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CHAPTER 2 – STUDY GUIDE
I. Advantages and Disadvantages of War
1. More Supplies 1. Hunters- familiar with
(cloth, iron, wheat) weapons
2. More Weapons 2. Had good Military Leaders
3. Better transportation 3. Experience- fought in
(railroads, canals, & roads) Mexican War
4. More Money $
II. Strategies of the War
The North’s Plans
Anaconda Plan - Like a snake, they wanted to squeeze the South out!
1st – Block the waterways (Atlantic Ocean and Gulf Coast).
This would prevent the South from buying and selling supplies.
2 – Gain control of the Mississippi River
This would weaken the South (cut it in ½).
3 – Attack the Confederacy from East & West
The South’s Plans
1st – Wait … thought Union would get tired and give up.
2nd – Count on Britain to help fight the Union.
III. Early Battles
First Battle of Bull Run (1861) – South (Confederacy) wins!
Battle of Antietam (1862) – North (Union) wins!
1. Thousands of soldiers lost.
2. Britain decides not to help the Confederacy anymore.
IV. Technology and War
1. New guns
3. Confederate submarines
4. Hand grenades
5. Iron-covered ships
1. More soldiers died because of the new weapons.
V. Life for Soldiers
1. Marched 25 miles a day (!!!!)
2. Carried 50 pounds of supplies (!!!!)
Draft – an order for men of certain age to serve in the military.
This war was called “a rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight” because people in the North and
South could pay someone to fight for them.
VI. Emancipation Proclamation
A statement (by Abraham Lincoln) that freed ALL slaves in Confederate states at war with the
VII. African Americans in the War
1862 – FINALLY, African Americans were allowed to fight for war, BUT, they are not paid equally.
1864 – Congress decided to pay EVERYONE equally.
VIII. Women and the War
4. Office Workers & Farmers
5. * Made clothing and sent food to soldiers
IX. The Battle of Gettysburg
1. 3 day Civil War battle
2. It was the farthest north that Confederate forces pushed into Union territory
3. Confederate attack failed – the Union won.
X. The Gettysburg Address
1. President Lincoln gave this speech to inspire Americans to keep their country together.
2. He wanted a united country and an end to slavery.
XI. The Battle of Vicksburg
1. A battle in which the Union got control of the Mississippi River (part of the Anaconda Plan).
2. The Union is in the lead!
XII. The War Ends
1. The Union used total war to defeat the Confederacy.
2. Total war – a kind of warfare (strategy) used to destroy the enemy’s army and their will to fight.
3. General Sherman’s “March to the Sea” destroyed everything in the South causing the
Confederates to surrender.
4. General Lee (South) and General Grant (North) met at Appomattox Court House to discuss the
terms of surrender.
The North won! *** President Lincoln wanted the country to join together and rebuild itself.
XIII. The End of Slavery
A New President
1. Abraham Lincoln was assassinated; therefore, Vice President Andrew Johnson became President.
2. He wanted to carry out Lincoln’s plan of Reconstruction (rebuilding and healing of the U.S. after the war).
3. 13th Amendment – abolished slavery across the nation on December 18th, 1865.
4. Black Codes were passed. These laws DISCRIMINATED against African-Americans in the South.
Reconstruction Under Congress
1. African American men were given the right to vote.
2. Freedmen’s Bureau – a group set up to help newly freed slaves after the Civil War.
1.14th Amendment – gave African Americans citizenship.
2.15th Amendment – gave all male citizens the right to vote.
*** CONGRESS did NOT like President Andrew Johnson, they wanted to IMPEACH him.
1. By 1870, all former Confederate states were readmitted to the Union.
2. New state laws were passed, taking away rights of African Americans. (Ex. You have to pay a
tax or pass a reading test to vote!)
Segregation – the separation of African American and white people.
Jim Crow Laws – laws that made segregation (separation) legal in the South.
Example: African Americans could not sit with whites on trains, eat in certain restaurants or attend
certain theaters, schools, or parks.
Sharecropping – a system in which farmers rented land from landowners.
All vocabulary for Lessons 1 – 4
Matching and Multiple Choice
Study all notes and study guide
No dates on test
Spelling does not count
A few discussion questions
Ex. Compare/Contrast North and South’s strategies
Give examples of Jim Crow Laws
Describe Abraham Lincoln