop three main
   environmental components of the
   universe, i.e., natural, social and
   metaphysical     environments.      The

32
     Shryock, Richard H. 1962. "American
      Indifference to Basic Science During the
      Nineteenth Century," in Bernard Barber
      and Walter Hirch (eds.), The Sociology of
      Science . New York: free Press. P. 110.
33
     Merton, Robert K. 1957. "Puritanism,
     Pietism and Science," in Social Theory and
     Social Structure. New York: Free Press,
     pp.574-608.
                                                 15




            CREATURES                   ENVIRONMENTS                      DISCIPLINES


   All believed, unobserved and                                   Humanities: Religion, arts,
       yet-to-be     discovered            Metaphysical             language,     philosophy,
       creatures.                                                   ...etc.

   Personalities,         groups,                                 Social Sciences: Economics,
      economies,                        Social Environment           sociology,    psychology,
      organizations,                                                 anthropology, political
      institutions,                                                  science, history.
      communities,       societies,
      cultures.

   Humans as bio-systems,                                         Natural Sciences: Physics,
     plants, animals, solid                                          chemistry,        biology,
                                      Natural Environment.
     matter, liquids, (natural                                       geology,
     eco-system.)                                                    astronomy,.....etc.


                        Diagram 1. Environmental Components of the Universe
Most people, policy makers included, are                 incommensurable           "non-economic
  impressed      and      fascinated  by                 factors" into the calculations of policy
  achievements in the realm of natural                   makers. It was beyond the capacity of
  science research. This fact is                         a friend of mine, who happened to be
  manifested by the history of Nobel                     a rural sociologist but also a very
  prize winners as economists, the first                 clever politician, to convince policy
  and still the only brand of social                     makers in the Ministry of Planning to
  scientists, were kept away from Nobel                  allocate more than two hundred
  laureates until 1969 when Professor                    thousand pounds for the purpose of
  Erick Lundberg, on behalf of the Nobel                 human resources development within
  Committee proclaimed and justified                     the 69 million pounds devoted to rural
  the new economics reward observing                     development this year for his
  that "economic science has developed                   government body. To the Ministry of
  increasingly in the direction of a                     planning, rural development is limited
  mathematical        specification  and                 to         constructions,     machines,
  statistical quantification of economic                 infrastructure and other similar
  contexts."                                             material components. Man's mission
                                                         in life is not "bread alone."
For social science research, this is certainly
    a happy and promising start as the                2. Providing the Foundation and the Basic
    contemporary world begins to                          Building Blocks of Society: If we try to
    recognize the benefits of social science              expose the anatomy of any society we
    research. But unfortunately, social                   might observe four basic components:
    scientists,    including       traditional            values, norms, organization, and
    economists, have failed to bring                      resources.        Putting         them
                                                16


   hierarchically, values will occupy the                   means,       equilibrium,     efficiency,
   foundation of society. Values are                        effectiveness,              productivity,
   desired states of affairs. Policy-                       coordination,      authority,    control,
   oriented social science research can                     communication,          disorganization,
   create a working partnership between                     conflict, roles, leadership, policy,
   facts and theories, on the one hand,                     planning, programming, project lay-
   and questions of personal and social                     out, self-help, popular participation,
   value, on the other. Social scientists, in               development, collective behavior,"
   merging their roles as scientists and                    and many more represent the core
   citizens, are equipped to look ahead                     concepts of organization. "People's
   and envision some of the possible                        technology", "social engineering", or
   impacts of science, technology,                          "technology of coordination" are at
   invention, and industrial innovation on                  least 'kin-concepts' or alternatives to
   society. They can be, and many of                        "organization." No body can deny the
   them are, preoccupied by each of the                     contributions of social science
   following: (a) viewing, critically, some                 research to the rich knowledge on
   current social trends, (b) suggesting                    "organization" practiced particularly in
   fresh ways to view a number of our                       planning , management, politics, and
   modern concerns, and (c) forecasting                     development.
   some of the future social impacts of              The fourth of the major components of
   science and technology.
                                                        societal structure is resources. Even
     RESOURCES (HUMAN AND NATURAL)                      that is not unrelated to social science
                                                        concerns. Human resources are not
               ORGANIZATION                             only part of societal resources, but it is
                                                        the acting part, that that creates value
                    NORMS                               to the other material and natural
                    VALUES                              resources. On the same natural
                                                        resources base civilizations rise and
Diagram 2. Major Components of Societal                 later they decline. Human resources
                 Structure.                             are believed to be the locomotives of
                                                        the civilization trains whether going
Norms represent standards of conduct.
                                                        uphill or moving downhill on that same
   They regulate the means to the
                                                        natural resources base.
   desired goals. Besides their normative
   and ideological characters, norms                 3. Prediction: Some social scientists claim
   imply a dimension of efficacy. Social                 that social science knowledge has
   scientists deal with the former as                    rendered prediction of serious future
   citizens, and, through their research,                events possible. Lundberg, et. al.34,
   they deal with the latter as scientists.              and Dentler and Cutright35 assume
                                                         that nuclear war, for example, would
Organization is the third component of
                                                         probably be selective rather than
   social structure illustrated in the above
                                                         random in its destruction of the
   mentioned diagram. In fact, if we were
   to summarize the scope of social                  34
                                                          Lundberg. et. al. Op. cit.
   science concerns in one single word,              35
                                                          Dentler, Robert A. and Phillips Cutright.
   no selection can be more appropriate                    1963. Hostage America: Human Aspects of
   than "organization." Concepts like                      a Nuclear Attack and a Program of
   "system, structure, function, goals,                    Prevention. New York: beacon Press.
                                                17


     nation's labor force, and problems of                 society     and    in     all   societies,
     social recuperation would be thereby                  domestically and globally....In short,
     aggravated. Demographic knowledge                     we use modern data to study a
     informs us that urban areas will be                   postmodern world." Some social
     more affected by nuclear attack than                  scientists repudiate all social statistics
     rural areas. This would mean that one                 as lies and official statistics as
     third of all Protestants had died,                    particularly pernicious in obfuscating
     compared with two-thirds of all                       our understanding of social processes
     Catholics, and nine-tenths of all Jews.               (Mies37 ; Rienharz38). The validity of
     More Democrats than Republicans and                   prediction is, thus, questioned by the
     more Northern than Southern                           latter team of social scientists.
     Democrats      would die. Thus, the             The scope of prediction is another
     religious, ideological, and political              question. What is the locus of our
     composition      of    the    surviving            prediction in order to be beneficial? It
     population     would     have     been             seems that it should be within the
     appreciably altered. "Moreover, such               realm of social and economic
     an attack would have killed 72 percent             reconstruction. Social scientists claim
     of the nation's industrial and                     that     the    basic    outlines     of
     mechanical engineers, 79 percent of all            reconstructing are well known. Macro-
     foremen in the metals industry, 76                 level changes in the economy,
     percent of the tool and die makers, 73
                                                        industrial      and        occupational
     percent of the architects, not to                  transformations, shifts in geographical
     mention 62 percent of the physicians."             distribution of both populations and
Other social scientists take a different                enterprises, and reorganization of the
   perspective when they talk about the                 labor process are the forces that drive
   failure of social scientists to harness              restructuring as we enter the twenty
   theoretical progress into conceptual                 first century. (Bloomquist et. al.39;
   categories that can be used to push                  Bluestone40; Bluestone and Harrison41;
   our knowledge beyond its current
   limits.      "Narrowly       conceived,"          37
              36                                          Mies, Maria. 1983. "Toward a Methodology
   Tickamyer states, "this is the process
                                                           for Feminist Research." Pp. 117-139 in
   of        operationalization         and
                                                           Theories of Women's Studies, edited by G.
   measurement that occupies positivist                    Bowles and R. D. Klein. London: Routledge
   approaches to social science.......This                 and Kegan Paul.
   problem concerns the sociology of                 38
                                                          Reinharz, Shulamit. 1992. Feminist Methods
   data and the politics of data
                                                           in Social Research. New York: Oxford
   production. It arises from the failure to               University Press.
   effectively apply our growing stock of            39
   conceptual and theoretical tools to                    Bloomquist, L., et al. 1993. "Work Structure
   studying        the        fundamental                   and Rural Poverty."Pp. 68-105.          In
                                                            Persistent Poverty in Rural America, by
   transformations occurring in our
                                                            Rural Sociological Society Task Force on
                                                            Persistent Rural Poverty. Boulder, CO:
36
     Tickamyer, Ann R. 1996. "Sex, Lies, and                Westview Press.
      Statistics: Can Rural Sociology Survive        40
                                                      Bluestone,       Barry.      1984.        "Is
      Restructuring? (or) What Is Right with
                                                        Deindustrialization a Myth? Capital
      Rural Sociology and How Can We Fix It."
                                                        Mobility versus Absorptive Capacity in the
      Rural Sociology 61 (1). P. 11.
                                                        U.S. Economy." Annals of the American
                                                    18


      Frey42; Glass et. al.43; Kodras and                Others, however, still believe in the
      Padavic44 ; Lobao45; Rifkin46)                        validity of social science predictions
If we accept the above mentioned areas of                   claiming enough knowledge for
reconstruction, and if we accept the                        desired reconstruction but blaming
preceding notion concerning the limitation                  other forces for the implementation of
of our positivist methodologies and the                     the already existing knowledge. Lester
invalidity and impertinency of our statistics               Brown47, for example, states regarding
we will have to conclude that our                           agricultural reconstruction: "Once
predictions will probably lack validity.                    those who actually work the land own
Unless we lay hand on new and more valid                    it, or share in its ownership, the key to
methodological approaches, design more                      rapid progress becomes access to
reliable and valid measurement techniques,                  credit, technical advisory services, and
and start grappling with the "sociology of                  markets. The basic formula for
data and the politics of data production"                   effective agricultural reform is rather
our proper predictions will have to be                      straightforward and simple. What is
postponed until further notice.                             lacking is the willingness of existing
                                                            power structures to undertake the
      Academy of Political and Social Science.              needed reforms."
      475:39-51.                                         More than thirty years ago, social
41
     Bluestone, Barry and Bennett Harrison.                scientists devised a technique that has
      1982. The Deindustrialization of America.            come to be dubbed the Delphi
      New York: Basic.                                     Technique to project the emerging
42
      Frey, William H. 1987. "Migration and                scientific      and        technological
       Depopulation of the Metropolis: Regional            developments and some of their
       Restructuring or Rural Renaissance."                possible social consequences. Daniel
       American Sociological Review 52:240-57.             Bell48, then chairman of the American
43                                                         Academy of Arts and Sciences'
     Glass, Jennifer, Marta Tienda and Shelley A.
      Smith. 1988. "The Impact of Changing                 Commission on the Year 2000,
      Employment Opportunity on Gender and                 described briefly the technique and
      Ethnic Earnings Inequality." Social Science          some of the projections derived from
      Research 17:252-76.                                  its use saying that the intention of the
44                                                         Delphi Technique is to systematize the
     Kodras, Janet E. and Irene Padavic. 1993.
      "Economic Restructuring and Women's                  intuitive judgments of experts in
      Sectoral Employment in the 1970s: A                  science and technology with respect to
      Spatial Investigation across 380 U.S. Labor          projections     of     scientific   and
      Market Areas." Social Science Quarterly              technological developments in the
      74:1-27.                                             future and some of their social
45
     Lobao, Linda. 1993. "Renewed Significance             consequences. Eighty two experts
      of Space on Social Research: Implications
                                                         47
      for Labor Market Studies." Pp. 11-31 in                 Brown, Lester R. 1978.The Twenty Ninth
      Inequalities in Local Labor Markets,                      Day: Accommodating Human Needs and
      edited by J. Singelmann and F. Deseran.                   Numbers of the Earth's Resources. New
      Boulder, CO: Westview Press.                              York: W. W. Norton & Company. Inc. P.
46                                                              286.
     Rifkin, Jeremy. 1995. The End of Work: The
                                                         48
       Decline of the Global Labor Force and the               Bell, Daniel. 1965. "The Study of the
       Dawn of the Post-Market Era. New York:                  Future." The Public Interest. Vol. 1, No. 1
       G.P. Putnam's Sons.                                     Fall. Pp. 119-130.
                                                19


   were used: 20 engineers, 17 physical              The World of 2000: Large-scale ocean
   scientists,    14      logicians     and             farming and the manufacture of
   mathematicians, 12 economists, nine                  synthetic       protein,     controlled
   social scientists, five writers, four                thermonuclear power, raw materials
   operations analysts and one military                 from the ocean, the beginnings of
   officer. The members of this group                   regional weather control, general
   were asked to make their predictions                 immunization against bacterial and
   in the following six areas: (1) scientific           viral diseases, the correction of faulty
   breakthroughs, (2) population control,               heredity        through       molecular
   (3) automation, (4) space progress, (5)              engineering, advances in automation
   war prevention and          (6) weapon               from robot machines performing
   systems. They were asked to predict                  menial services to sophisticated high-
   the probable time of breakthrough.                   IQ machines, manufacturing of
   The possibilities they listed were                   propellant materials on the moon,
   resubmitted independently to each                    terrestrial ballistic transport and
   member of the group twice, that is,                  continued advances in military
   three submissions in all. The                        technology.
   resubmissions      were     made      for         The World in the Year 2100: Chemical
   methodological refinements. The                      control of the aging process, the
   resubmissions were employed in order                 growth of new limbs and organs
   to achieve a feedback effect which
                                                        through biochemical stimulation, man-
   enabled a respondent to reconsider his               machine symbiosis enabling a person
   choices, reassert abandoned choices                  to raise his intelligence through direct
   or predict new probabilities for his                 electromechanical tie-in of the brain to
   already declared choices. Predictions                a computer, household robots, remote
   were made for three different periods:               facsimile reproduction of newspapers
   up to 1984, 1984 to A.D. 2000 and A.D.               and magazines in the home,
   2000 to A.D. 2100. Projections are                   completely      automated        highway
   summarized as follows:
                                                        transportation,             international
The World of 1984: Automation in                        agreements with respect to the
   agriculture, desalinated sea water,                  distribution of the earth's resources
   population fertility control, medical                and establishment of a permanent
   transplantation of natural organs and                lunar colony with regularly scheduled
   implantation of artificial plastic and               traffic between the earth and its
   electronic organs, widespread use of                 satellite.
   personality-control              drugs,           More than fifty years ago, social scientists
   sophisticated teaching machines,                    were able to predict the unfortunate
   automated      libraries,   worldwide               disappearance of the psychological
   communication by satellite relay                    sense of true community from the
   systems and automatic translating                   modern world. In 1950, Robert Nisbet,
   machines, the establishment of a                    in his book The Quest for Community
   permanent lunar base, deep-space
                                                       referred to       what he called the
   laboratories, and a considerable                    vocabulary      of    alienation.    This
   number of highly novel weapons of                   vocabulary includes such terms as
   warfare.                                            disorganization, decline, insecurity,
                                                       breakdown,       frustration,    anxiety,
                                                  20


      dehumanization,      depersonalization,          4. Contributions in Designing Techniques
      bureaucratization, anomie, acedia,                   and Methods for Dealing with Social
      homogenization, kitsch, and other                    Complexity: It is beyond the capacity
      types of social psychopathology. Also,               of even the most ambitious effort to
      writers like Kapp49, Herber50 and                    list all methods of dealing with the
      Harrison51 have stressed the serious,                complexity of social phenomena.
      social costs of unplanned and                        However, the following list was
      unregulated industrialization and                    mentioned by Henry Winthrop52:
      urbanization. Among these they                   Cybernetics, operations research, general
      included: impairment of the human                systems theory, new developments in
      factor of production, the social costs of        economic theory and their applications,
      air    pollution,     depletion      and         e.g.,    input-output     analysis,    linear
      destruction of animal resources, soil            programming, activity analysis, etc., new
      erosion,     soil    depletion       and         mathematical developments and their
      deforestation, the social costs of               applications in the social sciences, e.g.,
      technological change, the social costs           game theory, theory of convex sets,
      of unemployment and idle resources,              polygons and polyhedral cones, as used in
      monopoly and social losses, social               activity analysis, graph theory, Monte
      costs of distribution, social costs of           Carlo theory, etc., administration and
      transportation, urban life and health,           organization theory, mathematical models
      the problem of chemicals in food,                in the social sciences, science and
      environment and cancer, radiation and            information      theory,     decision-theory,
                                                       operant learning and conditioning and their
      human health, and industrial farming.
                                                       educational and social implications, the use
Social science research pointed long ago               of symbolic logic in scientific research in
   to an extremely important policy                    the natural and social sciences, data-
   question, i.e., physical and community              processing and computer theory and its
   decentralization on a substantial scale.            applications, human engineering and
   No doubt physical decentralization                  human factors analysis, systems analysis in
   will be tried to some extent, once                  the natural and social sciences, simulation
   modern man realizes that excessive                  technique in the behavioral and social
   urbanization as a handmaiden to mass                sciences, recent developments in the
                                                       philosophy        of      science,       new
   society tends to destroy genuine
                                                       interdisciplinary fields in the natural and
   community. A rough understanding of
                                                       social sciences, e.g., zetetics, the unity of
   such possibilities must be part of the              science movement, etc.
   equipment of the civic-minded citizen
   of our time, let alone the policy maker.            Policy-oriented social science researchers
                                                       are using many of these techniques in
                                                       solving complex problems in many areas,
49
     Kapp, William K. 1950. The Social Costs of        i.e., organization and management,
      Private Enterprise. Cambridge: Harvard           absenteeism     and     labor     relations,
      University Press.P.287.                          economics, market research, efficiency and
50
                                                       productivity, organization of flow in
      Herber, Lewis. 1962. Our Synthetic               factories, methods of quality control,
      Environment . New York: Alfred A. Knopf.         inspection and sampling, organization of
      P.285.
51                                                     52
     Harrison, Ruth. 1964. Animal Machines: The             Winthrop, Henry. 1968. Ventures in Social
      New Factory Farming Industry. London:                  Interpretation. New York: Appleton-
      Vincent Stuart, Ltd.P. 186.                            Century-Crofts. Pp. 282-83.
                                                21


technological change, transport, stocking,           compared with the increases of land, man-
distribution and handling,      rural and            hours, and physical reproducible capital.
agricultural      development,        and            Investment in human capital is probably
communications.                                      the       major explanation for this
                                                     difference..... I shall contend that such
5- Exposing and Developing the Concept
                                                     investment in human capital accounts for
    of Human Capital and its Policy
                                                     most of the impressive rise in the real
    Implications: It was not until the late          earnings per worker. (Schultz53)
    fifties when the subject of the
    economics of human resources as a                Schultz does not emphasize the
    field of inquiry began to revolutionize             quantitative dimensions of human
    such traditional subjects as growth                 resources (the number of people, the
    economics,         labor       economics,           proportion who enter upon useful
    international trade and public finance.             work, and hours worked ..etc.), but,
    Today, economists, instead of dealing               rather, he focuses on the quality
    with the labor market in terms of                   components as skill, knowledge, and
    homogeneous units of labor and                      similar attributes that affect particular
    capital,       they      realize     that           human capabilities to do productive
    improvements in the quality of the                  work. He distinguishes between
    labor force can have dramatic effects               expenditures for consumption and
    on economic growth. Changing hiring                 expenditures for investment. He
    standards and promotions within jobs,               mentions       three      classes      of
    planned expansion of collectively                   expenditures: those that satisfy
    provided education, how much a                      consumer preferences and in no way
    country should spend on education,                  enhance the capabilities under
    how should the expenditure be                       discussion - they represent pure
    financed, education being          mainly           consumption;       expenditures      that
    consumption or mainly investment                    enhance capabilities and do not satisfy
    and many other inquiries form the                   any        preferences        underlying
    subject matter of a full-blown                      consumption- these represent pure
    discipline of the economics of human                investment; and expenditures that
    resources. The core concept of this                 have both effects. He believes that
    discipline is "human capital."                      most relevant activities clearly are in
                                                        the third class. This is why, according
Theodore W. Shultz, the most influential                to him, measurement of capital
   and recognized throned king of this                  formation by expenditures is less
   discipline states:                                   useful for human investment than for
Although it is obvious that people acquire              investment      in   physical     goods.
useful skills and knowledge, it is not                  Accordingly, he suggests an alternative
obvious that these skills and knowledge are             method for estimating human
a form of capital, that this capital is in              investment, namely by its yield rather
substantial part a product of deliberate                than by its cost. "While any capability
investment, that it has grown in Western                produced by human investment
societies at a much faster rate than                    becomes a part of the human agent
conventional (nonhuman) capital, and that
its growth       may well be the most
distinctive feature of the economic system.          53
                                                          Schultz, T. W. 1961. "Investment in Human
It has been widely observed that increases                  Capital." American Economic Review, 51:
in national output have been large                          P. 1.
                                                  22


       and hence cannot be sold, it is                    formation arising from all forms of
       nevertheless 'in touch with the market             capital other than capital goods. He
       place' by affecting the wages and                  also states that capital goods are not
       salaries the human agent can earn.                 completely free of some of these
       The resulting increase in earnings is              problems. Depending upon the notion
       the yield on the investment"                       of       the        relationships       of
       (Schultz54).                                       complementarities and substitutability
                                                          in both production and consumption
In trying to operationalize the concept of
                                                          that may exist between types of
   human capital, Schultz mentioned
                                                          capital, and aiming "toward a
   some of the more important activities
                                                          generalized      capital    accumulation
   that 'improve ' human capabilities: (1)
                                                          approach to economic development,"
   health facilities and services; (2) on-
                                                          he points to the desirability of aiming
   the-job training, including old-style
                                                          at both balanced investment in the
   apprenticeship organized by firms; (3)
                                                          production of complementary types of
   formally organized education at the
                                                          capital and the selection of the most
   elementary, secondary, and higher
                                                          efficient combinations of types of
   levels; (4) study programs for adults
                                                          capital in the light of the relative costs
   that are not organized by firms,
                                                          of different kinds of investment. His
   including extension programs notably
                                                          support for investment in human
   in agriculture; (5) migration of
                                                          capital can be illustrated by his
   individuals and families to adjust to
                                                          concluding statements:
   changing job opportunities. He
   believes that, except for education,                Apart from its implications for planning for
   not much is known about these                          economic growth, a generalized capital
   activities that is germane here.                       accumulation approach to economic
                                                          development points to the potential
Along similar lines of thought, and much in
                                                          fruitfulness of research into and
   agreement with Schultz, Johnson55
                                                          analysis of the efficiency of a wide
   distinguishes between two types of
                                                          range of processes and policies that
   capital, i.e., consumption capital,
                                                          involve the allocation of capital but are
   which yields a flow of services
                                                          not usually thought of as concerned
   enjoyed directly and therefore
                                                          with       investment.       Institutional
   contributing to utility, and production
                                                          arrangements for supporting and
   capital, which yields a flow of goods
                                                          rewarding fundamental and applied
   the consumption of which yields
                                                          research, considered as an industry
   utility. Returns from the latter are
                                                          producing intellectual capital, provide
   observable, and therefore more
                                                          an even greater challenge to
   amenable to measurement than the
                                                          economists. .....Perhaps the most
   returns on consumption capital. He
                                                          important          area         requiring
   mentions the problems of economic
                                                          rationalization in terms of a broadened
   analysis measurement          and policy
                                                          concept of capital accumulation,
54                                                        however, is the theory and practice of
     Ibid. p. 10.
55
     Johnson, H. G. 1964. "Toward a Generalized           public finance. Not only do income tax
       Capital Accumulation Approach to                   systems typically make a very poor
       Economic Development." Pp.219-25 in                adjustment for the capital investment
       Residual Factors and Economic Growth,              element in personal income, but the
       Paris, O.E.C.D                                     necessity of recouping by income and
                                                      23


     profits taxation the          costs of                (d) elimination of severe malnutrition and
     investments      in   human      capital              a 50% reduction in moderate malnutrition
     customarily provided free or at a                     rates;
     subsidized price to the people invested               (e) family planning services for all willing
     in creates disincentives to the efficient             couples; (f) safe drinking water and
     use and accumulation of capital of all                sanitation for all; (g) credit for all, to
     kinds (Johnson56.)                                    ensure self-employment opportunities.
In summary, human capital denotes all                      These targets are probably suitable for
   acquired capabilities of man and                        famine-struck or very poor societies, but,
   their related nonmaterial products.                     due to a narrow concept of human capital,
   Even human health is hardly regarded                    they don't seem to help much the majority
   by the present writer as a component                    of developing nations. The concept these
   of human capital. Health, in view of                    targets are derived from seems to be data
   its physical nature and excluding                       driven, depends on static averages and
                                                           ignores the dynamic processes and
   famine-struck and very poor societies,
                                                           capabilities representing the major crux of
   could be regarded only as a
                                                           human development. Our conceptions
   prerequisite or an infrastructure for                   should not be barred by limited data. I
   human capital rather than human                         agree with Baron and Hannan58 that human
   capital itself.57 Derived from, and                     capital theory proposed by Becker in 1964
   depending       upon,    diagram     1                  has probably influenced sociology more
   mentioned above, the following                          than any other economic theory, but I see
   diagram 3 illustrates proposed                          no justification for them to ceil the growth
   components and items of the concept                     of human capital theory to "couch(ing)
   of human capital.” Dream high, score                    schooling, health, and other behaviors in
   low" is probably a required strategy                    investment terms."
   for the concept of human capital                        They say that "sociologists employed the
   development         and            its                     language of human capital to refer to
   implementation.                                            personal characteristics that have
The notion of a "20-20 human                                  value in labor markets, without always
development compact" adopted by                               specifying any structure of investment
delegates to the World Social Summit for                      or depreciation." They even seem to
Development lists a number of targets for                     be resentful of what they call a "minor
human development:                                            sociological industry" that "has arisen
(a) universal primary education for girls                     to construct sociological parallels to
and boys;                                                     human capital." Under the title "A
                                                              Plethora of Capitals" they mention
(b) a 50% reduction in adult illiteracy
                                                              "consumption capital" proposed as,
rates, with the female rate to be no higher
than the rate for males;                                      they say, by Stigler and Becker,
                                                              "linguistic and cultural capital"
© primary health care for all, with special                   mentioned by Pierre Bourdieu who
emphasis on the immunization of children;                     also talked about "economic capital,

                                                           58
                                                                Baron, James N. and Michael T. Hannan.
                                                                 1994. "The Impact of Economics on
56
   Johnson, op. cit. p. 25.                                      Contemporary Sociology." Journal of
57
 It is, of course, a basic element of human capital              Economic     Literature. Vol.    XXXII
for the seven hundred million people living in a                 (September):1111-1146.
state of "hunger" in today's world.
                                                    24


      social and cultural capital, capital of
      academic power, capital of intellectual
      renown and capital of political or
      economic power" (Bourdieu59). They
      finally       mention         Siegwart
                  60
      Lindenberg's    concept of         self-
      command capital, i.e., the capacity to
      take authoritative direction, which
      makes a person attractive to
      employers.
I tend to disagree with Baron and Hannan's
apparent bordering of the concept of
human capital within         its traditional
education, health and other "purely"
economic dimensions. Humans are the
makers of great civilizations; if we don't
delve into their talents and identify their
miraculous capabilities, to the best of our
abilities, the concept of human capital will
always be short of adequate exploration.
The following diagram illustrates a much
   more elaborate plethora of human
   capitals, which I hope does not
   complicate more an already complex
   endeavor in pursuit of awareness of
   the human capital concept and
   implications. Almost all of these items
   have been studied, and many of them
   quantifiably,     by different social
   science disciplines. Probably, this could
   be the particular subject that will
   evoke a real interdisciplinary social
   science movement. Social scientists
   need to expand the interaction effect
   as they work together in grasping what
   they have long failed to comprehend
   in isolation.



59
     Bourdieu, Pierre. 1988. Homo academicus.
      Stanford: Stanford U. Press. Pp. 39-40.
60
     Lindenberg, Siegwart. 1992. "Self-Command
       Capital and the Problem of Agency." Paper
       presented at the Annual Meetings of the
       American      Sociological    Association.
       Pittsburgh.
                                                     25




     PSYCHO-                   SOCIO-                       ECO-                POLI-               CUL-
   LOGICAL                    LOGICAL                     NOMIC                 TICAL             TURAL
   *Creativity      *Level of education, on- the-    Economic               *Political        *Clear cultural
       and              job training, adult              rationality.           participati
                                                                                              convictions.
       innovative       education programs.                                     on.
                                                     *Conservation-
       ness                                                                                   *Cultural
                    *Migratory labor adjustments        exploitation        *Democracy.
                                                                                                  openness.
   *Achievement        and viable pop./resources        equilibrium.
                                                                            *Human
       motivatio       distribution.                                                          *Clearly
                                                     *Partnership              security
       n.                                                                                         identifiable
                    *Organizational competence           between               (against
                                                                                                  and strongly
   *Psychic             (efficiency and                  government,           hunger,
                                                                                                  adopted
       complace         effectiveness).                  private sector        disease,
                                                                                                  normative
       ncy.                                              and NGO's.            crime and
                    *The art and science of                                                       standards.
                                                                               repression
   *Empathy.            planning and                 *Capital
                                                                               .              *Minimum
                        management.                      accessibility to                     degree of
   *Morale and
                                                         the masses.        *Enlargement      cultural
      group         *Institutional viability and
                                                                                of            contradictions.
      identificat       institutional                *Distributional
                                                                                people's
      ion.              arrangements for                 justice.
                                                                                choices.
                        supporting and rewarding
                                                     *Appropriate and
                        basic and applied
                                                        environmental
                        research.
                                                        ly sound
                    *Women and popular                  technology.
                       participation.
                                                     *Rational practice
                    *Cooperation, community              of public
                       integration and solidarity.       finance.

                    Diagram 3. Components of the Concept of Human Capital
6-Exposing and Measuring the Role of                           is implemented by the use of social
   Science and Technology in Socio-                            science knowledge and research.
   economic Development: Most of                          Taking agricultural research as an example
   natural science research findings are
                                                             of natural science research, we find
   similar to gold, iron ore or otherwise,                   that     economic       research,     as
   buried in a mine. Social science                          representative of social science
   research evaluates these findings as to                   research, has illustrated the high rates
   their value and benefits in addition to                   of return to investment in agricultural
   devising the techniques for their                         research-well above the 10 to 15
   extension and adoption by targeted                        percent (above inflation) that private
   beneficiaries. It is recognized that the                  firms consider adequate to attract
   significance of science and technical                     investment        (Ruttan61).     Ruttan
   change is that it permits the                             presented more than 60 estimates of
   substitution     of     knowledge     for                 annual internal rate of return to
   resources,     of     inexpensive   and                   investments in agricultural research,
   abundant resources for scarce and
   expensive resources or that it releases
                                                          61
   the constraints on growth imposed by                        Ruttan, Vernon W. 1982. Agricultural
   inelastic resource supply. This function                    Research Policy. Minneapolis: University
                                                               of Minnesota Press. P. 241.
                                                   26


     the following is a random selection               presented in table 1.
                Table 1. Selected Studies of Agricultural Research Productivity
                                                                                            ANNUAL
          STUDY            COUNTRY               COMMO-               TIME                INTERNAL
                                                   DITY              PERIOD                 RATE OF
                                                                                          RETURN %
      Griliches,1958   USA                Hybrid corn           1940-1955           35-40
      Ayer, 1970       Brazil             Cotton                1924-1967           77+
      Hayami    and    Japan              Rice                  1915-1950           25-27
         Akino,
         1977
      same             same               same                  1930-1961           73-75
      Nagy       and   Canada             Rapeseed              1960-1975           95-110
         Furtan,
         1978
      Evenson, 1979    Southern USA       Technology oriented   1948-1971           130



Ruttan,62 in his "commentary: science and technology in agricultural development," writes :
                   As the end of the twentieth century approaches, it is clear that the three high-
                   payoff investments responsible for generating growth of agricultural
                   production are investment in (1) the capacity of a public-sector agricultural
                   research system to develop locally relevant scientific knowledge and
                   technology; (2) the capacity of the private sector to develop, produce, and
                   market the new inputs that embody the knowledge and technology generated
                   by research; and (3) the education of rural people to enable them to make
                   effective use of the new knowledge and technology.




62
     Ruttan, Vernon W. 1995. "Commentary: Science and Technology in Agricultural Development."
      IFPRI Report (International Food Policy Research Institute) Vol. 17, No. 2:8. P. 8.
                                            50


                               SOCIAL PROCESSES

An interactive situation commences           mathematics, business techniques,            the
whenever two or more people begin to         wholesaler-retailer chain… etc.
influence one another. It last as long as    This complexity is made possible by the
the participants continue to be              ability of human beings to identify with each
influenced by one another without shift      other’s attitudes and feelings much more than
of interest away from the immediate          seems to be the case with other animals.
contact. It is terminated when the
contact is broken and the interest of        Another facet of cooperation is that when two
those involved shifts to another             or more human beings work together to
situation. For example, an interaction       achieve an objective, they may benefit
begins as husband and wife discuss           mutually but unequally from their efforts. The
their son’s difficulty with mathematics.     word “cooperation” should not be take to
This situation ends suddenly when the        imply equal distribution of the rewards.
man glances at his watch, jumps up,          Management and labor cooperation in
kisses his wife , and rushes to meet his     bringing coal out of a mine, but their
tennis companions.                           respective rewards for such effort are not the
                                             same.
    PRIMARY PROCESSES OF
        INTERACTION                          Competition: When two or more individuals
                                             are trying to obtain possession of something
These are cooperation, competition,          that is not available in quantities sufficient to
and conflict. All other so-called            satisfy all of them, they are engaged in
processes of interaction are actually        competition. Say two grocery stores open up
one or a combination of these three.         in a neighborhood that cannot supply enough
Cooperation: When two or more                business to provide both store owners with the
human beings are working together to         margin of profit that will make their labor
achieve objectives that will be              worthwhile. The two shopkeepers are in
mutually beneficial to all concerned,        competition. Several social philosophers and
they are engaged in cooperation. It is       other students of social life have argued that
believed that the entire process of          competition rather cooperation is the most
evolution emerged from the abilities of      basic of social processes. This was essentially
individual organisms in certain species      the viewpoint of Charles Darwin, and it is
to integrate their activities through        mostly correct in a general sense. Plants
mutual aid. Survival of the fittest is       compete for sunlight, water, and nourishment.
actually survival of the most                Animals compete for sexual gratification and
cooperative types of organisms.              food.
Human cooperation is much more               But although the view that competition is the
complex than animal cooperation. Two         natural condition of all existence applies
coyotes may cooperate to corner a            generally to human interaction, it fails to
rabbit. But this is much simpler than        explain much of the competition in which
the cooperation of human beings to           individuals engage. We compete for trophies,
produce a carton of milk. This human         grades, money, impressive automobiles and
cooperation requires the integrated          clothes, political office, favorable attention
efforts of the cattle raiser, the farm       from the opposite sex. All these items satisfy
work      involved,       transportation,    culturally acquired needs, but none imperative
pasteurization, advertising,                 to life.
                                           51


Rivalry:    Rivalry is the same as          Coser and Dahrenhorf as well as other
competition, as both follow the rules of    conflict theorists believe that conflict, in spite
honest competition, except that rivalry     of its dangers, does have certain positive
is a more personal and vigorous             functions for society: (1) Conflict may
process than competition. Competing         connote      adventure,     novelty,      growth,
parties may exist without personal          clarification, creation, and dialectical
knowledge of each others. Cotton            rationality. (2) Conflict acts as a safety valve
growers in Egypt may compete with           for the society. Small scale series of conflicts
those growers in Mississippi. But,          prevent the occurrence of a total explosion
rivalry becomes more vigorous as the        that may eradicate the stable and coherent
competing parties know each others          nature of the society. (3) Conflict encourages
personally and the rewards expected         social change and act as an agent for
are more than those in case of              revitalizing societies. (4) Conflict leads to
competition.                                group formation, and strengthening the
                                            integrity of existing groups normally involved
Conflict: When abandoning honest
                                            in conflict.
rules of competition, and rivals begin
to thwart, harm, or destroy one                   SECONDARY PROCESSES OF
another, individuals are engaged in                    INTERACTION
conflict. Conflict has been viewed, like    There are two secondary processes of
competition, as a natural and inevitable    interaction: accommodation and assimilation.
condition of life. Thomas Hobbs             Both are essentially related to cooperation.
expressed this belief. He contended
that men are naturally destructive and      Accommodation: When two or more people
vengeful. He considered it a redeeming      involved in conflict with one another agree to
characteristic of human beings that         suspend or cease hostilities, this interaction
they had the ability to develop strong      between them is termed accommodation.
governments that prevented them from        Accommodation is a state of cooperation
following their natural inclination to      emerging from a conflict situation. One
indulge in perpetual conflict. Evidence     example is an agreement between two
collected since Hobbes does not             individuals to postpone their struggle because
support his theory as a universal           they are physically exhausted; another
principle. Human conflict, unlike           example is “cold war” on the international
animal conflict, is complicated and         level. Accommodation is also exemplified by
takes different forms. Many different       relatively permanent adjustments, as when
kinds of physical conflict can take         two nations that have been warring over their
place. Fight by words is another form       respective boundaries lay down their arms,
of conflict. It could be more dangerous     sign a treaty delineating the agreed-upon
as it ruins reputation or careers.          borders of each country, and respect this
Some writers believe that a major           agreement thereafter.
source of conflict lies in inadequate       Still another example of accommodation is a
communication. But the fact remains         community in which two ethnic groups have
that people who speak the same              been hostile toward each other for years,
language engage in family feuds and         engaging in open conflict from time to time.
civil wars. In fact, increased contact      Gradually the members of one group come to
may accentuate the difference and the       know those of the other better and better.
seemingly irreconcilable objectives,        They vote on the same issues, fight common
fears and insecurities arising from         community perils, unite to make civic
observation of potential rival.             improvements. The children of one group find
                                            themselves play in with children of the other
                                             52


group. The parents work in the dame establishments, shop in the same stores, attend same
gatherings in the same schools. Imperceptibly, individuals from one group decide that those
from the other are worthy of respect. Conflict diminishes, until finally it exists no longer.
The two groups have accommodated, one to the other, more or less permanently.
Assimilation: When two or more cultural groups living in the same locality are in the
process of uniting and becoming a single cultural group, the form of interaction taking place
is termed assimilation. This process is marked by the gradual disappearance of some cultural
differences distinguishing the groups and is a product of prolonged cooperation between or
among them.
Egyptisn culture has its distinctive characteristics today, has borrowed from the cultures of
the Chinese, the Indians and the immigrants from many lands who came and still come to
this country. Similarly, a full measure of the cultures of incoming Poles, Russians, Britons,
Italians, Germans and many others has been incorporated into the American way of life.
Afro-Americans have contributed elements of their original African cultures in the States.
The ancestors of the Americans in Pennsylvania contribute elements of Hungarian culture.
Also, new arrivals to the American land have taken over many cultural elements from other
groups, so have newer arrivals to this land borrowed aspects of the culture they found there.
Assimilation is a two-way process.
But this does not mean that one group exchanges all of its cultural characteristics for an
entirely different set of cultural characteristics. Immigrants to America do not enter a
figurative melting pot and emerge “100 percent Americans,” each exactly like every other
individual in this country, in every respect culturally identical. Realistically considered,
American culture is not one culture, but a mosaic of a number of cultural patterns.
                                             53




             GROUPS, ORGANIZSTION, AND CULTURE

Above mentioned, the problems of                  subjected to various experimental conditions,
social interaction have been simplified           and their behavior carefully recorded.
to social situations involving not more       Groups of two (dyads) are of special interest
than two people. Presently social                since they provide the simplest instances of
situations involving more than two               social interaction, and because more complex
people will be considered, First,                cases are explicable in terms of the principles
interaction may take place between               which work here. However, dyads are unique
members of small social groups with              in a number of ways – they are less stable
three, four, or more members.                    and there is more danger of interaction
Second, there may be differences of              collapsing, there are more signs of tension,
power, status or role in social                  but there is less expression of agreement and
organizations. Third, people are                 disagreement.
steeped status or role in social class
                                              Groups of three also have certain unique
background, which prescribes the
                                                 features. The addition of a third member to a
linguistic and non-linguistic means of
                                                 dyad, even merely as an observer, changes
communication, as well as the rules              the situation entirely. Each of the original
governing behavior in different                  participants now has to consider how his
situations.                                      behavior will be affected differently if this is
    MEMBERSHIP OF SMALL                          (a) an attractive girl; (b) his mother; (c) his
      SOCIAL GROUPS                              tutor, etc. If the new member takes part in
                                                 interaction, the situation is changed further.
A great deal of social interaction takes
                                                 A and B may have worked out their decision
   place between people who are
                                                 to speak to C now, as C has to be fitted into
   members of small social groups – such
                                                 this hierarchy – he may dominate both, be
   as work-team committees or groups
                                                 intermediate, or be dominated by both. A
   of friends. Small social groups are an
                                                 and B may have worked out the level of
   essential part of life; they are joined
                                                 intimacy they can tolerate; C and A, and C
   because many activities cannot be
                                                 and B, have now to work out the same
   performed alone – most kinds of sport
                                                 problem, and the result may affect the
   and work, for example. They also
                                                 relationship as it might be weakened.
   satisfy the various social motivations.
   People often join a group for              In groups of three there are various kinds of
   economic or other non-social reasons           internal competition and jockeying for
   in the first place; they then become           position. With three males there is usually a
   attached to the group. There has               straight battle for dominance, and the
   been a great deal of research into             weakest become excluded. If there are two
   small social groups, mainly by means           males and one female, the males will
   of laboratory experiments, in which            compete for the attention of the female.
   groups of different kinds are created,         Females behave rather differently; if there
                                               54


    are three females and one begins to             the past; thus the hierarchy is maintained in
    get left out, the others will work hard         equilibrium - people are allowed to talk and
    to keep her in . If there is one                are listened to if their contributions are
    powerful and dominating member of               expected to be useful. The group uses
    a triad, the others may from a                  techniques of reward and punishment to
    coalition in which weak against the             maintain this system: a person who talks too
    strong is observed in small group               much is punished, while high-status members
    experiments and in real life: it has            who feel sleepy are stimulated to speak.
    been summarized by the proposition              When people with different positions in the
    ‘in weakness there is strength’.                hierarchy interact, the pattern of relationship
                                                    between them is part of the total scheme of
As group size increases from four to ten or
                                                    group organization. If they meet when away
    more the character of interaction
                                                    from the group entirely it is likely that the
    changes. It is less easy to participate,
                                                    interaction between them will partly revert
    both because others want to take the
                                                    to one simply dependent on their two
    floor and because of greater audience
                                                    personalities.
    anxiety; it is less easy to influence
    what the others will do; there is           In addition to having different degrees of status
    greater discrepancy between the                 and influence, group members adopt styles of
    amount of interaction of different              behavior which are differentiated in other
    members – in large groups the                   ways.     Sociologists have found that in
    majority scarcely speak at all; the             discussion groups there was usually a popular
    variety of personality and talent               person, a task-specialist, and sometimes a
    present is greater differentiation of           third person who was very active. It is
    styles of behavior; discussion is less          interesting that the same person does not do
    inhibited and there is ready                    all these things – reflecting contrasting types
    expression of disagreement; if the              of motivation among the members. An
    group has work to do, there is a                analysis of role differentiation was made by
    greater tendency to create rules and            Davis who studied 172 ‘Great Books’ clubs in
    arrange for division of labor. Most             America. The task roles of providing ‘fuel’,
    people seem to prefer as much as                putting the ‘threads’ of the discussion
    they want to and exert influence over           together, and clarification, were generally
    other personalities and talents among           performed by the same person; the social
    those present for tacking common                roles of making tactful comments to heal hurt
    tasks or for purely social purposes.            feeling, and joining, were performed by
                                                    others.
Groups develop definite ‘pecking orders’
   in terms of amount of speech and             Groups develop norms of behavior, which can be
   influence permitted. During the early           regarded as a kind of culture in miniature.
   meetings of the group there is a                Such norms will govern the styles of social
   struggle for status amongst those               behavior which are approved and admired.
   individuals strong in dominance                 Anyone who fails to conform is placed under
   motivation, as with groups of two and           pressure to do so, and if he does not is
   three. When the order has settled               rejected. Numerous experiments show that a
   down, a characteristic pattern of               deviate becomes the object of considerable
   interaction is found. The low status            attention, and of efforts to persuade him to
   members at the bottom of this                   change his deviation is on some matter which
   hierarchy talk little, they address the         is important to the group, which challenges
   senior     members        politely    and       deeply-held beliefs. An interesting exception
   deferentially, and little notice is taken       to this is for persons very high in formal
   of what they have to say. A person’s            status, in virtue of their contributions to the
   position in the hierarchy is primarily a        group; Hollander has suggested that they
   function of how useful he has been in           earn ‘idiosyncrasy credit’ and the group gives
                                              55


    them permission to deviate – their             dominant role. Berkowitz found that in a star
    deviation is seen as a possibly new            pattern (diagram 4) D becomes the dominant
    line of action rather than as a failure        member;       if D was not an assertive
    to attain the approved standard. It is         personality, it took him a number of trials
    important that people should deviate           before he came to accept the dominant role.
    from the norm in a constructive way
    and lead the group to adopt a better
    solution to its problems in response to
    a changing external situation.
If two members meet outside the group
    setting, and the behavior of one is
    nearer to the group norms than the
    other, he will be less likely to change
    in order to adjust to the other.
    Indeed he will probably try to change
    the other’s behavior, and have             A                            B
    confidence based on the group’s
    social support.     Two people from
    different groups are apt to treat each
    other as ‘outsiders’, members of the                     D
    out-group, and to reject one another
    through their failure to conform to
    the norms of the in-group. If they
    meet in the territory of one of the
    groups, the other member will even
    come to accept himself as the
    outsider,    and feel under some
    pressure to conform to the norms, or
    accept himself as inferior and                          C
    rejected.
                                                       Diagram 4: Star pattern of
When a group is engaged in the                              communication
  performance of a task, as are work
  groups, committees,        and sports        Group members are usually interested in the
  teams,     the interactions between          successful accomplishment of the group task;
  members will depend on the way the           they will work together, help one another, i.e.
  task brings them together. The very          cooperate to this end. They are also inclined
  nature of the task is a major factor in      to compete – through the operation of
  determining the status hierarchy:            dominance or achievement motivation, or the
  those who are best at the task or            hope of getting a bigger share of the proceeds.
  most able to contribute to its solution      Group behavior is typically both cooperative
  will be most influential.       Several      and competitive. It is possible to accentuate
  experiments with laboratory groups           either of these tendencies by experimental
  have shown how changing the group            manipulation. If group members are to share
  task will lead to changes of                 equally in the group product, they will
  leadership.    The group task may            cooperate; if the best performer is to take all,
  create certain lines of communication        they will compete. Experiments have found
  between group members and                    that under cooperative motive members help
  suppress others. One consequence             each other more, there is more division of
  of this is that those in the most            labor, and they come to like one another;
  central positions become most                performance at group tasks requiring joint
  influential and come to assume a
                                              56


effort is superior. Under competition          Behavior in organizations differs from that in
hostile attitudes will develop; an                small social groups in a number of ways.
example of this is the payment of sales           Interaction patterns are not so much a
girls by individual piece-work, leading           product of particular groups of personalities,
to their fighting over the more                   but are part of the organizational structure.
desirable customers.                              People come to occupy positions of influence
                                                  or leadership not through the spontaneous
 SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS                             choice of their subordinates, but because
A great deal of social behavior takes             they are placed there by higher authority.
place against a background of social              Further more, they have power, i.e. they can
organization - in families, industry,             control sanctions of reward or punishment;
hospitals, and else-where.       ‘Social          for example, more senior officers in the
organization’ means the existence of a            services are entitled to administer a greater
                                                  number of days’ detention. This formal
series of ranks, positions or offices –
                                                  power may become ‘legitimated’ if the junior
such as father, foreman, hospital
                                                  members come to accept the authority of
sister, etc. which persist regardless of
                                                  their seniors, in the light of evidence that the
particular occupants. Certain behavior
                                                  latter really are good at the job.
is found to be characteristic of most
occupants of a position: a waiter is           Social organization is an essential part of modern
polite and submissive to the diners, but           life, because it would be impossible to
he does not behave like this to the                coordinate the activities of the numbers of
cooks, or when he is off duty: it is part          people involved in large-scale enterprises
of the role of waiter. By a ‘role’ is              without extensive division of labor and a
meant a pattern of behavior which is               hierarchy of leadership. As a small workshop
shared by most occupants of a position,            expands to become a factory, or when a
and which comes to be expected of                  guerrilla band becomes an army,            the
them. The role usually includes a                  paraphernalia of social organization becomes
series of distinct relationships with              necessary. To manufacture motor cars, for
people in other positions. A hospital              example, thousands of different parts must
                                                   be made by a large number of different
sister has a different relationship with
                                                   people and fitted together. This requires a
patients, visitors, nurses, housemen,
                                                   great deal of planning and coordination.
surgeons, and so on.
                                                   Social organization is essential, but the
Social organization introduces a totally           precise forms which we have are not
    new element which has not so far               necessarily the best and are in fact found to
    been considered. To predict how A              be dissatisfying by many who serve in them.
    and B will behave towards one
                                               It is impossible to understand why the members
    another it may be much more useful
                                                    of an organization interact as they do without
    to know about their personalities or
                                                    knowing their organization chart. Consider
    preferred styles of interaction. In the
                                                    diagram 5. It is likely that A will have rather
    extreme cases of church services and
                                                    strained, formal relations with his immediate
    drill parades the whole course of
                                                    superior,      B; an uneasy mixture of
    interaction can be ‘predicted’ by
                                                    cooperation and competition with his co-
    knowing the formal procedure. Even
                                                    worker, C; friends , relaxed relations with D,
    a person’s popularity may be more a
                                                    if he knows him; friendly, not quite so
    function of his position than of his
                                                    relaxed relations with E, slightly strained by
    personality – it depends whether he
                                                    the difference in rank, but not disturbed by
    has a rewarding role like awarding
                                                    power relations.
    bonuses of giving out free buns, or
    has a punitive role.                       How do people come to learn the role behavior
                                                  appropriate their positions as waiters,
                                                57


    hospital sisters, and so on? It is partly    Note the keen interest, the total absorption of
    a matter of selection – since only              the lesser members… The greater member is
    some people want the job, and                   looking past the ear of the lesser, scanning
    selection by higher authority as being          the through for an acquaintance whose
    of ‘ the right type’. There are also            status is greater than his own from whom
    special training courses, social                enhancement may be drawn.
    pressures on the job for those who do
                                                 Permanent relationships in the organization have
    not conform, and spontaneous
                                                    a similar quality. Less important people are
    imitation of senior practitioners. The
                                                    much concerned about what their superiors
    job itself may require a certain style –
                                                    think of them; their superiors, however, are
    teachers acquire a loud, clear, and
                                                    more concerned with what their superiors
    didactic voice as this is needed in
                                                    are thinking.
    order to do the job.
                                                 Organizations differ in the jobs they do –
                  F
                                                    compare hospitals, universities,          and
                                                    factories. They differ in the contents of the
                                                    roles in them – compare hospital sisters,
                                                    professors, and managers, they differ in the
                                                    amount of power leaders have over their
     B                          E                   subordinates, and in the social distance
                                                    between them.         They differ in the
a          b          c             d               ‘organizational climate’, i.e. the general
      Diagram 5: Organization chart                 pattern of relationships between members,
                                                    and particularly the styles of supervision
Since behavior carries with it the rank or          which are used. The climates of different
    position of the other, it is important          firms and different universities are very
    to be able to categorize people; many           different.
    organizations have uniforms, and
    members of others can usually be             So far the importance of the organizational
    placed by more subtle aspects of their          structure has been emphasized. In fact,
    appearance. When an outsider enters             there are considerable deviations from this
    an organization, even for a short visit,        on the part of individuals, who may take
    there is great pressure to find out his         their roles in unusual ways, despite the
    ‘equivalent’ so that everyone shall             expectations and pressures of others.
    know exactly how to treat him. In            If A is the supervisor of B, an important climate of
    many primitive societies the main                 each will play a part. However, A and B will
    principle of social organization is not           work out their own particular pattern, and
    rank but family relationship: a                   the      personalities and preferred social
    potential mother-in-law is avoided, an            techniques of become            an important
    uncle is played jokes on, and so forth.           determinant of the relations between them.
    It is reported of one savage tribe                A may succeed in establishing a more
    which operated such a classificatory              dominant, authoritarian relation, or B may
    kinship system that if it could not be            manage to have more voice in decisions than
    discovered how a visitor was related              is usual. This might be a result of the basic
    to everyone he was eaten – because                motivations of A and B, or because they have
    people did not know how to behave                 had previous experience in another
    towards him. In western society,                  organization with a rather different climate –
    when people of different social status            as when a brigadier becomes a professor, or
    meet, at conferences, office parties,             a hospital sister becomes a teacher
    and the like, there is a characteristic           organizational climate may change.
    type of interaction:
                                                  58


 There is a further aspect of social                     concerned, work people may be grouped in
    organization which is found in                       various ways. They may be on assembly line,
    industrial and similar organizations -               which means that they interact only with
    the work – flow system.            To                their neighbors, but are dependent on the
    coordinate the efforts of all those                  whole               group               for
their pay. They may be in a group under a forman on individual piece-work, or may be isolated at control
    points in an automated system. These arrangements have definite effects on the relations between
    people – it may make them love or hate each other – depending on whether they are helping or hindering
    one another; it may make communications easy or impossible, as a result of their hours and places of
    work. A simple example is the case of a commercial organization in which customers went first to the
    sales department, and then to the credit department. After the salesmen had done a lot of work making a
    sale, as a often as not the credit department would not allow no credit, so that the sale was cancelled.
    This resulted in a great wastage of time and in hostility between the two departments. The solution
    produced by industrial consultants was simply to reverse the order of the two departments so that credit
    was cleared first.


                      CULTURE, ETHNICITY AND SOCIAL CLASS

Culture refers to a set of values, ideas,                   means to the members of a particular
    artifacts, and other meaningful symbols                 society. Culture does not include instincts
    that help individuals communicate,                      or idiosyncratic behavior occurring as a
    interpret, and evaluate as members of                   one-time solution to a unique problem. It
    society. It has been described as the                   does, however, reflect certain influences
    “blueprint” of human activity, determining              from factors such as ethnicity, race,
    the coordinates of social action and                    religion, and national or regional identity,
    productive activity. Culture has also been              as seen in the following diagram. As some
    defined as a set of socially acquired                   of these elements change within a society,
    behavior        patterns       transmitted              so then does the culture change.
    symbolically through language and other


                                          * Ethnicity
                                          *Race
                                          *Religion
                                          *Religion or
                                          national identity



                                                  Culture




                Abstract/ Behavioral                                      Physical/ Material
              * Values                                                   * Artifacts
                                                59


              * Norms                                                * Technology
              * Rituals                                              * Infrastructure
              * Symbols
                                    Diagram 6. Influences on Culture


Culture includes both abstract and material          fixed), what clothes shall be worn (e.g.
    elements, which allow us to describe,            whether a gown, suit, etc.), how much of
    evaluate, and differentiate cultures.            the time each person will talk, whether
    Abstract elements include values,                they stand or sit, and so on. This pattern of
    attitudes, ideas, personality types, and         conventions varies sharply between
    summary constructs, such as religion or          different culture and sub-cultures, and
    politics.                                        certain types of encounter may be unique
Social interaction takes place within a              to a particular culture. Visitors to the
cultural setting. By the culture of a group          U.S.A. may have to learn what happens at
of people is meant their whole way of life           a pyjama party, a bull session, a picnic, a
– their shared patterns of behavior, their           baby shower, and may have to learn the
common ideas and beliefs, their                      elaborate rules which surround dating.
technology, and their art, science,                  When visiting someone to ask a favor in
literature, and history. There is a culture          West Africa it is assumed that a gift will be
that is shared by the inhabitants of Great           presented – not as a bribe, just as the
Britain, and there are sub-cultures for              traditional exchange of gifts. The rules
particular geographical areas, social classes        governing selling vary in different parts of
and organizations, and even for particular           the world, and the procedure will involve
small social groups. Several aspects of              more or less bargaining and take more or
culture affect the processes of interaction,         less time accordingly. If one party breaks
notably the conventions governing social             the cultural rules this creates anger and
behavior, moral rules about interpersonal            consternation among the others involved.
behavior, verbal and non-verbal means of             In some social skills it is necessary to teach
communication,       and    other      social        clients the new cultural tradition – as with
techniques. Culture is studied by                    subjects of motivation research interviews,
anthropologists and sociologists, who carry          or patient undergoing psychotherapy. It
out descriptive field studies of particular          seems to be usual to create the impression
groups of people.                                    that there is a stable tradition, which the
Social conventions. In any culture there             newcomer hasn’t heard about. A
are a series of rules and expectations               peculiarity of research in psychology is
governing most kinds of social encounter,            that subjects are placed in very unusual
and there are classes of accepted types of           situations – but even here there has come
encounters into which every interaction              to be a tradition, governing how long it
should fall. At Oxford University, for               shall take, how much subjects are paid,
example, a faculty member can meet                   how much they are told, and so on.
students at lectures, tutorials, discussion          New words are created to cover new
classes, or to give personal advice and              situations, which become added to the
guidance. He can meet his friends at                 cultural store. If a person does not know
sherry parties, dinner, ‘coffee’, etc. In            the word he will be unlikely to distinguish
each of these situations it is generally             the situation or to know about the rules.
understood how long the encounter will
last (in some the actual time of day is              Ideas and normal values are rules of
                                                     conduct of a rather different kind.
                                                  60


Compared with most social conventions,                 the more general ones (Love your
e.g. when to wear a tie or a suit, they are            neighbor) are exceedingly vague. The
more directly concerned with interpersonal             study of interpersonal behavior may
behavior, and particularly with behavior               perhaps be able to suggest how such ideals
which will help or harm other people.                  could be spelled out in more detail.
Furthermore, disapproval is more severe                Social techniques. Within a given culture
when they are broken. In modern societies              there is a shared language, so that every
there are great variations between different           utterance has an agreed meaning.
groups of people in the extent to which                Nonverbal acts also have special meanings.
different moral values and ideas are                   So that it is not enough just to learn the
accepted. They are taught by parents,
                                                       language when traveling abroad. Without
teachers, clergymen, politicians,       and            attempting an exhaustive account, a few
others,    and are learned by children                 examples can be given to show the extent
brought up in the culture. Values and                  of these.
ideals function as restraints which control
and inhibit certain spontaneous patterns of            Verbal techniques: There are variations in
behavior. while aggressive and sexual                  the way communications are composed.
behavior are among the main targets of                 Americans put commands in the form of
these controls,      the whole style and               queries or suggestions: ‘Would You like
strategy of social behavior may also, be               to’. Arab speech contains a great deal of
affected.                                              exaggeration and emphasis: ‘If an Arab
                                                       says what he means without the expected
Moral codes may be learned as simple sets              exaggeration, other Arabs may still think
of rules – ‘It is wrong to tell a lie’. Or as          that he means the opposite’. Thus an Arab
rather high-level principles such as ‘Do               will continue to pursue a girl who does not
unto others as you would they do unto                  rebuff him vigorously enough, and will
you’. They may be expressed as attitudes               assume a visitor really wants more to eat
which should be adopted – ‘Love your                   unless he refuses three times. English
neighbor’. Most moral codes in fact                    upper-middle-class       speech     includes
recommend behavior          which is more              considerable understatement; a person who
affiliative, less dominating, and less                 fails to follow this convention is regarded
aggressive than social behavior often is.              as boastful.        There are interesting
Moral may take the form of ideals to be                variations in the significance of non-verbal
followed, and cultures can be distinguished
                                                       noises - hissing in Japan signifies
by the heroes which they admire most. In               deference to social superiors, but not in
many cases the hero has a well-defined                 Britain. Gestures are used quite differently
style of social behavior – compare Jesus of            in different cultures. Ruesch and kees
the parables, the nineteenth – century                 observe how British and American
English gentleman, and the cowboy of                   gestures are directed towards activity, e.g.
1890 vintage, to name a few at random.                 the hitch hiking sign; Italian gestures are a
There are rewards for behaving in                      passionate and expansive expression of
accordance with such ideals. The grosser               emotion;      Jewish gestures accompany
failures are punished by legal sanctions,              words to emphasize and underline the
the less gross by general public                       points made; French gestures are elegant
disapproval. The higher levels of moral                and precise and display taste and style.
attainment are reward by social approval,              The same gesture may have a quite
sometimes by social mobility, or by hopes              different meaning in two cultures. Sticking
of better prospects in the next life.                  out the tongue means an apology in parts
It is interesting that while the specific rules        of China, the evil eye in parts of India
are impossible to obey (Never tell a lie),
                                                 61


deference in Tibet, and simple negation in            Much of what is sometimes described as
the Marquesans.                                       ‘national character’ can be looked at
                                                      simply as differences in social techniques,
Facial expression: Although the facial
                                                      and in norms of behavior. When Latin
expression of emotion is party innate and
                                                      Americans stand closer than North
universal, there is a lot of cultural
                                                      Americans, it does not follow that their
modification. The Japanese smile when
                                                      desire for intimacy is greater; it may just
bringing bad news, while in a number of
                                                      be that they learned different social
countries it is customary to conceal
                                                      techniques. On the other hand, if the
emotional states. Eye-contact is taboo
                                                      people from some cultural groups are
during conversation in parts of the Far
                                                      consistently aggressive, affiliative, or
East; such avoidance of eve-contact in
                                                      dominating in several ways, we can say
Western countries would be regarded as a
                                                      that their norms are different; but it may
sign of rudeness or mental disorder.
                                                      be more useful to say that their level of
Physical Distance:      People from the               motivation is different, and to regard this
Middle East or south America will stand               as a feature of their ‘national character’. A
closer than Europeans or Americans.                   difficulty with this notion is that there are
Bodily contact takes very diverse forms in            great variations in personality within a
different cultures – various kinds of                 given culture, and the overall difference
embracing, stroking, buffeting, or kissing            between two cultures may be hard to
to greet people. Various kinds of hand-               detect; on the other hand, there may be
holding or leg- entwining during                      much more homogeneity in social
encounters.                                           techniques: whatever else is said about the
Establishing rapport: It was observed                 national character of the French, there is
above that Americans are to establish a               no disputing that they speak French.
certain, rather superficial contact very              When people from two different cultures
quickly,      whereas the British are                 meet, there is infinite scope for
experienced as more ‘stand –offish’, or               misunderstanding and confusion. This may
simply difficult to get to know. This may             be a matter of misunderstanding the other’s
be due to differences in affiliative                  communications, verbal or non-verbal.
motivation or to differences in the social            There is the Englishman who depreciates
techniques which are acquired.                        his own abilities in what turns out to be a
Etiquette: All cultures have their rules              highly misleading way; there is the Arab
and expectations; when these are elaborate            who starves at a banquet because he is only
and rigid they are referred to as ‘etiquette’.        offered the dishes once; there is the
In Western countries, it is only in old –             African who puts his hand on a Western
fashioned upper- class circles that these             knee. There may be difficulties in setting
rules are make into explicit codes of                 up a stable pattern of interaction –
etiquette. In the Far East, especially in             Americans and Europeans have been seen
Japan, formal etiquette is more widely                retreating backwards or gyrating in circles
followed, but this only applies to certain            at international conferences, pursued by
traditional social situations,      and not           Latin American trying to establish their
apparently to getting on buses and trains.            habitual degree of proximity. There is
There has been a tendency to move away                considerable friction between those
from formality in America, according to               accustomed to etiquette and those used to
Riesman and his colleagues, there is a cult           informality. In each case what happens is
of the informal or ‘familial’ style of                that A judges B as if B was a member of
behavior, when people speak, they do not              A’s culture.
‘perform’, they have no ‘presence’, in
contrast to the behavior of Europeans.
                                               62


The result of these cross – cultural                whose members shared much of the
misunderstandings is likely to be that each         material culture of the middle class, but
person rejects the other as one who has             did not mix socially with that class or have
failed to conform to the standards of               the same pattern of social behavior. Social
civilized society, and looks on him as              class is shared by families, and depends
impossible to get on with. There are                mainly on the husband’s occupation,
several solutions to this problem: one is to        income, and education, and on the size
find out the cultural patterns of the other         and location of the home. Class systems
and either conform oneself, or at least use         vary in different countries. While class is
them to interpret the other’s behavior              mainly a function of occupation and
properly. The difficulty here is that many          education in Britain, it depends almost
of these patterns of behavior are very              entirely on money in the U.S.A.          The
subtle, and it takes a long familiarity with        social distance between classes, i.e., the
the culture to know them all. Another               difficulties    of    communication       and
approach is to be far more flexible and             interaction, are greatest in caste and feudal
tolerant when dealing with people from              societies, and very low in the U.S.A;
other cultures, and to take a real effort to        Britain is intermediate in this respect.
understand and to control one’s reactions           Class have different cultures, so what was
to the unusual aspects of their behavior.           said about different cultures applies here
The immigrant to another country is faced           too. Instead of individual languages there
with the problems of learning the new               ate different accents, and in Britain this in
language, rules and values. At first he is          of course one of the main clues to class.
inclined to reject the new ways – and to be         Bernstein has found that there are also
rejected himself for not conforming to              class differences in the linguistic
them.      Immigrants often keep to the             composition of speech – working – class
company of others from the same country             people, for example, use short and simple
until they are thoroughly assimilated. The          sentences,     use     personal    pronouns
British immigrant to Australia has very             frequently, confuse           reasons and
little informal contact with Australians for        conclusions, and make much use of a few
the first two or three years, and dislikes          idiomatic phrases. There are differences in
their ‘excessive familiarity’ in personal           gesture and facial expression; as far as
relations, such as the use of Christian             other social techniques are concerned, it
names after only brief acquaintance.                seems likely that in Britain working – class
                                                    people make social contact more readily,
Social class: Most societies, and all
                                                    are distant and formal, but are more
modern industrial ones, are stratified into
                                                    aggressive and make less use of complex
social classes. These are groups of people
                                                    strategies and techniques than middle –
who regard members of the other groups as
                                                    class people.
inferior or superior, and where each group
has a common culture. Members of each               When people from different social classes
social class mix freely and can form                meet, the kinds of problems arise that were
intimate relationships with other members,          discussed in connection with people from
but are much less likely to do so with              different cultures. The results are the same
people from other classes. Class is really a        – there is misunderstanding and mutual
continuous variable, and boundaries                 rejection. There is the additional problem
between them are hard to find, through              that social classes are ranked in a social
groupings and barriers appear from time to          prestige hierarchy, so that people react to
time. A development in the British class            those from other social classes as superiors
system during the 1950s was the                     and inferiors. For many people the social
emergence of an supper working class,               class of others is as important as sex and
                                                          63


age, and is recognized fairly easily from                          eagle, which represents the characteristics
their speech and clothes – or from their                           of courage and strength and the culture of
social techniques.    This leads to the                            the United States. This type of symbol,
adoption of the appropriate style of social                        which      embodies       three     central
behavior – which also be culturally                                components - language, aesthetic styles,
prescribed. Such encounters are often a                            and story themes - becomes short-hand
source of discomfort and tension to both                           for a culture, defining its characteristics
parties, the more so the greater the                               and values in a way similar to how brands
difference in class, and the more feudal                           define the characteristics of a company or
the society. People who are found formal,                          product.
dull or remote by outsiders can be genial,                     Material components, sometimes referred to
gay, and relaxed when with members of                             as cultural artifacts, include such things as
their own group.                                                  books, computers, tools, buildings, and
Social mobility upwards is widely desired,                        specific products, such as a pair of Levi’s
                                                                  501 jeans or the latest CD by Aero smith
and in industrialized societies is very
                                                                  or Garth Brooks. Computers, cellular
common, but it has its drawbacks. Like
                                                                  phones, and Starbuck’s coffee shops can
the immigrant, the mobile person has to
                                                                  all be considered American cultural
learn a new language, a new set of
                                                                  artifacts of the last two decades of the
conventions and values, and has to unlearn
                                                                  20th century, while business suits and air
the ones he had before. Unless he does so                         conditioners have become signs of global
he will not be accepted by the new group.                         cosmopolitanism and modernity. Products
Some cultures also believe in myths or have                       also provide symbols of meaning in a
   superstitions*. A symbol might also evolve                     society and often represent family
   to represent a culture, such as the bald                       relationships, as in the case of a special
                                                                  recipe handed down through generations,
*
                                                                  or are associated with one's national or
   Superstition has always had a big impact on human              ethnic identity. Products sometimes are
behavior, sometimes yielding macroeconomic
                                                                  used in ritual behavior, such as foods
effects for even the most industrialized societies. An
example of the effects of superstition is the rate of             eaten during holidays or religious
Japanese births from 1960 to 1990. A general,                     ceremonies.       Occasionally,     products
steady decline is evident in recent decades. But                  become so much of a symbol in a society
what jumps out is the single-year 25 percent drop in              that they become icons, as in the case of
1966. Such a sudden dip and recovery in birthrates
meant all kinds of problems for companies selling
                                                                  brands such as McDonald’s and Coca-Cola.
baby cribs in 1966 or bicycles in 1972, for colleges           In Brazil, the belief in the mystical properties
and universities in 1984, and for employers in 1988.
Why did the market plunge 25 percent for only one
                                                                   of guarana (a plant believed to enhance
year? In much of Asia (where Chinese influences                    power, spirit, and sexual prowess)
are strong), each year is associated with one of                   represents an abstract element of
twelve animals. For example, 1996 was the year of                  Brazilian culture, and guarana-based
the Rat. Both 1990 and 1978 were years of the
                                                                   drinks available throughout Brazil are
Horse, as was 1966. In Japanese culture, there is a
traditional belief about heigo, or the year of the Fire            cultural artifacts. Even today, Brazilian
Horse, which occurs once every 60 years, the last                  consumers like Coke but love to drink
time in 1966. According to this long-standing                      guarana-based drinks. Similarly, Unicum, a
superstition, a female born in a year of the Fire                  traditional Hungarian herb liqueur, has
Horse is destined both to live an unhappy life and to
kill her husband if she marries. Judging by the
                                                                   become part of the Hungarian culture and
birthrate that year in Japan, superstitions about the              acts as a Hungarian cultural icon.
year of the Fire Horse deterred people from having
children. The relevant point here is that                      Culture provides people with a sense of
superstitions can substantially affect behavior on a           identity and an understanding of acceptable
     macroeconomic scale in industrialized countries.          behavior within society. Some of the more
                                                   64


important characteristics influenced by                    global basis or to advertise and sell
culture are the following:                                 products to different markets. For
    1. Sense of self and space                             example, while expanding globally,
    2. Communication and language                          McDonald's had to address food and
    3. Dress and appearance                                eating habits of various cultures. Although
    4. Food and feeding habits                             research showed that the basic menu
    5. 5.Time and time consciousness                       items would sell well in most markets, it
    6. Relationships (family, organizations,               had to add some foods to reflect the
       government, and so on).                             cultural preferences of local markets. In
    7. Values and norms                                    Japan, it added rice (the country's staple
    8. Beliefs and attitudes                               food) to the menu. In India, it addressed
    9. Mental processes and learning10.                    the sacred beliefs of the Hindu culture
    10. Work habits and practices                          (that prohibit eating cows) by putting
These characteristics can be used to define                lamb-burgers on the menu. In fact, such a
   and differentiate one culture from                      large portion of this society is vegetarian
   another and identify cultural similarities.             that adding a veggie - burger to the menu
   Marketers       often    use     cultural               would     also     have    made       sense.
   characteristics to segment markets on a
                                     VALUES AND NORMS
Two important elements of culture are values               apply to an entire society or to most of its
   and norms. Norms are rules of behavior                  citizens. Micro culture refers to values and
   held by a majority or at least a consensus              symbols of a restrictive group or segment
   of a group about how individuals should                 of consumers, defined according to
   be have. Cultural or social values are those            variables such as age, religion, ethnicity,
   shared broadly across groups of people,                 social class, or another subdivision of the
   whereas personal values are the terminal                whole. Micro cultures are sometimes
   (goals) or instrumental (behavior) beliefs              called subcultures, but we use the term
   of individuals.                                         micro culture to avoid concern that calling
                                                           ethnic groups subcultures connotes
Societal and personal values are not always
                                                           inferiority.
    the same; in fact, values may vary among
    people of the same culture. To illustrate           Some countries, such as the United States,
    this point, examine societal values about              Switzerland, and Singapore, have national
    how we should treat others. Although                   cultures made up of many micro cultures,
    societal values may condemn killing                    whereas other countries, such as Japan,
    people, a terrorist’s personal values might            tend to be more homogeneous. Countries
    condone such behavior. Further, look at                like the United States reflect diverse
    vegetarians around the behaviors from                  ethnic components of their cultures,
    the cultural norms that say that eating                making them more dynamic and likely to
    animals and meat is acceptable, whereas                change. U.S. marketers have to be ready
    in India, vegetarianism is the cultural norm           to adapt to the changing needs of the
    and part of the value system of much of                market as influenced by the changes in
    the country. These types of social values,             the diverse ethnic groups and many micro
    described in this chapter, are closely                 cultures. For example, hamburgers are a
    related to the personal values described in            U.S. cultural icon, but the ethnic
    Chapter 7 and can sometimes be                         influences of the increasing Latino market
    measured with psychographic (AIO) or                   have caused a change in what condiment
    Rokeach (RVS) scales.                                  is put on hamburgers - from ketchup to
                                                           salsa. In contrast, a marketer in Tokyo can
Values and norms represent the beliefs of
                                                           look out his corporate window and will
   various groups within a society. Macro
                                                           have similar beliefs about honor, family,
   culture refers to values and symbols that
                                                  65


    religion, education, and work habits, all                which values individuals internalize and
    important in understanding consumer                      which ones they disregard.
    behavior.
                                                        Also important in the adoption process is the
How Do People Get Their Values?                             influence of peers and media. Media not
                                                            only reflects societal values, but it can
Unlike animals, whose behavior is more
                                                            significantly influence the values of
    instinctive, humans are not born with
                                                            individuals. For example, a movie might
    norms of behavior. Instead, humans learn
                                                            portray taking drugs or driving drunk
    their norms through imitation or by
                                                            (values that society does not condone) as
    observing the process of reward and
                                                            being acceptable or “cool,” thereby
    punishment of people who adhere to or
                                                            potentially influencing the values of
    deviate from the group's norms. The
                                                            individuals. Media can also highlight
    processes by which people develop their
                                                            cultural values important to a society and
    values, motivations, and habitual activity
                                                            help pass them onto another generation
    are called socialization (the process of
                                                            or reinforce them in the society. European
    absorbing a culture). Parental practices,
                                                            and German cultures emphasize the
    often directly related to cultural norms,
                                                            importance of children in families.
    can affect consumer socialization. For
    example, Japanese consumer socialization            Through the socialization process, people
    is     characterized     by    benevolent              adopt values that influence how they live,
    dependence, which is consistent with a                 how they define right and wrong, how
    collectivist,   interdependent     society,            they shop, and what is important to them
    whereas American consumer socialization                such as pleasure, honest}, financial
    is      characterized      by     directed             security, or ambition. These life forces
    independence, which is consistent with an              produce preferences relating to color,
    individualistic society.” Although some                packaging,     convenience,    hours    of
    studies focus on how young people learn                shopping, and characteristic interactions
    consumer skills, it is recognized that                 with sales people and many others.
    consumer socialization is a lifelong                   Further, the values adopted by individuals
    process.                                               shape the values of future societies. But
                                                           just as individuals adopt certain values,
The process of how values are transferred
                                                           they also abandon values when they no
   from one generation to the next
                                                           longer meet the needs of society. In fact,
   and where individuals get their values is
                                                           some anthropologists view culture as an
   summarized in diagram 7. The values
                                                           entity serving humans in their attempts to
   transmission model shows how the values
                                                           meet the basic biological and social needs
   of a society are reflected in families,
                                                           of society. When norms no longer provide
   religious institutions, and schools, all of
                                                           gratification in a society the norms are
   which expose and transmit values to
                                                           extinguished.
   individuals. These institutions and early
   lifetime experiences combine to affect


                                    Diagram 7. The Values Transfusion Model
                                                    Values of
                                                   Society




                                            Cultural Transfusive Triad
                                                   66


                      Family      Lifetime    Religious          Educational      Early
                                                                     Institutio
                                              Institutions                        Experiences
                                                                     ns




                                                                 Individual
                                                   Peers         Internalized             Media
                                                                 Values




                                                                Society of
                                                                Future
                                                              and behavior. Norms learned early in life
                                                              maybe highly resistant to promotional
                                                              efforts. When an advertiser is dealing with
                                                              deeply ingrained, culturally defined
Adapting Strategies to Changing Cultures:                     behavior (about food, sex, basic forms of
                                                              clothing, and so on), it is easier to change
Culture is adaptive, and marketing strategies,                the marketing mix to conform to cultural
    for example, based on the values of                       values than to change the values through
    society must also be adaptive. When                       advertising. As an example, eating dogs,
    cultural changes occur, trends develop                    horses, sheep eyes, or even live fish is
    and provide marketing opportunities to                    normal and healthy behavior in some
    those who spot the changes before their                   cultures. Advertising would have great
    competitors do. As culture evolves,                       difficulty, however, in convincing typical
    marketers may associate product or brand                  North American consumers to buy these
    benefits with new values, or they may                     products.
    have to change the product if that value is
    no longer gratifying in society. For
    example, beef and other meats used to be
    staple breakfast, lunch, and dinner foods
                                                           How Culture Affects Consumer Behavior:
    in the mass American culture. When most
    consumers worked on a farm or in                       Culture has a profound effect on why and how
    strenuous manufacturing and labor jobs,                    people buy and consume products and
    high-energy and high-calorie foods were                    services. It affects the specific products
    valued and gratifying. As those jobs were                  people buy as well as the structure of
    replaced by white-collar and other                         consumption, individual decision making,
    sedentary careers, the meat industry had                   and communication in a society.
    to change its appeal to lean meats with
                                                           Influence of Culture on Pre-Purchase
    fewer calories and less fat and cholesterol.
                                                           and Purchase: Culture affects the need,
    Americans now consume more pounds of
                                                           search, and alternative evaluation stages of
    poultry per year than beef and pork.
                                                           how individuals make purchase decisions
Sometimes cultural norms change easily, and                in a variety of ways. Although marketers
   sometimes they remain the same for                      can influence these stages through point-
   decades. Marketers must address                         of-purchase displays, advertising, and
   consumer socialization, the acquisition of              retailing strategies, certain cultural forces
   consumption-related cognitions, attitudes,
                                                   67


are difficult to overcome, at least in the              Hong Kong, consumers are accustomed to
short term.                                             walking through crowded marketplaces, in
Cultures view differently what is needed to             extreme heat, examining and buying
    enjoy a good standard of living. For                freshly slaughtered meat that is hanging in
    example. North American households                  the open air, as seen in Figure 11.5. North
    used to contain one television, around              American consumers would be fearful of
    which family members gathered to watch              bacteria that might accumulate on the meat
    shows. Now, consumers often buy several             from exposure to the heat and insects.
    televisions for one household, and having           Influence of Culture on Consumption and
    a second television in the bedroom or the               Divestment:
    kitchen has become the cultural norm.
    Will computers experience the same                  Culture also affects how consumers use or
    increased importance? However, other                consume products. Consumers buy
    cultures see this type of consumption as            products to obtain function, form, and
    frivolous; their definition of need dictates        meaning, all of which marketers must
    that one television is adequate.                    address since they are defined by the
                                                        cultural context of consumption.
Culture also affects how consumers are likely
    to search for information. In some                  When consumers use a product, they expect it
    cultures, word-of-mouth and advice from               to perform a function - to clean clothes in
    a family member about product or brand                the case of washing machines. But
    choice are more important than                        consumers' expectations about function
    information found in an advertisement.                and form often vary between cultures. In
    And some cultures are more likely to                  European cultures, washing machines are
    search the Internet for information.                  expected to last for decades, “cook” the
    Regardless of method, marketers must                  clothes to get them sanitary-clean, and be
    understand which is valued more in a                  compact in size. Highly efficient, front-
    particular culture in order to formulate              loading machines costing more than
    the most effective information strategy.              $1,000     are marketed successfully
                                                          throughout Europe and Asia by firm such
During     alternative     evaluation,     some           as Miele, a German-based manufacturer
    consumers place more weight on certain                and supplier of household appliances. Yet,
    product attributes than on others, often              when Miele introduced this product in
    due to the consumer’s culture. For                    North America, it found only limited
    example, some wealthy consumers may                   success. Americans move more frequently
    think low price is the most important                 than Europeans and do not want to
    attribute, not because they lack money                “invest” in a machine they will have for
    but because “thrift” (a cultural value)               only a few years; further, they expect the
    influences their choices. Conversely, a               more convenient but less efficient
    poor consumer may purchase an                         cleaning ability of top - loading machines.
    expensive pair of shoes because of
    personal or group values that persuade              Culture also influences how individuals
    the individual to follow a fashion trend.           dispose of products. Consequently,
                                                        washing machines are almost a disposable
During purchase processes, the amount of                product in the United States. When they
price negotiation expected by both seller               break or if the consumer moves, they are
and buyer is culturally determined. In                  often left behind or discarded. Some
Greece      and     some    Middle-Eastern              cultures promote reselling products after
countries, for instance, even the price of a            use, giving them to others to use, or
physician's services is subject to                      recycling them and their packaging when
negotiation, whereas in North American                  possible, whereas others support throwing
markets, a physician's fee is generally                 them away.
predetermined and non-negotiable. In
                                                   68


How Core Values Affect Marketing?                               well. For example, in Japan, a
                                                                company will often do business
Successful retailers know that a basic group of
                                                                with      small    suppliers     or
    products is essential to a store's traffic,
                                                                distribution companies owned by
    customer loyalty, and profits. These
                                                                former employees, with whom
    products are known as core merchandise.
                                                                they have a relationship or similar
    A group of values, called core values, also
                                                                cultural backgrounds. But in the
    exists. These values are basic to under-
                                                                United States, where the culture
    standing the behavior of people and can
                                                                favors impersonal relationships
    be helpful to marketers in several ways.
                                                                and equality, it may be more
         Core values define how                                difficult to develop the trust
          products are used in a society.                       needed for effective relationship
          Not only do core values                               marketing.
          determine what foods should be                     Core values define ethical
          eaten, but they also determine                      behavior. The ethics of a
          with what other foods they are                      particular firm are influenced by
          appropriate, how they are                           the values or ethics of the
          prepared, and the time of day to                    individuals it employs, just as the
          eat them.                                           ethical climate of a country is
         Core values provide positive and                    influenced by the core values of
          negative valences for brands and                    its individuals and institutions. In
          communications          programs.                   recent years, the United States
          Marketers may use celebrity                         has been characterized as a
          athletes or musicians such as Tara                  "money culture" in which business
          Lipinski or Elton John to achieve                   executives operate principally on
          positive valences to their brands,                  greed. Depending on a person's
          a successful strategy unless the                    own ethics, he or she might find
          image of the celebrity changes                      various        corporate      goals
          negatively.                                         incompatible with his or her own
        
                                                              personal ethics, causing stress and
            Core values define acceptable                     dissatisfaction. Sales managers
            market relationships. A firm's                    can decrease the likelihood of
            native culture (and values)                       ethical conflict by selecting and
            influences its business strategies,               hiring individuals who have values
            tactics, and practices in the global              and beliefs consistent with the
            market place, and it affects                      organization's or who can learn
            international buying practices as                 the organization’s values.


                                        GEOGRAPHIC CULTURE
Although national cultural characteristics may          conservative, inhibited attitudes that
    exist for an entire nation, geographic              characterize other areas of the nation.
    areas within a nation sometimes develop             Climate, religious affiliations of the
    their own culture. For example, the                 population, nationality influences, and
    Southwest area of the United States is              other variables are interrelated to
    known for casual lifestyles featuring               produce a core of cultural values in a
    comfortable        clothing,      outdoor           geographic area. Yet, research indicates
    entertaining, and active sports. The                that culture can cut across national, state,
    Southwest may also appear to be more                and provincial borders, and incorporate
    innovative toward new products, such as             the culture, climate, institutions, business
    cosmetic surgery, when compared with
                                                    69


    organizations, and resources of each                    aftermath, and the European immigration
    region.                                                 of three centuries, have affected the
                                                            American character strongly.”34 Even
Understanding the values of various regions
                                                            though most people are employees of
   may guide marketers' efforts to position
                                                            large, complex organizations rather than
   products to various regions. For example,
                                                            farmers or shopkeepers, and goods are
   an advertisement promoting the capacity
                                                            purchased rather than produced, many
   for self-fulfillment (e.g., “Set yourself free
                                                            American values retain the agrarian base,
   with Stouffer’s”) of a product may be
                                                            emphasizing good work ethics, self-
   more successful in the West than in the
                                                            sufficiency, and the philosophy that an
   South. Security, on the other hand, may
                                                            individual can make a difference.
   be a more successful appeal in the South
   than in comparably urbanized areas of the             American Values and Advertising:
   West (e.g., “Protect your home from
                                                         What are the core values that provide appeals
   break-ins with Electronic Touch Alarm”).
                                                           for advertising and marketing programs?
   For personal computers, an advertising
                                                           Sometimes advertisers are accused of
   campaign emphasizing how computers
                                                           appealing mostly to fear, snobbery, and
   can help a person accomplish his or her
                                                           self-indulgence, but you can see how such
   goals or emphasizing the computer
                                                           an approach would have limited appeal.
   attributes that facilitate accomplishment
                                                           Marketers are more successful when they
   will probably be more effective in the East
                                                           appeal to core values based on hard work,
   than in the South.
                                                           achievement and success, optimism, and
                                                           equal opportunity for a better material
                                                           standard of living.
                                                         Advertisers must understand values to avoid
North American Core Values:
                                                            violating standards. Benetton, the Italian
Core values can be observed in Canada and                   apparel retailer, uses ads that reflect
the United States, even though both                         social issues. But most Americans never
countries encompass values reflecting                       see some of Benetton’s more provocative
diverse national origins within their                       material. In one, readers are presented
populations. Values are less rigid in North                 with pastel-colored balloon-type images.
America because these countries are so                      A closer look reveals that they are
young compared with most Asian and                          condoms, part of a safe-sex blitz in which
European countries.                                         some stores gave away condoms. What
                                                            some considered a religiously offensive ad
The Foundation of American Values:
                                                            ran throughout Europe, as did an ad
The United States was an agrarian nation only               designed to promote harmony among
   two generations ago. Although it is now                  races, which was deemed as too
   primarily urbanized and suburbanized,                    provocative for the United States. Still
   understanding its origin helps us analyze                another Benetton ad showed a black man
   today’s culture. Much of the religious and               and a white man chained together to
   ethical tradition is believed to have come               promote the “united colors” theme. It was
   from Calvinist (Puritan) doctrine, with                  withdrawn in the United States after
   emphasis on individual responsibility and                minority groups complained that the ad
   positive work ethic. “Anglo-Saxon civil                  implied the black man was a criminal, and
   rights, the rule of law, and representative              charged the company with racism.
   institutions were inherited from the
                                                         U.S. and Canadian Variations in Values:
   English background; ideas of egalitarian
   democracy and a secular spirit sprang                 Canada and the United States are similar in
   from the French and American                          many ways, but their values and in
   Revolutions. The period of slavery and its            situations vary in important ways. For one,
                                                70


there is less of an ideology of Canadianism           Canada and the United States have different
than there is one of Americanism. The                    situations and different histories. For
emphasis       on      individualism    and              example, law and order enforced by the
achievement can be traced to the American                centrally controlled Northwest Mounted
Revolution, an upheaval that Canada did                  Police (now RCMP) tamed Canada's
not support. Canada presents a more                      frontier much earlier than was the case in
neutral, affable face that distinguishes it              the United States. Seymour Lipset, one of
from its more exuberant and aggressive                   the most prolific analysts of Canadian-U.S.
neighbor.      Canadians      have   greater             relationships, believes this is the reason
awareness of American media and                          Canadians generally have more respect for
institutions than conversely.                            law and order today than do U.S. citizens.
                     Variations in Values Between Canada and United States

 More observance of law and order              Less observance
 Emphasis on the rights and obligations of More emphasis on individual rights and obligations
     community                                    Courts perceived as a check on the powers of
                                                  the state Greater propensity to redefine or
 Courts are perceived as an arm of the state
                                                  ignore rules
 Lawful society
                                              Employ informal, aggressive, and sometimes extra-
 Use the system to change things                  legal means to correct what they think is
 Canadians find success in slightly bad taste     wrong” The greater lawlessness and corruption
     Greater value of social relationships        in the U.S. can also be attributed in part to a
                                                  stronger emphasis on achievement”
 Canadians more cautious
                                              “Americans worship success”
 Corporate network denser in Canada. 1984-
     80% of companies on TSE controlled by Greater importance of work
     7 families; 32 families and 5 Higher commitment to work ethic
     conglomerates control about 33% of all
                                              Greater value of achievement (Goldfarb study)
     nonfinancial assets
                                              Americans take more risks
 5 banks hold 80% of all deposits
                                              One hundred largest firms own about 33% of all
 and combines legislation weakly enforced
                                                  nonfinancial assets, few controlled by
 Favor partial or total government                individuals
     ownership
                                              Literally thousands of small banks in the United
 Business leaders more likely to have             States
 privileged    upbringing      and     less
                                               Business affected by antielitist and anti-big
 specialized education
                                                   business sentiments
 Emphasis on social         programs    and
                                               Strong antitrust laws
    government support
                                            Anti-big business, pro competition
 Canadian labor union density more than
    twice that of the American              Business leaders more likely to have a specialized
                                                education
 Fewer lobbying organizations in Canada
    even in proportion to smaller Canadian More laissez-faire
    population. Since politicians toe party Seven thousand lobbying organizations registered
    line, lobbying not as important.            with Congress-since Congresspersons can vote
                                                   as they choose on a bill, lobbying can be
                                                   effective.
                                                   71


Source: Summarized from Seymour Martin Upset, Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United
    States and Canada (New York: Rout/edge, 19901.




                                                         Importance of Work over Play:
                                                         Although work is associated in American
                                                             values with purpose and maturity, play is
                                                             associated with frivolity, pleasure, and
                                                             children. In other cultures, festivals and
                                                             holidays and children having fun are the
                                                             most important events in society,
                                                             whereas in the United States, even
How Markets Adapt to Core              American              socializing is often work related.
   Values?                                               Time Is Money:
Material Well-Being:                                     Americans view time differently from many
Achievement and success are measured                       other cultures. In the United States, time
   mostly by the quantity and quality of                   is more exact in nature, whereas in
   material goods. There is display value in               countries such as Mexico, time is
   articles that others can see, such as                   approximate. Americans tend to be
   designer clothing, luxury cars, and large               punctual, schedule activities at specific
   homes. Although rebellion against such                  times, and expect others to keep
   values is sometimes expressed, well-being               appointments based on set times.
   is fundamental to the American value                  Effort,        Optimism,                     and
   system. Americans believe in the marvels              Entrepreneurship:
   of modern comforts (good transportation,
   central heating, air conditioning, and                Americans believe that problems should be
   labor-saving appliances) and believe in the             identified and effort should be made to
   "right" to have such things.                            solve them. With proper effort, one can
                                                           be optimistic about success. Europeans
Twofold Moralizing:                                        sometimes laugh at their American friends
Americans believe in polarized morality, in                who believe that for every problem there
  which illegal, moral or immoral, and                     is a solution. This attitude is based on the
  civilized or primitive. Consumers cast                   concept that people are their own masters
  these judgments on public officials and                  and can control outcomes. In American
  companies, deeming them either ethical                   culture, effort is rewarded, competition is
  or unethical, not a little of both. Similarly,           enforced, and individual achievement is
  advertising that is “a little deceptive” is              paramount.       Entrepreneurship is one
  considered bad even if the overall                       result of American values of effort,
  message is largely correct. However, some                optimism, and the importance of winning.
  conditions exist making the same behavior              Mastery over Nature:
  right or wrong depending on the situation.
  Gambling in many instances is illegal or               American core values produce a conquering
  “wrong,” but when organized as a state                   attitude toward nature, which is different
  lottery to benefit a good cause, it can be               from Buddhism and Hinduism, in which
  legal or “right.”                                        people and nature are one and work with
                                                           nature. Americans’ conquering attitude
                                                           stems from three assumptions: the
                                                           universe is mechanistic, people are the
                                                   72


    masters of the earth, and people are                   for     achievement.      Though       some
    qualitatively different from all other forms           discrimination does occur, the core values,
    of life. American advertising depicts                  codified legislatively and judicially, favor
    people who are in command of their                     equality of all people, especially those
    natural environments when they show                    accepting the values and behaviors of the
    men fighting hair loss or women fighting               social majority.
    wrinkles.
                                                        Humanitarianism:
Egalitarianism:                                      American values support assistance of those
American core values support the belief that             less fortunate. Assistance expresses itself
   all people should have equal opportunities            in the giving of donations to
unknown individuals and groups needing aid because of natural disasters, disabilities, or
   disadvantages. Organizations such as the American Lung Association or the American Cancer
   Society benefit from Americans’ beliefs in humanitarianism. For corporations, humanitarianism is
   not only a social responsibility but an important means through which to communicate with
   consumers.
Ethnic Microcultures and Their Influences on Consumer Behavior:
Ethnicity is an important element in determining culture and predicting consumer preferences and
    behaviors. It is a process of group identification in which people use ethnic labels to define
    themselves and others. A “subjectivist” perspective reflects ascriptions people make about
    themselves. An “objectivist” definition is de rived from socio-cultural categories. In consumer
    research, ethnicity is best defined as some combination of these, including the strength or
    weakness of affiliation that people have with the ethnic group. To the degree that people in an
    ethnic group share common perceptions and cognitions that are different from those of other
    ethnic groups or the larger society, they constitute a distinct ethnic group that may be useful to
    treat as a market segment.
Specific consumers may not reflect the values of the ethnic group with which they are commonly
   identified. To believe that a given individual necessarily accepts the values of any specific
   microculture would make the observer guilty of stereotyping. Consumer behavior is a function of
   “felt ethnicity” as well as cultural identity, social surroundings, and product type.
                                                  73




America’s Ethnic Microcultures:                            Americans at 92 percent and Mexican –
                                                           Americans at 77 percent. Their values,
                                                           however, determine the degree to which
America, like countries such as Switzerland/               immigrants embrace traditional American
  Singapore, and South Africa, is a montage                core values and how they contribute to
  of nationality groups. Recent figures                    the cultural diversity of North American.
  register 54 countries represented with                   When an immigrant family becomes
  100,000 or more American residents.                      American, the members often manifest
  Immigration to the United States has                     and reinforce the work ethic that is at the
  changed over time, thus changing the                     core of American values.
  makeup of the population and the
                                                       As individuals are exposed to various ethnic
  influences on culture. Yet there do exist
                                                           subcultures, they often adapt to or take
  many similarities between immigration at
                                                           on characteristics of that culture.
  the beginning and the end of the 20th
                                                           Acculturation measures the degree to
  century. For example, the number of
                                                           which a consumer has learned the ways of
  immigrants (over one million) entering the
                                                           a different culture compared to how they
  United States during peak years is about
                                                           were raised. Individuals adapt to cultural
  the same, even though countries of origin
                                                           changes in both social and professional
  are different in the early 1900s than in the
                                                           situations—as they live among, befriend,
  late 1900s. However, during both periods,
                                                           and work with others. Managers and
  the      economy     was under going
                                                           salespersons faced with the challenge of
  restructuring – with a shift from
                                                           global business, find more success when
  agriculture to industry in the beginning of
                                                           they respond and adapt to the cultural
  the century and a shift from services to
                                                           differences of their business partners.
  information in the 1990s.
                                                       Just as individuals adapt to cultural changes,
In either case, immigrants arrived from
                                                           so do companies and organizations
   countries and cultures different from the
                                                           operating in an increasingly global
   past, bringing with them new religions,
                                                           marketplace. A recent study of Latino,
   cultures, and languages.
                                                           Asian, Middle Eastern, and Anglo retailers
Some immigrants identify with much of their                found that when they adapted to the
   culture of origin; others do not. A variable            cultures of their clients, changes occurred
   closely associated with national ethnic                 to themselves, their firms, their
   identity is the language spoken at home.                consumers,       and      ultimately,   the
   Two groups of Americans who often speak                 marketplace.
   a language other than English are Chinese
                                                       Euro-Descent Americans:
   and Hispanics. Eighty – one percent of
   Chinese – Americans speak Chinese at                More than 200 million Americans are of
   home, whereas 43 percent of Hispanics               European descent; England is the back
   speak Spanish at home, including Cuban –            ground nation for 26.34 percent of
                                                  74


Americans, followed closely by Germany                 French-Canadian Culture:
with 26.14 percent and Ireland with 17.77              One of the largest and most distinct cultures
percent. In addition to the millions of                   in North America is the French-Canadian
second- and third-generation European-                    area of Canada, mostly in Quebec. This
Americans, the increasing number of                       might be considered a nationality group or
foreign-born     European-Americans      is               a geographic culture. The province of
attracting the attention of marketers, who                Quebec accounts for more than 27
recognize that Greek-Americans have                       percent of the Canadian population and
different preferences than Swedish-                       about 25 percent of income and retail
Americans.                                                sales. For years, the French culture was
European immigration, which had been on a                 somewhat ignored by English- oriented
   decline since the 1950s, increased                     advertisers, thereby creating a social
   dramatically from 1985 to 1995,                        problem and limiting the potential
   experiencing a 155 percent increase over               effectiveness of communications to the
   the period, to 161,000 persons in 1994.                French market. Some of the differential
   According to the Immigration and                       treatment may have been caused by
   Naturalization Service, over 1.2 million               different social class groupings compared
   European immigrants came to the United                 with Anglo markets.
   States during those ten years, primarily            Is advertising transferable between the
   stemming from the fall of Communism                    French-Canadian (FC) culture and the
   and the resulting freedom of Eastern                   English-Canadian (EC) culture? Some
   Europeans. Recent immigrants and native-               marketers      believe    that     separate
   born Americans with close ties to their                advertising material must be developed to
   European heritage are defined as Euro                  be effective in the FC microculture. Others
   American ethnics.                                      believe materials can be developed that
Traditionally, European-American ethnics have             are effective with both groups. A
    displayed a “work hard, play hard”                    minimum of verbal material is used, with
    mentality and have been willing to work               emphasis on the visual. Tamilia's research,
    extended hours to save money for things               which compared communications with FC
    like education, housing, and retirement.              and EC consumers on a cross-cultural
    Misunderstandings about the meaning of                basis, indicated the potential for
    time may be one of the reasons Mexican-               increasing effectiveness in advertising
    Americans have more complaints about                  communications by targeting PCs with
    the delivery service of retailers than do             people-oriented ads and ECs with
    other consumers.                                      message-oriented ads.

Hispanic Idiosyncrasies: Marketing blunders            Because of the size and importance of the FC
    sometimes occur from failure to                       market, it has attracted the attention of
    understand the idiosyncrasies of each                 many marketers. The process of
    segment of the total Hispanic market. A               understanding communications in a cross-
    beer company filmed a Hispanic                        cultural setting, however, is applicable to
    advertisement using the Paseo del Rio                 other situations in which diverse ethnic
    (Riverwalk) in San Antonio, Texas, as a               groups are the target for marketing
    background. The ad was well received                  programs.
    among Hispanics living on the West Coast,          Social Class Microcultures:
    who liked the Spanish atmosphere. In San
    Antonio it-self, Hispanics did not like the        Microcultures can also be described in terms
    ad because they considered the Paseo del              of social class. Social classes defined as
    Rio to be an attraction for non-Hispanic              relatively permanent and homogeneous
    white tourists rather than for Hispanic               divisions in a society into which individuals
    residents.                                            or families sharing similar values,
                                                  75


    lifestyles, interests, wealth, status,                 production and acquisition of goods,
    education, economic positions, and                     “status groups” are stratified according to
    behavior can be categorized. Class                     lifestyles and the principles of the
    membership exists and can be described                 consumption of goods. However, for
    as a statistical category whether or not               practical purposes, it is usually adequate
    individuals are aware of their common                  in the study of consumer behavior to treat
    situation. Some of the concrete variables              the      terms      status    and     class
    that define various social classes include             interchangeably, recognizing that status
    occupation, education, friendships, ways               may also be used in other contexts to
    of speaking, and possessions. Other                    describe differential respect given to an
    perceived variables include power,                     individual within a group.
    prestige, and class. Marketing research
                                                       If the 1980s were about greed and ostentation
    often focuses on social class variables
                                                            for upper social class groups and the
    since the mix of goods that consumers are
                                                            1990s were about value and self-
    able to buy is determined in part by social
                                                            fulfillment, what will be the legacy of the
    class. For marketers and sociologists,
                                                            2000s? The experts observe that in recent
    status groups are of primary interest
                                                            years, affluent tastes have run more
    because they influence what people buy
                                                            toward the utilitarian. Range Rovers,
    and consume.
                                                            Lincoln Navigators, or Ford Explorers,
Status groups reflect a community’s                         rather than Porsches, have been the
    expectations for style of life among each               vehicles of choice of upper income
    class as well as the positive or negative               consumers, prompting Mercedes and
    social estimation of honor given to each                Lexus to develop and market SUVs to their
    class. Simply stated, whereas “classes” are             “utilitarian,     upper social class”
    stratified based on their relations to the              consumers.


                           WHAT DETERMINES SOCIAL CLASS?
Your social class is influenced mostly by the          consumer's social class. These variables
   family in which you were raised. Your               are occupation, personal performance,
   father's occupation probably had a                  interactions,       possessions,       value
   significant effect, since that has                  orientations, and class consciousness.
   historically been the most important
                                                       Occupation: Occupation is the best single
   determinant, followed closely by the
                                                          indicator of social class in most consumer
   wife’s occupation.109 Variables that
                                                          research. The work consumers perform
   determine social class have been
                                                          greatly affects their lifestyles and
   identified in social stratification studies
                                                          consumption patterns. For example, blue-
   since the 1920s and 1930s. Today, social
                                                          collar workers spend a greater proportion
   class research includes thousands of
                                                          of their income on food, whereas
   studies dealing with the measurement of
                                                          managers and professionals spend a
   social class in large cities; movement
                                                          higher share of their income on eating
   between social classes; interactions of
                                                          out, clothing, and financial services.
   social class with gender, race, ethnicity,
   and education; and the effects of social            Sometimes, people make the mistake of
   class on poverty and economic policy.               equating social class with income. Social
   From extensive research, nine variables             class is not determined by income even
   have emerged as most important in                   though there may be a correlation due to
   determining social class.                           the relationship between income and other
For consumer analysts, six variables are               variables that determine social class. A
especially useful in understanding a                   senior garbage collector, for example,
                                                       might earn more than an assistant professor
                                                     76


of history. The professor typically would               personal      performance     within    an
be ascribed higher social class however.                occupation. Personal performance also
You can probably think of more examples                 involves activities other than job-related
of how income and social class differ.                  pursuits. Perhaps your father has a lower-
                                                        status occupation, but your family may
Personal Performance: A person's status can
                                                        still achieve more status if your father is
    also be influenced by his or her success
                                                        perceived as one who helps others in
    relative to that of others in the same
                                                        need, is unusually kind and interested in
    occupation - that is, by an individual’s
                                                        fellow workers, or is a faithful worker in
    personal performance. Even though
                                                        civic or religious organizations. A
    income is not a good indicator of overall
                                                        reputation as a good mother or a good
    social class, it may serve as a gauge of
                                                        father may contribute to one’s status.
                               Economic, Interaction, and Political Variables
       Economic Variables               Interaction Variables                    Political Variables
 * Occupation                      *Personal prestige                  * Power
 * Income                          * Association                       * Class
 * Wealth                          * Socialization                     *Consciousness
                                                                       * Mobility


Interactions: People feel most comfortable                   their ability to afford luxury goods, helps
    when they are with people of similar                     explain why different classes buy different
    values and behavior. Group membership                    products. Thus, a middle-class family may
    and interactions are considered a primary                choose wall-to-wall carpeting, whereas an
    determinant of a person’s social class. The              upper-class family is more likely to choose
    interaction variables of personal prestige,              Oriental rugs, even if the prices are equal.
    association, and socialization are the
                                                          Possessions and wealth are closely related.
    essence of social class. People have high
                                                          Wealth is usually a result of an
    prestige when other people have an
                                                          accumulation of past income. In certain
    attitude of respect or deference to them.
    Association is a variable concerned with
                                                          forms, such as ownership of a business or
    everyday relationships, with people who               stocks and bonds, wealth is the source of
    like to do the same things they do, in the            future income that may enable a family to
    same ways, and with whom they feel                    maintain its (high) social class from
    comfortable. Social class behavior and                generation to generation. Thus, possessions
    values are clearly differentiated in                  that indicate a family’s wealth are
    children by the time they have reached                important in reflecting social class. Some
    adolescence, in variables that vary by                products and brands are positioned as
    social class such as self- esteem.112 Social          symbols of status, as the products used by
    interactions ordinarily are limited to one’s          upper middle or upper classes. For people
    immediate social class even though                    who are striving to become associated with
    opportunities exist for       the same or             those classes, the purchase of such brands
    adjacent social classes.                              may be partially based on the desire for
                                                          such affiliation or identification.
Possessions: Possessions are symbols of class
   membership - not only the number of                    Value Orientations: Values indicate the social
   possessions, but also the nature of the                    class to which one belongs. When a group
   choices.                                                   of people share a common set of abstract
                                                              convictions that organize and relate many
Conspicuous consumption: people’s desire to
                                                              specific attributes, it is possible to
   provide prominent visible evidence of
                                                   77


    categorize an individual in the group by                which consumers rate others as higher or
    the degree to which he or she possesses                 lower in social status. Those who earn a
    these values. Some observers believe that               higher status due to work or study have
    in countries other than the United States,              achieved status, whereas those who are
    values are more important than                          lucky to be born wealthy or beautiful
    possessions. Class is indicated more by                 achieve ascribed status.
    merit derived from expressions in art,
                                                        Regardless of how status is achieved, social
    science, and religion and even in such
                                                           class can be classified into six distinct
    mundane things as dressing and eating
                                                           segments, as defined by W. Lloyd Warner
    properly. In contrast, people in the United
                                                           in 1941: Upper upper, lower upper, upper
    States are believed to make a religion of
                                                           middle, lower middle, upper lower, and
    money.
                                                           lower lower. The Gilbert and Kahl
Class Consciousness: One of the important                  definitions, shown below, provide
    political variables of social class is class           generally accepted estimates on the size
    consciousness - the degree to which                    of various social classes, and emphasize
    people in a social class are aware of                  economic distinctions, especially the
    themselves as a distinctive group with                 recent emphasis on capitalism and
    shared political and economic interests.               entrepreneurship.        The      Coleman-
    To some extent, a person’s social class is             Rainwater approach emphasizes how
    indicated by how conscious that person is              people interact with each other as equals,
    of social class. Lower social class                    superiors, or inferiors, especially in their
    individuals may recognize the reality of               work relationships.
    social class but may not be as sensitive to
                                                        One complexity in measuring social class
    specific differences.
                                                        is the problem of status inconsistency-
Social Stratification: Have you noticed that in         when people rate high on one variable but
    many contexts, for example, school or               low on another. Highly paid athletes and
    work, some people are ranked higher than            popular musicians often fit this category.
    others and are perceived to have more               The other end of the spectrum of status
    power or control? Americans may hope                inconsistency would include some
    that everyone has the same opportunity              professors who have average or lower
    to access products and services; however,           income but much education and many
    the reality is that some people have either         cultural advantages. These people do not
    “more luck” or are better “positioned” to           fit into many of the generalizations about
    attain than others. Social stratification           social class.
    refers to the perceived hierarchies in
                                                       78




                                     SOCIAL CLASSES IN AMERICA
                              Two Recent Views of the American Status Structure
The Gilbert-Kahl New Synthesis Class Structure: A           Class Hierarchy: A reputational behavioral view in the
    situations model from political theory and                  community study tradition
    sociological analysis
                 Upper Americans
                                                                              Upper Americans
Capitalist     Class     (1%)-Their   investment                                Upper Upper
    decisions shape the national economy, income
                                                            (0.3%) – “Capital S society” world of inherited wealth,
    mostly from assets earned inherited, prestige
                                                                                 aristocratic names
    university connections
                Upper Middle Class
                                                                                Lower Upper
   (14%-Upper managers, professionals, medium
                  businessmen;                                 (1.2%) – Newer social elite drawn from current
                                                                             corporate leadership
college educated; family income ideally          runs
     nearly twice the national average                         Upper Middle (12.5%)-Rest of college graduate
                                                                managers and professionals; lifestyle centers on
                 Middle Americans                                     private clubs, causes, and the arts
 Middle Class (33%)-Middle-level white- collar, top-
      level blue-collar; education past high school                           Middle Americans
     typical; income somewhat above the national
                                                                                 Middle Class
                          average
                                                              (32%) – Average – pay white – collar workers and
                  Working Class
                                                                  their blue – collar friends; live on “the better
 (32%)-Middle-level blue- collar; lower-level white-               side of town,” try to” od the Proper things”
     collar; income runs slightly below the national
                                                                               Working Class
        average; education is also slightly below
                                                              (38%) – Average –pay blue – collar workers; lead”
         Marginal and Lower Americans
                                                                 Working-class lifestyle” whatever the Income,
Working Poor(11-12%)-Below main- stream America                           School background, and job.
   in living standard but above the poverty line;
                                                                            Lower Americans
   low-paid service workers, operatives; some high
                                                            “A lower group of people but not the lowest” (9%) –
   school education
                                                                 Working not on welfare; living standard is just
                    Underclass                                   above poverty;     behavior judged” crude,”
                                                                 “trashy”
(8-9%)-Depend primarily on welfare system for
    sustenance; living standard below poverty line;                              Real lower
                                                               79


      not regularly employed; lack schooling                        (7%) – On welfare, visibly poverty – stricken, usually
                                                                       out of work for have ‘the dirtiest jobs”); “burns,”
                                                                       “common criminals”
 Abstracted by Coleman The American Class Structure: A New Synthesis (Homewood, III:. The Dorsey Press, 19821. “This condensation of
      the Coleman-Rainwater view is drawn from Chapters 8,9, and 10 of Richard P. Coleman and Lee P. Rainwater, with Kent A.
      McClelland, Social Standing in America: New Dimensions of Class (New York: Basic Books, 1978).



                                                 SOCIAL CLASS DYNAMICS
Is it possible to change your social class?                                 counterculture, perhaps displaying their
    Social mobility refers to the process of                                distaste for their class with body piercing
    passing from one social class to another,                               or tattooing.
    but includes more than just changing your
                                                                      Social Class and Consumer Behavior: Social
    occupation or income level. In England,
                                                                          class affects consumer behavior in a
    citizens can rarely change class rapidly and
                                                                          variety of ways. Certain consumers read
    cannot be royalty unless born into it. In
                                                                          magazines, such as Town & Country and
    India, the family never changes class, but
                                                                          Architectural Digest, because the contents
    individuals    may     do     so    through
                                                                          reflect the interests of the affluent social
    reincarnation. In countries such as Russia,
                                                                          classes to which the readers belong or to
    China, and Hungary, consumers formerly
                                                                          which they aspire. The magazines
    subscribed to the common person
                                                                          advertise upscale products for affluent
    ideology of Communism and Socialism.
                                                                          consumers and contain articles that reflect
    Today, there are new stirrings and the
                                                                          the themes and motivations of special
    emergence of a consumer culture that is
                                                                          significance to affluent social classes-
    demonstrated in homes, electronic
                                                                          articles about arts and craftsmanship,
    equipment, cars, number of bodyguards,
                                                                          interior decoration, dominance of nature,
    and clothes that no longer reflect the
                                                                          the triumph of technology, fashions, and
    stereotyped view of a person as a cog in
                                                                          the ideology of affluence.
    the societal mechanism.
Although in the United States it is possible to
    climb upward (upward mobility) in the
    social order, the probabilities of this
    actually happening are not very high.
    Children's social class usually predicts
    their social class as adults, ultimately                               Table 3. Median Income by Household Type
    limiting social mobility for men and
                                                                                                     Median              Percent
    women, due to factors such as limited                                                             Income               Change
    access to good education and racial                                                                                       in
    prejudice.                                                                                        (1997)
                                                                                                                      Real Income
Although individuals might not change their
                                                                                                                      (1989-1997)
    social status easily, they often display
    behaviors or symbols of other social                                All households               37,005                -0.8
    classes. Parody display describes the                               Family                       45,347                1.6
    mockery of status symbols and behavior,                                households
    whereby an upper-class individual might
    wear blue jeans with holes in them to                               Married couples              51,681                3.5
    proclaim distaste for class or his or her                           Female                       23.040                3.3
    own security in the social status system.                              householder
    Though some people think about                                         (no husband
    upholding their social class, others rebel                             Present)
    against it by becoming part of the
                                                                        80


         Male                         36,634                -6.3             percent of all black family households, and
            householder                                                      23 percent of all Hispanic family
            (no      wife                                                    households. The rate of increase in single
            present)
                                                                             black parenthood slowed during the past
         Non         family           21,705                -2.3             decade to 3.8 percent per year, but the rate
               households                                                    for Hispanics more than doubled to 7
         Female                       17,631                -1.4             percent per year, the highest rate of
            householders                                                     increase for any ethnic group. About 26
         Male                         27,592                -5.0
                                                                             percent of white children, 64 percent of
         householders                                                        black children, and 37 percent of Hispanic
        Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Money Income in the United
                                                                             children live in a single- parent household.
             States: 1997, P60-200                                           Median household income levels (in 1997
        Marketers are increasingly interested in                                dollars) have increased from $31.583 in
        single-parent households. About 11 million                              1967 to $37.303 in 1989, but declined
        of these are headed by a female with no                                 steadily until 1993 and began to rise there
        husband present, and about 3 million by a                               after, reaching $37.005 by 1997. Table
        male householder with no wife present.                                  12.2 shows how the median income levels
        Women without husbands maintain 13                                      of various household types have changed
        percent of all white family households, 44                              during the last decade. Notice the
significant decrease in real income among families and nonfamilies with male house holders and nonfamily
    householder married couples. Nonfamily households grew substantially from 1980 to 1990, yet the annual
    incomes of families headed by single women or men barely changed.



                                   SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGE
        Changing Values: Society’s values                                    younger people grow older and grow into the
        change continuously even though the                                  values of their parents. This is a theory of
        core values are relatively permanent.                                behavioral      assimilation.   Generational
        Marketers must pay special attention to                              change, in contrast, suggests that there will
        values in transition because they affect                             be gradual replacement of existing values by
        the size of market segments. Changes in                              those of young people who form the leading
        values may alter responses to                                        generation in value terms. When today’s
        advertising as well as responses to                                  young people grow old, they will retain the
        service offerings and preferred retailing                            values of their youth and replace societal
        formats. Some changes that have                                      values of today’s olderconsumers.21 What do
        occurred during the 1990s have been                                  you think? In 30 years, will you be more like
        identified in research at Young &                                    your peers or your parents? Your answer will
        Rubicam. They represent a paradigm                                   depend on how your values will be affected
        shift or fundamental reordering of the                               by the cultural transfusive triad (families,
                                                                             religious organizations, and schools) and
        way we see the world around us.
                                                                             early lifetime experiences.
        Changes in a society’s values can be
           forecast on the basis of a life-cycle                                   CHANGING FAMILY
           explanation,    meaning      that    as                                   INFLUENCES
           individuals grow older, their values
                                                                         Family is the dominant transfusive agent of
           change. Therefore, the distinctive
                                                                            values in most cultures. Many changes are
           values seen now among young people
                                                                            occurring in the family, but some of the most
           will become like those of older ages in
                                                                            significant are outlined here.
           a few decades, and societal values in
           the future will be similar to today as
                                                   127


  Less time for in-home or parent-                      Hero worship            Love of ideas
   child influence. With many
                                                         Expansionism            Pluralism
   mothers working outside the
   home, about 60 percent of 3- to 4-                    Patriotism              Less nationalistic
   year-olds attend preschool or
                                                         Unparalleled            Growing sense of
   daycare compared to 5.7 percent
                                                            growth                  limits
   in 1965. Today, children are
   increasingly learning their values                    Industrial growth       Information     and
   outside     the     family   from                                                 service growth
   babysitters, schools, and the
                                                         Receptivity        to Technology
   media. The increase in single-
                                                            technology            orientation
   mother births also diminishes
   potential parental influence on                       Note: Developed Western societies are gradually
                                                             discarding traditional values and are
   children.
                                                             beginning to embrace emerging new values
  Increasing divorce rates. Most                            on an ever-widening scale.
   children are now raised part of                       Source: Joseph T. Plummer, “Changing Values,’
   their    lives   in    single-parent                      Futurist 23 (January/February 1989),10.
   households,      contributing     to
   decreased family influence. These
   children are often less likely to                         CHANGING RELIGIOUS
   form and live in traditional                                 INFLUENCES
   families, influencing values of the
   future generation.                                The degree to which individuals attend religious
                                                        institutions and believe in a “God” or “higher
  The isolated nuclear family.                         power” and the types of religious beliefs they
   Geographic separation of the                         have affect societal culture. Judeo-Christian
   nuclear family from grandparents                     religious institutions historically played an
   and other relatives (due to                          important role in shaping the values of
   increased mobility of jobs and                       Western cultures. In recent years, these
   education) contributes to lack of                    institutions have changed substantially.
   heritage or a yearning for roots.                    Catholics haven from tiny levels in1776 to a
Changing Values in Western Civilization                 quarter of the U.S. population largely
                                                        because of European immigration in the early
 Traditional Values       New Values                    1900s and current immigration from Hispanic
 Self denial ethic        Self-fulfillment              countries. Baptists have replaced Anglicans
                              ethic                     (Episcopalians) as the dominant Protestant
                                                        group.
 Higher standard Better quality of
 of living           life                            The following summarizes some of the trends
                                                     in religion occurring in the United States:
 Traditional         sex Blurring of         sex
    roles                    roles                        Decline in loyalty to traditional churches
                                                           and      religions.    The    decline     of
 Accepted                 Individualized                   institutionalized religion accelerated after
    definition       of       definition      of           World War II, with the spiritual seekers of
    success                   success                      the baby boomers. In 1958,1 in 25
 Traditional family Alternative families                   Americans had left the denomination in
    life                                                   which they were raised, but by 1999, this
                                                           number had jumped to 1 in 3. Religious
  Faith in industry, Self-reliance                         groups declining in membership currently
     institutions                                          include moderate and liberal groups
 Live to work             Work to live                     (Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians,
                                                           Episcopalians, and others).
                                         128


 Increase in non-Christian religions.            medicine (on treatments from massage
  With the increase in ethnic                     to acupuncture).
  diversity has come an increased
  number of practicing Buddhists,          CHANGING                  EDUCATIONAL
  Muslims, and others. These               INSTITUTIONS
  religions     often       promote        The third major institution that transmits
  conservatism and respect for             values to consumers is education. The
  family members.                          influence of education appears to be
                                           increasing, due partly to the increased
 Shift from traditional religion to
                                           participation of Americans in formal
  spirituality.    Many    Americans,
  especially aging baby boomers, are
                                           education and partly to the vacuum left by
  searching for experiential faith and     families and religious institutions. At the
  spirituality rather than traditional     same time, there is concern about the nature
  religion. Spirituality is more           of the increased influence.
  personal and practical, involves              A dramatic increase in formal education.
  stress reduction more so than                  Today, one in four workers in the United
  salvation, and is about feeling                States is a college graduate, up from
  good, not just being good.22 Under             about one in eight in 1970. Although
  this loose definition of faith and             fewer working women than men are
  religion, millions of Americans have           college graduates currently, that might
  a sudden passion for spirituality,             change since today more women are
  and more people than ever are                  enrolled in colleges and universities than
  defining themselves as “religious,”            are men. Weekend and evening MBA
  even if they rarely attend a church            programs and other innovations in
  service.                                       university      continuing     education
 Women becoming more religious.                 departments encourage higher levels of
  Women tend to express their                    education, even among older individuals.
  religious beliefs and spirituality             The University of Phoenix is a for-profit
  more so than men and are joining               corporation leading the way in many
  more bible studies and women's                 new, innovative methods of education
  groups to support each other in                and reaching nontraditional student
  these efforts. Women are also                  groups.
  more likely than men to define                Teaching:     from memorization to
  success in religious terms                     questioning. Previously, teaching often
 Religion and spirituality are big              emphasized          description       and
  business. With the increase in                 memorization of facts, with no latitude
  spirituality has come an increase              for questioning. The trend has been
  in the sales of religious books (on            toward         analytical      approaches
  subjects from New Age practices                emphasizing questioning of the old and
  to spiritual healing), spirituality            the formulation of new approaches and
  retreats,     apparel,   alternative           solutions. Consumers taught in this new
  healthcare, spiritual education,               environment may reject rigid definitions
  religious broadcast stations, and              of right or wrong and practice aggressive
  religious gifts, especially those              consumerism. In turn, marketing
  relating to angels. According to the           organizations must revise sales programs
  Book Industry Study group, in                  and product information formats to
  1997, consumers spent $982                     provide answers when customers ask
  million on religious books, $268               questions.
  million on inspirational books, and           Internet teaching. More students are
  $27 billion25 on alternative                   experiencing some form of Internet
                                                   129


         learning, whether it be actual                  products they buy and use, purchasing
         instruction     from   teachers                 processes, and the organizations from which
         through electronic sources or                   they purchase. Marketers are giving more
         performing secondary research                   attention, however, to understanding
         on the Internet. As young                       macrocultures and how they affect consumer
         consumers, exposed early to                     behavior. Hofstede found four dimensions of
         computers and the Internet,                     culture that are common among 66
         become consuming adults, their                  countries. These dimensions serve as a
         expectations about how and for                  foundation for characterizing, comparing, and
         what      to    use  electronic                 contrasting specific national cultures, and
         information and commerce will                   they     are     helpful     in   identifying
         influence      the   marketing                  environmentally sensitive segments of the
         strategies of many firms and                    market:
         organizations.                                   Individualism     versus      collectivism.
                                                           Individualism describes the relationship
THE INFLUENCE OF AGE-                                      between an individual and fellow
RELATED MICROCULTURES                                      individuals, or the collectivity that
ON VALUES                                                  prevails in society. Figure 11.10
In     addition to families, religious                     summarizes      the     attitudinal     and
     institutions,       and         educational           behavioral differences associated with
     institutions, culture and values are                  individualism and collectivism.
     shaped by early life experiences.
                                                                        AGE COHORTS
     Consumer analysts employ cohort
     analysis to investigate the changes in               THE DEPRESSION COHORT (the G.I.
     patterns of behavior or attitudes of                    generation)
     groups called cohorts. A cohort is any               BORN 1912-21 AGE        People who were
     group of individuals linked as a group                  IN'00:79 to 80 %        starting out
     in some may usually by age. Cohort                      OF        ADULT         in          the
     analysis focuses on actual changes in                   POPULATION:             Depression
     the behavior or attitudes of a cohort,                  7% (13 million)         era       were
     the changes that can be attributed to                                           scarred       in
                                                          MONEY     MOTTO:
     the process of aging, and changes that                                          ways       that
                                                            Save for a rainy
                                                                                     remain with
     are associated with events of a                        day.
                                                                                     them today-
     particular period, such as the Great                 SEX          MINDSET:      especially
     Depression or the Watergate scandal.                       Intolerant           when           it
     Though the 1960's counterculture                                                comes        to
                                                          FAVORITE
     brought with it an increase in feminist                                         financial
                                                          MUSIC: Big band
     and immigrant values, some analysts                                             matters like
     say we have entered a post-modern                                               spending,
     era, in which cultural contradictions                                           saving, and
     are celebrated and blended. Although                                            debt.       The
     fads may change (flat-top haircuts in                                           Depression
                                                                                     cohort was
     the 1950s and body piercing in the
                                                                                     also the first
     1990s), the cultural dynamic is the                                             to           be
     same - minority groups will seek out                                            influenced by
     these changes, and the majority will                                            contemporar
     fall into the “I don't get it” category.                                        y      media:
                                                                                     radio      and
      NATIONAL CULTURE                                                               especially
Culture has a profound impact on the way                                             motion
    consumers     perceive   themselves,                                             pictures.
                                             130


THE WORLD WAR II COHORT (the                                                   was the first
   Depression generation)                                                      to dig folk
                                                                               rock.
BORN 1922-27 AGE       People who came
   IN'00:73 to 78 %       of age in the
   OF        ADULT        1940s were
   POPULATION:            unified      by
   6% (11 million)        the shared
                          experience of
MONEY       MOTTO:                                 THE BOOMERS I COHORT (the Woodstock
                          a     common
  Save a lot, spend                                    generation)
                          enemy and a
  a little.
                          common                   BORN 1946-54 AGE       Vietnam is the
SEX         MINDSET:      goal.                       IN ‘00:46 to 54         demarcation
      Ambivalent          Consequently                % OF ADULT              point
                          , this group                POPULATION;             between
FAVORITE      MUSIC:
                          became                      17% (33 million)        leading-edge
   Swing
                          intensely                                           and failing-
                                                   MONEY    MOTTO:
                          romantic, A                                         edge
                                                     Spend, borrow,
                          sense of self-                                      boomers.
                                                     spend.
                          denial that                                         The Kennedy
                          long outlived            SEX         MINDSET:       and       King
                          the war is                     Permissive           assassination
                          especially                                          s signaled an
                                                   FAVORITE MUSIC:
                          strong                                              end to the
                                                      Rock & roll
                          among the                                           status    quo
                          16      million                                     and
                          veterans and                                        galvanized
                          their families.                                     this      vast
                                                                              cohort. Stilt,
THE     POSTWAR     COHORT   (the   silent
                                                                              early
      generation)
                                                                              boomers
BORN 1928-45; AGE      Members of this                                        continued to
   IN ‘00:55 to 72        18-year                                             experience
   % OF ADULT             cohort, the                                         economic
   POPULATION:21          war babies,                                         good times
   % (41 million}         benefited                                           and want a
   MONEY MOTTO:           from a long                                         lifestyle   at
   Save      some,        period       of                                     least as good
   spend some.            economic                                            as that of
                          growth and                                          their
SEX         MINDSET:
                          relative social                                     predecessors
      Repressive
                          tranquility.                                        .
FAVORITE MUSIC:           But     global
                                                   THE BOOMERS II COHORT (zoomers)
   Frank Sinatra          unrest and
                          the threat of            BORN 1955-65 AGE       It   all changed
                          nuclear                     IN'00:35 to 45 %         after
                          attack                      OF        ADULT          Watergate.
                          sparked       a             POPULATION:              The idealistic
                          need         to             25% (49 million)         fervor       of
                          alleviate                                            youth
                                                   MONEY     MOTTO:
                          uncertainty                                          disappeared.
                                                     Spend, borrow,
                          in everyday                                          Instead, the
                                                     spend.     SEX
                          life.      The                                       later
                                                     MINDSET:
                          youngest                                             boomers
                                                     Permissive
                          subset, called                                       exhibited a
                          the       cool           FAVORITE MUSIC:             narcissistic
                          generation,                 Rock & roll              preoccupatio
                                                           131


                                         n         that                                          fraternities.
                                         manifested                                              Their political
                                         itself       in                                         conservatism
                                         things     like                                         is motivated
                                         the self-help                                           by a “What's
                                         movement In                                             in it for me?”
                                         this dawning                                            cynicism.
                                         age          of
                                         downward                 Source: Faye Rice and Kimberly Seals McDonald,
                                                                       Making Generational Marketing Count,
                                         mobility,
                                                                       Fortune 131,12 {June 26,1995), 110.
                                         debt as a
                                         means        of
                                         maintaining a
                                         lifestyle
                                         made sense.
              THE GENERATION X COHORT (baby-
                 busters)
              BORN 1966-76 AGE       The slacker set
                 IN '00; 24 to 34       has nothing
                 % OF ADULT             to hang on
                 POPULATION:            to.       The
                 21% (41 million)       latchkey kids
                                        of    divorce
               MONEY    MOTTO:
                                        and day care
                 Spend?  Save?
                                        are searching
                 What?
                                        for anchors
              SEX         MINOSET:      with     their
                    Confused            seemingly
                                        contradictory
              FAVORITE   MUSIC:
                                        “retro”
                 Grunge,   rap,
                                        behavior: the
                 retro
                                        resurgence
                                        of     proms,
                                        coming-out
                                        parties, and




    Uncertainty avoidance.
Uncertainty avoidance concerns the different ways in which societies react to the uncertainties and ambiguities
   inherent in life. Some societies need well-defined rules or rituals to guide behavior, whereas others are
   tolerant of deviant ideas and behavior.


    Power distance. Power distance reflects the degree to which a society accepts inequality in power at
     different levels in organizations and institutions. It can affect preferences for centralization of authority,
     acceptance of differential rewards, and the ways people of unequal status work together.
                                            132




                           Individualism Versus Collectivism
                                       Individualism                        Collectivism
                            4    (e.g., United States, Australia, (e.g.. Hong Kong, Taiwan,
                                Canada)                               Japan)


     Self-construal         Defined by internal        attributes, Defined by important others,
                                personal traits                        family, friends


     Role of others         Self-evaluation (e.g., standards of Self-definition         (e.g.,
                                social comparison, sources of       relationships with others
                                appraisal regarding self)           define self and affect
                                                                    preferences)
     Values                 Emphasis       on       separateness, Emphasis on connectedness,
                               individuality                         relationships
     Motivational drives    Focus   differentiation,   relatively Focus on similarity, relatively
                               greater need to be unique             greater need to blend in
     Behavior               Reflective of personal preferences, Influenced by preferences,
                                needs                                needs of close others


    Masculinity-femininity. This factor defines the extent to which societies hold values
     traditionally regarded as predominantly masculine or feminine. Assertiveness, respect for
     achievement, and the acquisition of money and material possessions are identified with
     masculinity; and nurturing, concern for the environment, and championing the underdog are
     associated with a culture’s femininity.
                           CHANGING ROLES OF WOMEN

Marketing managers have always been               in the population, improved purchasing and
interested in lifestyle changes occurring         employment status, and changed roles of
among      women        because   female          women.
consumers buy so many products-for                The female population is growing faster than the
themselves and for families. Women’s                 male population because women tend to live
lifestyles have changed dramatically                 longer than men do. Some experts say this is
during the last century, especially since            due to genetic makeup, and others say it is
Gloria Steinem made “feminist” a                     stress related, speculating that as women
household word and singer Helen                      move up the corporate ladder and manage
Reddy sang the 1970’s smash hit, “I Am               households, they may begin to mirror the life
Woman.” Those times brought with                     expectancy of men. And women sometimes
them a fight for equality between the                mirror the lifestyles of their male
sexes in terms of job opportunity,                   counterparts, especially as they take on
respect, and pay. And women never                    similar roles in the work force or in social
looked back. In fact, interest in female             activities. Smoking trends as they relate to
consumers continues to intensify                     Asian women are highlighted in Consumer in
because of greater numbers of women                  Focus 12.2. Regardless of why women live
                                              111


   longer than men, females now                     childcare, clothing, food away from home,
   outnumber males by 6.5 million in the            gasoline, and motor oil. Families with two
   United States.                                   incomes also spend more on shelter than do
                                                    one-earner families.
Feminine roles are of great concern today
   to consumer analysts and marketers. A       To Smoke or Not To Smoke? Tobacco
   role specifies what the typical             companies and lung disease experts alike see
   occupant of a given position is             Asian women as a fertile market for their
   expected to do in that position in a        products-cigarettes      and      antismoking
   particular social context. Consumer         campaigns, respectively. Compared to
   analysts are especially concerned with      American and European women, roughly 25
   gender roles of women in the family         percent of whom smoke, only 4 to 8 percent
   and in their position as purchasing         of women living in Asia smoke. The Global
   agents for the family. One of the           Congress on Lung Health points out that 60 to
   greatest challenges women face today        70 percent of Chinese, Japanese, and South
   is balancing their roles as wife or         Korean men already smoke. And although
   partner, mother, wage-earner, and           women begin smoking for different reasons
   consumer.                                   than men (women tend to begin smoking to
Female Employment: Women in North              express     maturity,   independence,     and
   America, Europe, and other countries        sociability and to relax and ease stress)
   today have much higher rates of             experts predict that the non-saturated female
   employment outside the home than in         market will be targeted by tobacco companies
   past eras. Women have left hearth and       soon.
   home to bring home some of the
                                               Tobacco companies can approach this market
   bacon. Today, more than 59 percent of
   women in the United States are
                                               from two different angles-by appealing to
   employed, in contrast to less than 25       gender equality emotions or by appealing to
   percent in 1950. This trend is occurring    feminine traits. As Asian women lag behind
   on a global scale as well, with the         their U.S. counterparts in terms of job
   percentages of women who work               opportunities and advancement, some
   reaching 52 percent in Canada, 49           marketers speculate that some women will
   percent in Japan, 47 percent in Great       want to emulate the habits of men to fit into
   Britain, 46 percent in Australia, and 39    the work culture better and be viewed as more
   percent in Western Germany.                 similar to professional Asian men. The other
                                               approach focuses on the fact that fewer
Women can choose to work full time or          women quit smoking because they think it
  part time outside the home or stay at
                                               will keep them thin. “This is the sort of
  home, caring for the family and home
                                               connection that the tobacco industry is trying
  full time. The greatest effect of work
                                               to make to every girl in the world,” said
  status is in family income, and
                                               Patricia White of Britain’s National Health
  therefore, family buying. Families in
                                               Service. Cigarette ads that portray smoking as
  which the female works full time
                                               a way to enhance beauty, confidence, and
  average more than $14,000 additional
  income than households with only one
                                               seductiveness will appeal to the feminine side
  person working. Today, the wife's work       of women.
  status is less of a determinant to how a     The International Union Against Tuberculosis and
  family spends its income than is the            Lung Disease classifies smoking in every
  total amount of net income the family           country as an epidemic that starts off slowly,
  has to spend. Though employment                 builds up and peaks, then declines as anti-
  might increase family income, working           smoking campaigns set in. Just as tobacco
  outside the home may increase family            companies see this market as a means of
  expenditures on items such as                   increasing sales, so do health experts and
                                                   112


   social agencies see it as a market                  Role Overload: Role overload
   needing anti smoking campaigns. The
   battle for gaining consumers’ attention             exists when the total demands
   has begun. (Source: “Anti-smoking experts           on time and energy associated
   suggest ads targeted toward women,” Marketing
   News , January 19991, 5.)                         with the prescribed activities of
Career Orientation:          Employed                  multiple roles are too great to
individuals are sometimes classified by              perform the roles adequately or
orientation toward their careers. Rena
Bartos finds two groups of working
                                                      comfortably. Sex-role ideology,
women: those who think of themselves                   especially found in feminism,
as having a career and those to whom                   and other forces are creating
work is “just-a-job.” There are also
housewives who prefer to stay at home
                                                     pressures toward more equality
and those who plan to work in the                    in work-loads between men and
future. For marketers, this may be                     women. Research shows that
important because homemakers and
just-a-job women are more likely to
                                                       employed women work more
read traditional women’s magazines,                   hours each day than husbands
whereas professional women are more                     who are employed and wives
likely to read general interest and
business-oriented     magazines     and
                                                     who are not employed, resulting
newspapers. As with other consumer                        in role overload for many
classifications, working or nonworking                 women. As women contribute
wives should not be treated as
homogeneous segments because many
                                                     more to the family income, they
differences exist and account for                      expect in return a more equal
different purchasing behaviors within                      division of the household
these groups.
                                                           responsibilities. There is
Women and Time: Married working
  women experience many time
                                                         evidence, especially among
  pressures. They often have two jobs:                 younger families, of a shift in
  household responsibilities, including                  attitudes toward work and
  children, plus their jobs in the
  marketplace. Studies show they have                   housework that is causing a
  significantly less leisure time than                 move toward more household
  either their husbands or full-time                     equality between the sexes.
  homemakers. This would suggest that               Marketing to Women: Consumer researchers are
  working wives would buy more time-                   interested in women’s multiple roles, time
  saving      appliances,   use   more                 pressures, and changing family structures in
  convenience foods, spend less time                   order to develop effective marketing and
  shopping, and so forth. Actually,                    communication programs to reach them.
  research shows that working and non                  With such information, marketers can look
  working wives are similar in such                    beyond the one-size-fits-all description of
  behavior if income, life stage, and                  general segments of women to more
  other situational variables are held                 descriptive and specific descriptions.
  constant, and that working-wife
  families appear to spend more on food             The “mother” category has been a relatively
  away from home, childcare, and some                  under-studied    segment     because    of
  services.                                            assumptions about this market segment. Leo
                                                       Burnett, a U.S.-based advertising agency,
                                                113


    studied the premise that “all mothers             evening hours, or weekends to view and try
    must be the same and can be reached               on clothing in the comfort of a nice home. Or
    through similar advertising because               associates will bring samples of clothing to
    they are all concerned with the same              clients’ homes or offices.
    issues (health and well-being of their
                                                           Multiple Moms: Four Strategies
    children).” Through Leo She, its unit
    focusing on marketing to women, the               June Cleaver. The Sequel
    company found four major groups of                These women believe in the traditional
    mothers,      each    with     unique                roles of “stay-at-home” moms and
    characteristics.                                     “bread-winner” dads. They tend to be
Different mom segments look at                           white, highly educated, and from
    advertising, messages, products, time,               upscale backgrounds. Slightly more
    and brands differently. For example,                 than half of them stay at home full
    time-strapped Tug-of-War moms are                    time to care for their families,
    the most brand conscious because they                compared to the national average of
    use recognized brands to save time and               30 percent.
    help simplify their shopping trips.
                                                      Tug of War Moms
    Consumer        products       companies
    targeting these women should                      They share some of the same traditional
    spotlight the values of their brands. But            notions of motherhood, but are forced
    new brands or brands that are in                     to work – and they aren’t happy about
    trouble can benefit from targeting the               that these moms, 79 percent of whom
    emerging groups of Strong Shoulders                  work outside the home, are full of
    moms (via inspirational television                   anger and anxiety.
    shows) and Mothers of Invention (via
                                                      Strong Shoulders
    the web), according to Leo She. The
    key is not to treat all moms the same             More than a third of this group are single
    or expect to capture all of them with                mothers, who have a positive view of
    one single message.                                  their lives, despite their lower income
                                                         levels and little support from their
Retailers and not-for-profit agencies can
                                                         children’s dads, Thirty-four percent of
    apply such information to existing
                                                         these women are between 18 and 24
    strategies to better reach, keep, and
                                                         years old.
    service clients. For example, retailers
    are open longer hours than in years               Mothers of Invention
    past because of conflicting work
                                                      These women enjoy motherhood, work
    schedules. One study found that
                                                         outside the home, and have help with
    among mothers who work full time, 45
                                                         their child-rearing responsibilities
    percent work different shifts than their
                                                         from husbands. Unlike the Tug-of-
    spouse, and 57 percent of part-time
                                                         Wars, this group has developed new
    working women work different shifts
                                                         and creative ways to balance career
    than their husbands. Increased time
                                                         with a happy home life.
    pressures have also caused many
    retailers and agencies to create
    catalogs. Internet sites, and alternative    Changing Masculine Roles: Roles of men in
    shopping or access methods. Don                 families are changing substantially as well. It
    Caster, a direct marketer of upscale            is not uncommon in the United States for the
    women's clothing, adapts to women's             woman of the household to buy new tires for
    busy schedules and hectic lifestyles by         the car while the husband stays home to cook
    showing its products in the comfort of          dinner or play with the kids. As men’s share
    associates’ homes. Clients can make             of family income decreases and as values
    appointments during their lunch hours,
                                              114


   shift in society men are free to            better balance between work and leisure.
   participate more fully in family            These new roles appear to be creating a male
   functions and are taking on new roles       market that is more interested in brands than
   in consuming and purchasing products.       in earlier decades
   In a survey of 1,000 American men by
                                               As economic conditions and men's roles in the
   the advertising agency Cunningham &
                                                  home change, men are redefining
   Walsh, more and more men could be
                                                  themselves. Whereas the man of the 1950s
   observed as househusbands. The
                                                  wanted a settled, stable, suburban existence,
   privately published survey disclosed
                                                  and the man of the 1970s cared more about
   that 47 percent of men vacuum the
                                                  power than fitting in, today’s “organization
   house, 80 percent take out the
                                                  man” carries a briefcase in one hand and
   garbage, 41 percent wash dishes, 37
                                                  pushes a baby carriage with the other. And
   percent make beds, 33 percent load
                                                  although he considers his career important,
   the washing machine, 27 percent clean
                                                  he doesn't want to sacrifice time with his
   the bathroom, 23 percent dust, 23
                                                  family. Businesses will have to adapt to the
   percent dry dishes, 21 percent sort
                                                  changes that men are facing, such as having
   laundry, 16 per cent clean the
                                                  to stay home with a sick child. The
   refrigerator, and 14 percent clean the
                                                  compromises today's organization man is
   oven. More than 50 percent of men
                                                  making are very similar to the ones made by
   take part in regular shopping trips,
                                                  working women, and firms that do not
   suggesting that men are important
                                                  address these changing roles and needs could
   targets for many types of household
                                                  lose some of their best and brightest female
   products.
                                                  and male employees.
Men not only participate in household and
                                               Children and Household Consumer Behavior:
   consumption activities but are in
   creasing their rate of participation.       Children change dramatically how the family
   Men now do one-fifth of the cooking,            functions, in terms of relationships,
   cleaning, and laundry, and married              employment, and purchases. Studies based
   men now do more housework than                  on Canadian data indicate that young
   unmarried men. Similarly, fathers are           children cause less participation in the labor
   doing more (in the household) than              force, change how families spend their
   they once did.                                  money, and reduce the amount of time and
                                                   money available for leisure.
Much literature has focused on the new
   roles of men. Joseph Pleck, a leader in     Influence of Children: The children’s market has
   the field, notes that though the “new           captured the attention of marketers
   father” image is increasingly portrayed         worldwide because of the increasing dollars,
   in the media, there is, in reality,             lira, and pounds they spend on products and
   substantive change in men’s behaviors.          because of the enormous influence they
   The new father is present at the birth,         exert over spending power in a growing
   is involved with his children as infants        number of product categories, including
   (not just when they are older),                 footwear and clothing. Children spent over
   participates in the actual day-to-day           $25 billion in 1998, buying confections,
   work of child-care, and is involved with        games, movies, and music from U.S. retailers.
   his daughters as much as his sons.              The fastest growing purchase category for
                                                   children has been apparel, due in part to
Men in the 21st century see themselves
                                                   children assuming more responsibility for
as being more sensitive. Men remain
                                                   their own necessities. Armed with money
interested in romance, but they also
                                                   received from allowances, chores, and gifts
express a high interest in fitness, health,        from grandparents, children average just over
helping raise the children, helping out            200 store visits per year, either alone or with
with household chores, and finding a               parents. A typical 10-year-old goes shopping
                                                115


    with parents two to three times per               children's shopping lists because they sell a
    week (directly influencing about $188             lot of candy and other products children like
    billion of household purchases) and               and because they are accessible. In fact, most
    shops alone around once a week.                   children will make their first independent
                                                      purchases at convenience stores. As children
But their influence on household spending
                                                      reach ages 8 to 10 years, they prefer mass
    varies by product user and by degree.
                                                      merchandisers because of the breadth of
    Children tend to have greater influence
                                                      products in the toy, snack foods, clothing,
    in purchase decisions involving
                                                      and school supplies categories. They also like
    products for their own use, whereas
                                                      to shop specialty stores because of the depth
    their influence is more limited on more
                                                      of toys, music, or shoes offered. Children
    expensive, higher risk products.
                                                      usually have a favorite grocery store and
    Children exert direct influence over
                                                      recommend their mothers shop there when
    parental spending when they request
                                                      they shop together. Finally, children find
    specific products and brands. Direct
                                                      drugstores and department stores cold and
    influence also refers to joint decision
                                                      boring, and very adult oriented.
    making-actively participating with
    family members to make a purchase.           Childhood Socialization: Much of consumer
    Children’s influence might also be               behavior is learned as a child. Family
    indirect, occurring when parents buy             communication about purchases and
    products and brands that they know               consumer behavior is the key in children's
    their children prefer, without being             consumer socialization process. Children who
    asked or told to make that specific              buy Pepsi when they are young are more
    purchase. These kinds of transactions            likely to buy Pepsi when they are older. They
    account for al most $300 million in              are also more likely to react negatively to
    household spending. Automakers                   product changes but are less affected by
    target kids in magazines and point-of-           price increases. And single consumers tend to
    purchase displays because they                   be more loyal to the brands they learned to
    indirectly influence about $17.7 billion         buy as children.
    in auto purchases. And the influence of
                                                 So, how do children learn their consumer
    children on computer purchases is just
                                                    behaviors? They learn primarily from
    beginning to blossom.
                                                    shopping with parents-known as co-
Not only do children influence choices,             shopping. Co-shoppers tend to be more
   they are actually making purchases,              concerned        about     their    children’s
   with family money and with their own.            development as consumers, and they place
   Just as children affect family purchases,        more value on children's input in family
   families affect young consumers’                 consumer decisions, including decisions on
   perception and evaluation of product             products not encountered on typical co-
   and      brand     choices.     Children's       shopping trips such as automobiles, major
   consumer behavior is absorbed at very            appliances, life insurance, and vacations. Co-
   young ages from familial examples so             shoppers explain more to their children why
   that if parents exhibit brand loyalty to         they don’t buy products and discuss the role
   a specific brand, children perceive that         of advertising, which to some extent may
   brand and product to be good. A                  mediate the influence of advertising.
   family's influence upon a child's brand
                                                 Different types of mothers communicate
   choices must be recognized by
                                                     consumer skills and knowledge to their
   marketers because the influence
                                                     children in different ways. Researchers found
   affects purchase decisions later in life
                                                     that mothers who are restrictive and warm in
   as well.
                                                     their relationships with their children tend to
Where do children like to shop best?                 monitor and control children's consumption
  Convenience stores rank at the top of              activities more, whereas mothers who
                                               116


    respect and solicit children's opinions     Many changes in family structure directly affect
    use messages that promote purchasing           how marketers communicate to children and
    and consumption decision-making                their families. For example, delayed marriage
    abilities.                                     and higher education are increasing the
                                                   number of families with only children (who
Retailers can benefit from understanding
                                                   are accustomed to communicating with
    the role of children in buying. Some
                                                   adults more than with siblings or peers).
    retailers may consider children an
                                                   Their preferences may be much more “adult”
    interference with parents’ shopping
                                                   than marketers traditionally expected.
    time. Retailers such as Ikea, the
                                                   Effective communications must take into
    Swedish furniture firm with stores
                                                   consideration the higher verbal and creative
    around the world, provide play areas
                                                   skills.
    for children while parents shop. A
    more proactive approach is found in
    Japanese department stores, which
    encourage children and parents,
    principally mothers, to interact with
    toys found in the store, making it a fun
    place for children to visit.




   DEMOGRAPHY AND METHODS OF DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS
Population refers to the total number                that are used in computation and
of human beings in a society at a                    analysis of population data:
particular time and place. The                       1. Population change. Population
technical study of human population                     growth is computed by the
is referred to as demography. This                      formula P2 = P1 plus Natural
includes their size, composition and                    increase plus Net migration.
distribution as well as the reasons or                 The future population P2 of any
causes of changes in these factors                     given area is the result of the
along with the consequences of these                   present population P1 plus the
changes. Populations are in a                          natural increase and the net
continuous process of change and                       migration. The natural increase is
this is through the interplay of three                 obtained by subtracting the
demographic        processes-namely,                   number of deaths from the
births, deaths and migration.                          number of births over a given
Human population may be classified                     period of time. Net migration is
in terms of age, creed, sex,                           the difference between the
occupation, residence, etc. and then                   number of persons who enter a
analyzed to indicate trends in                         certain area during a given
particular directions and explore                      interval of time (immigrants) and
causes of change. This demographic                     the number who leave that area
analysis is based on certain                           during     the    same    interval
principles, methods and concepts                       (emigrants). The basic factors or
                                                117


   variables of population change                     TFR is used by demographers as a
   are fertility , mortality and                      tool in studying the level of child
   migration (both movement into                      bearing at which couples have an
   and out of an area) and will be                    average of two children (TFR-2.00),
   discussed later. Any change in                     thus replace themselves in the
   population size is a result of                     population. A population that
   influence on these demographic                     achieves or has reached replacement
   factors.                                           level fertility will stop growing.
2. Rate of natural increase. The                      5. Death Rate. The crude death rate
   growth of population in an area                    refers to the number of deaths per
   excluding migration is computed                    1000 population at midyear, and is
   by the formula:                                    computed by the formula:
    Birth per year - Death per year    X 1000             Number of deaths per year X 1000
           Total population                                   Total Population
3. Birth rate. Dividing the number                    6. Life Expectancy. The average
of births during a given year by the                  length of life attained at the time of
total population or by the number of                  death by persons who were born
females of child-bearing age, usually                 during a specified time interval is the
between the ages 15 to 44 years                       life expectancy. Maximum life span
provide a Crude birth rate in the                     is the number of years lived by the
former case and a Refined birth rate                  oldest members of the group, or the
in the latter. The formula for                        age to which an individual could
computing crude birth rate is :                       expect to live if he were protected to
    Number of live births per year    X 1000          the extent possible from disease or
         Total population
                                                      injury.
4. Fertility ratio is the ratio of the
number of children under five years                   7. Age and Sex Composition. The
to the number of women of child-                      number and/or per cent of population
bearing age (15 to 44 years)                          in various age categories is called
multiplied by 1000.                                   the age composition. The sex ratio,
                                                      the number of males in population
Total fertility rate (TFR) is a rate
                                                      per 100 females is expressed by the
that is commonly used to indicate
                                                      formula:
the average number of children in a
                                                      Sex ratio   =   Males X 100
family. This does not measure the                                     Females
fertility of any real group of women,                 Demographic Transition in World
since it is actually a synthetic rate.                Population:
What it does measure is the fertility                 It is the change in the ratio of births
of an imaginary group of women                        to deaths that has resulted in the
who pass through their fictitious                     unparalleled and unprecedented
reproductive lives subject to the rates               growth of world population in
of child bearing experienced by real                  modern times. Earlier, with high
women in a given year.                                death rates due to poor health,
                                                      difficult living conditions and low
                                                  118


life expectancy (less than 30 years),                    large families made for a strong
the birth and death rates fluctuated                     class, community, tribe or nation.
around a relatively high level as                        This has been considered the first
illustrated in the following figure,                     stage of demographic transition. The
essentially canceling out each other.                    second stage was marked by a drop
 In these societies high birth rates                     in death rate in response to improved
were encouraged by the culture.                          health     practices    and     living
Large families brought with them an                      conditions. The birth rate, however,
economic advantage by providing                          continued at a bout the same level –
farm labor. The family farm was                          giving rise to the population
more of a way of life (as continued                      explosion which emerged from
in most Third World countries) and                       lower                        mortality.
less of a business enterprise. Further,

                      Stage 1        Stage 2                          Stage Stage 4
                                     3


                   Birth/                                         Birth
                   Death             rate
                   Rates

                                                   Natural Increase
                                     Death rate




                                                              Time
                            The Stages of Demographic Transition
                             Source: Population Research Bureau, Washington, DC, USA
As shown in the above mentioned                          transition, while most developing
diagram there is a downward dip in                       Third World countries are still in
the birth rate in the third stage of                     stage two or the early part of stage
demographic transition, as it                            three of the transition. Most
eventually catches up with the death                     population experts assume that these
rate. During the early part of this                      Third World countries will complete
stage, population growth remains                         their transition to low fertility and
relatively high but drops to near zero                   mortality but may differ from USA
in the latter part. Both birth and                       and European countries in the path
death rates are close together again                     they take . For even if all countries
in the fourth and final stage of                         eventually undergo and complete
demographic transition, but they                         the transition, they will doubtless
fluctuate around a relatively low                        follow different timetables and paths
level. Natural increase is near zero.                    that would be deeply influenced by
Demographers indicate that in areas                      the social and cultural factors and
such as Europe and the USA have                          prevalent conditions that exist in
largely completed the demographic                        each     country.    However,      the
                                       119


completion of the transition will            increased rapidly in recent years. It
have        enormous       long-term         was 960 million in 1800, 1.65
consequences that determine the              billion in 1900, 6.2 billion in 2000
ultimate size of world population.           and expected to reach 8.5 billion in
It is well known that population of          2025.
the world over past centuries has

                                    COLLECTIVITIES
 A collectivity is a number of            another example of a more violent
persons      whose      behavior      is  collectivity is a mob, assembled to
specifically polarized around a           damage certain properties or to
temporary center of attraction that       demonstrate. The collective action of
leads to interaction and a unity          the mob persists until the gathering
which exists only as long as the          disperses and normal activities are
center of attraction exists.              resumed.
Through the other components of           Characteristics of Collectivities:
social           structure-institutions,  Collectivities as specific entities in
organizations, ecological entities and    societal structure have several
groups- society has regularized           characteristics, the more important
actions according to specified            of which are listed below:
values,      norms      of     behavior      1. Composition. Collectivities
prescribing roles, and accepted                  are composed of people who
procedures of functioning . All                  are randomly drawn towards
social behavior, however, is not                 the focus of attention. The size
orderly and regularized. Under                   and        composition         of
certain circumstances and for                    collectivities    cannot       be
temporary periods of time, people                predicted, and anonymity is
may act in a disorderly fashion-                 the chief characteristic of
sometimes contrary to and in                     persons who compose a
violation of established rules of                collectivity. Each person loses
society- to form crowds, mobs, and               his individual identity in a
other such aggregations of people.               collectivity, and as a result,
The behavior displayed by such                   irresponsible action by a
aggregations has been termed                     collectivity is frequent. In
“collective         behavior”        by          addition, collectivities rarely
sociologists, and the social entities            reappear in exactly the same
through which such behavior                      composition; each collectivity
expresses itself are referred to as              is hence unique in its
collectivities. For example, a large             composition.
gathering of people collected                2. Focus of Attention or
together to watch a house on fire is a           Polarization. Polarization is a
collectivity. After the fire is brought          distinctive         feature     if
under control, the people disperse,              collectivities and differentiates
                                       120


   it from other forms of human                    not      standardized.      The
   relationships. Individuals in a                 common practices that may be
   collectivity are always drawn                   followed in some collectivities
   together around some event,                     do not emerge as standard
   circumstances or situation                      required norms of behavior for
   which becomes their focus of                    all      collectivities.    The
   attention. This may be an                       determination          of     a
   accident, a stage performance,                  collectivity’s standards of
   an      exhibition     or     a                 behavior depends on the
   demonstration of a new                          existing circumstances; these
   product by a salesman or                        standards             sometimes
   extension worker. Whatever it                   contradict accepted social
   may be, it serves to                            norms.
   temporarily fuse into one unit               6. Permanent Structures May
   people who previously may                       Result from Collectivities.
   have had nothing in common.                     Collectivities,             while
3. Structure. Collectivities have                  temporary, may sometimes
   no planned or premeditated                      result in more permanent
   structure. They are largely                     structures       in       society.
   unanticipated because the                       Collectivities      often     call
   focal     stimuli   are    not                  attention     to     undesirable
   systematically developed in                     situations causing society to
   advance.                                        organize itself in more
4. Duration       of     Existence.                permanent ways to prevent re-
   Collectivities are, by nature of                occurrence of such incidents
   the       circumstances       and               or circumstances.
   polarizing factors that cause             Social Conditions that Produce
   them usually temporary and                Collectivities: There are certain
   short live.. Gathering of                 distinctive social conditions that give
   people at accidents, stage                rise to the creation of collectivities.
   performances, and similar                 These are:
   events and incidents disperse                 1. Disturbance in the normal
   as soon as the incident is over.                 Routine of Daily Life. A
   Most collectivities are random                   stranger visiting a remote
   and temporary although some                      town      will     immediately
   last for longer periods of time.                 become the focus of attention
   Collectivities     have     been                 for the residents, who
   described as the temporary                       assemble to see the stranger.
   crisis structures of society.                    As he leaves, town life returns
5. Standards of Behavior.                           to its normal routine. A flash
   Norms of behavior within                         flood engulfs a village, and
   each type of collectivity are                    people are stunned as their
                                      121


   homes are washed away by                       Unrest. Collectivities are
   the swirling waters. As they                   created when the normal
   recover, all efforts are made to               functioning of society is
   save both life and property.                   disrupted and important needs
   Thus, collectivities are formed                are not met. If society is
   because normal patterns of life                unable to remove the causes of
   have been disturbed.                           discontent, frustration and
2. Deliberately            Planned                desperation may set in and
   Variation in the Routine of                    provide a fertile ground for
   Daily         Life.        Some                formation of collectivities and
   collectivities emerge from                     collective action.
   situations or occasions that are         Three Conditions characterize such
   deliberately      planned     to         relatively unstructured and unstable
   introduce change in the                  situations:
   normal routine of daily life. In                   a. Inadequacy or absence
   Egyptian       villages,     one                      of social forms: The
   function of the festivals                             weakness and lack of
   celebrated is to change the                           social forms prescribing
   routine of daily life.                                norms,       rules     and
3. Weakness, Lack or Collapse                            procedures of behavior
   of Social Control. When                               to        cope        with
   society has weak controls to                          emergencies            and
   prevent incidents of theft,                           unanticipated situations
   robbery involving physical                            such       as      famine,
   violence and threat to life and                       earthquake, revolution
   property, collectivities may                          and      the     resulting
   form with their own norms                             unstable conditions give
   and ways of handling the                              rise to collectivities and
   situations. A murder, for                             collective behavior.
   instance, may lead to the                          b. A context which leaves
   assembly of a lynching mob                            decision-making open
   composed       of     otherwise                       and         ambiguous:
   orderly     people.    Looting,                       Within certain political
   arson,     and    attacks    on                       systems,      such     as
   individuals may at times be                           democratic society in
   the behavior expressed by                             particular,        public
   collectivities when social                            opinion is held in high
   controls collapse completely                          value, Hence while the
   and the collectivity assumes                          broad framework        of
   control.                                              government             is
4. Most Collectivities Develop                           specified,    much     is
   in a Context of Social                                deliberately left open to
                                         122


            influences     by    the           2. Physical presence         at   a
            opinions of the people.               particular place.
         c. Changed perspectives               3. An affinity      between the
            and       values:    With             members               creating
            technological advances,               cohesiveness.
            urbanization,         and          4. Impersonality-members of a
            industrialization,                    crowd are anonymous and
            changes in values and                 lose their individual identity to
            perspective take place                that of the crowd as a unit.
            and the result is open                Action taken by crowds is
            conflict between the                  quite impersonal.
            traditional ways and the
            new. Customs and                   5. Heterogeneity             and
            prevailing     ideologies             impermanence                of
            are questioned by those               composition. A crowd can be
            who have accepted new                 composed of any person of
            values and perspectives.              any class, creed, color, or
            A       fluid     unstable            economic status. Further, the
            situation,        perhaps             composition is impermanent
            lasting for a period                  and     rarely,    if    ever,
            time, is fertile ground               reassembles with exactly the
            for collective behavior               same composition. Even while
            often expressed in the                assembled, its composition
            formation of social                   may change as it grows in size
            movements.                            or diminishes, depending on
                                                  the intensity of interest
Forms of Collective Behavior:                     displayed by its members.
Collective behavior in society may
express itself through various types           6. A factional composition.
of structural forms which may be                  Different people viewing the
considered its products. The more                 situation that brought them
important of these forms are:                     together will react in different
A. Crowds. The crowd is the most                  ways. Thus a crowd watching
common form of collective behavior                a wrestling mach in a village
and consists of        a “temporary               is factional and sides are
collection of people reacting to                  taken, some cheering one of
stimuli”. A crowd therefore consists              the competitors and the other.
of :                                           7. A tendency to act readily and
    1. A number of people with                    uncritically on suggestions-
       focused attention. A mere                  particularly     those    made
       collection of people does not              authoritatively, forcefully and
       make a crowd-their attention               in a decisive manner. Crowds
       must focused on something.                 re highly suggestible and can
                                        123


      be easily persuaded to action.             be limited to the feelings of
      With      skillfully    made               its members. Analysis of
      suggestions, violent crowds                some race riots, for instance,
      have pacified and peaceful                 reveal    that    the   active
      crowds incited to actions of               participants had previous
      extreme violence.                          police records, violent race
   8. Emotional build-up that can                prejudices, frustrations, few
      be transmitted from one                    responsibilities, and bitter
      member to another. Emotions,               class      hostilities    and
      generated,    fostered   and               resentments.
      quickly built up in a crowd,            2. Mores of the Members. The
      can spread like a contagious               crowd seldom behaves in
      disease among members.                     ways which do not have at
      When emotionally aroused, a                least some measure of
      crowd may act on the first                 approval. Lynching rarely, if
      suggestion given to it, no                 ever, take palace where they
      matter how irrational it may               are strongly condemned by
      be.                                        the entire society, but may
Crowd behavior does, however, have               occur where tolerated. The
limitations despite its unrestrained             existing mores of society
nature. Four major limiting factors              exert powerful influence even
have been identified:                            in     unstructured    volatile
    1. Emotional        Needs      of            situations involving crowds of
        Members. Crowd behavior                  various types.
        usually is limited to actions         3. Leadership in the Crowd.
        that members would like to               The unstructured and unstable
        perform but normally do not              context of a crowd situation is
        perform individually. The                particularly conducive to
        crowd situation protects the             action-directed influence by a
        individual, enabling him to              skillful     individual     who
        express impulses, aggression,            assumes the role of a leader.
        and anger that he would                  With        an       impressive
        normally, in calmer moments,             appearance and a manner of
        refrain from expressing. The             confidence, conviction and
        more homogeneous a crowd-                responsibility, such a leader
        as at a political rally-the              can move a crowd to extreme
        greater the likelihood of a              violence        or      peaceful
        response towards aggressive              dispersal. To do so, usually he
        action, since members share a            first establishes rapport, then
        common set of hostilities and            builds up emotional tension,
        prejudices. In addition, the             and finally suggests action to
        behavior of a crowd tends to             release tension following this
                                          124


       suggestion      quickly     by              altercation between neighbors,
       “sound” justification for the               give rise to the formation of
       suggested action. Crowd                     casual crowds, the most
       behavior is limited by the                  common form of crowds.
       type,     performance      and           2. Action Crowds. The attention
       influence       of      crowd               of an action crowd is always
       leadership.                                 focused on some external
   4. External Controls Exercised                  objective with which it
      on Crowds. The police and                    collectively deals. Strong
      other        agencies        for             emotional tensions usually are
      maintenance of law and order                 built up, and an action crowd
      usually provide a limiting                   is always focused on some
      factor by their physical                     external objective with which
      presence and intervention, by                it collectively deals. Strong
      implementing laws against                    emotional tensions usually are
      crowd formation, by splitting                built up, and an action crowd
      and dividing crowds or                       seeks to release this tension by
      potential crowds, by various                 some form of overt behavior
      means,      etc.      Moreover,              action. Such crowds are highly
      weather conditions, such as                  open to suggestion as to
      heavy rain, snow, intense                    course of action to be
      cold, intense heat, and storms               followed. Slogan chanting,
      have obvious limiting effects                name calling, and violence are
      on crowd behavior and                        common features of action
      formation which usually                      crowds, which most often can
      results in the dispersal of                  be considered mobs, bent on
      crowds. While such natural                   such acts of aggression as
      external forces constitute                   lynching      ,    looting    or
      definite       limiting factors,             destruction of property. Riots
      the principal external forces                are another form of action
      that limit crowd behavior are                crowds. Another form of
      exerted by the police or                     action crowd is one which the
      agency      responsible      for             purpose      to     serve    the
      maintenance of law and order                 individual’ interests. When
      in society.                                  tensions of a crowd are
Types of Crowds: Although the                      released through revelry,
terms used to describe each crowd                  rather than an attack on any
type may differ, four major                        individual, group or object,
classifications are recognized:                    the crowd behavior is called
   1. Casual Crowds. Incidents                     an “orgy.” Factors that operate
       that occur regularly, in daily              in other forms of crowd
       life, such as an accident, or an            behavior such as social
                                                   contagion, transfer to moral
                                      125


   responsibility to the group,                dancing, laughter, shouting
   and        leadership      and              and teasing of onlookers.
   suggestibility, are also found              Illustrations are celebrations
   in an orgy. The occasions of                after crises such as war or
   feasting, games, drinking etc.,             other period of extreme
   that took place during the                  anxiety and/or danger to
   Roman period of history and                 society and groups in society.
   among primitive tribes are                  In some cultures, festivals
   examples, as well as modern                 have been placed in the
   day orgies in both eastern and              agriculture calendar to fall
   western      societies   which              immediately after crucial
   involve behavior that is                    periods      of     agricultural
   normally       inhibited   and              operations            involving
   restrained. An orgy may                     considerable physical and
   involve a few people of a very              mental strain. These festivals
   large number of individuals.                thus enable individuals to
3. Panic. The panic is a form of               relieve their pent up emotions
   action crowd which involves                 in     relaxed,    unstructured
   people who are primarily                    behavior. Expressive crowds
   concerned with their own                    are commonly formed on such
   safety, yet generate a high                 occasions and under such
   level of emotional contagion                conditions.
   which develops rapidly under             5. Conventional          Crowds.
   the stress of a crisis. Such a              Conventionalized crowds are
   form of crowd behavior is                   those that operate according to
   characterized     by     action             social convention. Behavior in
   leading to rapid dissolution of             such crowd is therefore
   the crowd in irrational                     deliberately         organized,
   attempts by members of the                  systematic and in accordance
   crowd to escape from                        with societal norms of
   impending danger such as fire               behavior, often to correct
   situations, earthquakes, wild               certain undesirable forms,
   animal escaping from the zoo,               sometimes involving damage
   etc. Panic is influenced by                 to property and undue
   rumors.                                     harassment of individuals. To
4. Expressive             Crowds.              combat such undesirable
   Characteristic of this type of              action various communities
   crowd is an objective to                    will      organize      festival
   release pent up emotions by                 celebrations in such a way as
   uninhibited                 and             to make them more orderly
   unconventional expressions of               and desirable, taking into
   joy, such as collective singing,            consideration the feelings and
                                               sentiments of all.
                                          126


In addition to the above four major             group who share an interest in a
types of crowds, other forms of                 particular topic. They provide
crowd-like behavior can be found.               opportunity for the expression of
Fads and Fashions, such as the                  various and often widely divergent
growing of beards and long hair,                opinions. While both crowd and
wearing of mini-skirts, beads, bell-            public behavior has a single focus,
bottom trousers and drainpipe                   the public strives to achieve its
trousers among young people, often              common direction through collective
becomes an obsession, e.g., various             discussion of merits sand demerits of
forms of dancing and games. Mass                an issue. Illustration of public are the
hysteria has also been cited as a form          voting public, farming public, retail
of crowd behavior in which some                 business public, the literate or
excited screams and fainting spells             educated public. Etc.
of teenagers in the USA during                  Public Opinion, Propaganda and
performances of singing stars is an             Education. Public opinion is the
illustration.                                   collective opinion of the public and
B. Audiences. An audience has been              constitutes the composite point of
described as “a number of persons               view arrived at by the public
present in the same place at the same           concerning an issue. This does not
time and subject to the same                    imply a single point of view; public
stimulus.” Interaction is minimal.              opinion may comprise a set of
The audience is temporary in                    opinions held by the public
duration. Audiences include both                concerning an issue which may
listeners and spectators of all kinds,          differ.
but do include such scattered groups            Propaganda “is the deliberate use of
as listeners of radio programs and              communication to induce people to
viewers of television programs.                 favor one predetermined line of
Audiences      seek    to     recreate,         thought or action over another.” It
information and/or conversation                 includes all efforts made to persuade
C. Publics. Along with the                      people to accept a particular point of
development of industrialization,               view in respect of an issue-from a
technological advance, urbanization             simple leaflet to the massive
and growth of cities has been the               propaganda machinery of Nazi
development of techniques for the               Germany in World War II. The
use of the media of mass                        distinction between education and
communication: radios, newspapers,              propaganda may not always be clear-
television,      motion       pictures,         cut and well defined, for in practice
magazines and other printed                     education does use propaganda to
material. The receivers of mass                 some extent. However, while
communication are “a number of                  education seeks to cultivate an
individuals who are responding as               individual’s      ability   to    make
individuals to the same stimulus in a           enlightened decisions and judgments
similar way. They are a scattered               in the presence of factual knowledge
                                         127


and information and provides                   land reform in many countries.
information as the basis of which              Illiteracy,       repeated       famine,
decisions may be made, propaganda              malnutrition and disease in various
seeks to persuade an individual to             parts of the world gave rise to the
accept a decision without thought or           establishment of social movements
consideration.                                 aimed to undertake ameliorative
D. Social Movements. One form of               measures and efforts for the
collectivity which is distinctive from         prevention of such conditions.
other collectivities by being more             Social movements are distinctive
permanent in nature with a more                from other forms of collective
definite structure and organization is         behavior because of comparatively
a social movement. A social                    long duration. Social movements
movement has been defined as “ a               further exhibit greater organization
collectivity acting with some                  and structure than the shorter lived
continuity to promote a change or              collectivities.       Many         social
resist a change in the society or              movements ultimately involve the
group of which it is apart.” A social          overthrow of old institutional
movement is accompanied by                     patterns and their replacement by
expressive behavior but also                   new patterns. The following main
develops      defined     goals    and         features of social movements have
progressively builds a structure               been identified:
aiming at partial or complete                      1. Ideology. Social movements
modification of the social order.                      greatly emphasize ideologies
When social conditions are unstable-                   which provide them with
as in a rapidly changing society-the                   justification and direction. The
ground is fertile for the development                  conviction that God has made
of social movements. Social                            all men equal was the basis
movements also often reflect                           ideology             underlying
changes in society such as                             Mahatama               Gandhi’s
urbanization, or industrialization                     movement for “uplift” of
which are accompanied by changes                       those considered outcasts and
in the primary relationships in rural                  untouchable in Hindu society.
areas. These may take the form of                 2. A strong sense of dedication.
protest against the status quo,                      The     ideals  and     basic
promotion of ideologies, reforms and                 philosophy of the movement
the like.                                            and its “cause” provide a
A social movement is usually                         source of dedication for the
directed toward a goal and against                   members.
existing conditions that it seeks to
correct. For instance, fragmentation              3. Focus on action. Action is
of farm holdings and the feudal                      the emphasis in social
system of landlordism in rural areas                 movement-action         against
led to social movements resulting in                 certain conditions and towards
                                                                  128


            certain    corrective     goals.                                          movements       often     are
            Members must constantly be                                                classified as being either
            involved in definite action in                                            reformative or revolutionary.
            order to maintain their interest                                          If the desired changes are in
            and solidarity.                                                           accordance with existing
      Classification       of social                                                  norms and values, the
      movements according to three                                                    movement is of the former
      basic criteria follows:                                                         type.                      If,
      1. Relation to primary norms
         and         values.  Social




      however, it seeks to replace existing norms and values, the movement is
      classified as revolutionary.
      2. Scope. If the movement seeks to change the entire society, introducing a
         new order or a society based on entirely different basic tenets, it is
         classified as a totalitarian social movement. If, on the other hand, it strives
         to change only a part of society it is called a segmental social movement.
      3. Method. Social movements differ in strategy. For instance, reformative-
         segmental movements are more likely to employ rational persuasive
         procedures, such as education, discussion, and legislation by peaceful,
         gradual and democratic means. Revolutionary-totalitarian social
         movements, on the other hand, are more likely to rely on dramatic,
         emotional and extra legal devices which are authoritative, coercive,
         spectacular and violent.
Components and Stages of Social Movements. The following have been listed
by Anderson as characteristic components and stages of development of social
movements:
   1. Social unrest,
   2. Emergence of leadership,
   3. Definition of issues and problems,
   4. Formation and propagation of ideology,
   5. Program organization and strategies,
   6. Capture of power, and
   7. Institutionalization.
These stages and components are not to be considered as distinct and separate;
rather they are interrelated and overlap to varying extents.*

*
    The preceding section draws heavily on J. B. Chitambar. Introductory rural Sociology, Second Edition. New Delhi: New Age International
                                                                                                      Publishers, 1993, pp139-145, 203-212.
129

				
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Description: Principles of sociology for freshman students at the Rural Development Department, College of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Al-Shatby, Alexandria Egypt.