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					                                   Getting Organic with the Sketch Filters                    549

       ✓ Plaster: Creates a look that resembles molten plastic more than it looks
         like plaster. The filter uses the foreground and background values to
         color the image.
       ✓ Stamp: Mimics a rubber or wooden-block stamp (not very sketchlike,
         indeed!).
       ✓ Reticulation: Adds texture by reproducing a veritable photographic
         disaster — the wrinkling of film emulsion that occurs when you move film
         from one developing chemical to another that has an extremely different
         temperature. (Think hot developer followed by a bath in cold water.) The
         highlights look grainy; the shadow areas look thick and goopy.
       ✓ Torn Edges: Creates the look of ragged paper and colorizes the image,
         using the foreground and background colors.
       ✓ Water Paper: Creates the look of paintlike daubs on fibrous wet paper.

      Even if the Sketch filters don’t all produce sketchy effects, they do have one
      thing in common: They give your images an organic look that’s decidedly
      uncomputerlike.


Putting It Together
                                                                                                      Book VII
      Adding Water Droplets and Other Wet Effects                                                     Chapter 2

      You can find a lot of techniques for creating nice, neat, round drops of water by using




                                                                                                         Applying Filters for
                                                                                                         Special Occasions
      Photoshop. Unless you’ve just waxed your car and expect a rain shower within moments,
      however, perfectly beaded water droplets can be fairly rare. In real life, you’re likely to
      encounter some sloppy drops and driblets. This technique simulates that look. You could
      use it to add sparkling water drops to a flower, create a wet-look texture for artistic
      effect, or add a three-dimensional trompe l’oeil (“fools the eye”) optical illusion. Find the
      flower image I use on this book’s companion Web site if you want to follow along. Follow
      these steps to add wet effects:

      1.   Open a plain old bone-dry photograph in Photoshop.
           I’m using a flower photograph, which will look
           great wet.
      2.   Press D to make sure you have the foreground and
           background colors in Photoshop set to the default
           values of black and white.
      3.   Choose Window➪Channels to bring up the
           Channels panel. From the Channels panel menu,
           choose New Channel.
           This choice creates a new alpha channel for the water droplets. (For more on chan-
           nels, see Book VI.)
                                                                                        continued
550   Getting Organic with the Sketch Filters

  continued
          4.   In the Color Indicates area of the New Channel dialog box, select the Selected
               Areas radio button and set Opacity to 100%. Click OK.
          5.   Select Filter➪Render➪Clouds to create a motley
               cloud effect to use as the basis for your random
               water droplets.
               To view your alpha channel, select it in the Channels
               panel.
          6.   Choose Image➪Adjustments➪Threshold, and then
               move the slider to create black blotches that will
               become water droplets, as shown in the figure.
               Click OK.
               I used a value of 83, but because the Clouds filter
               produces random results, you may find that a differ-
               ent value works better for you.
          7.   Choose Filter➪Blur➪Gaussian Blur and move the
               Radius slider enough to blur the jagged edges of
               the droplets. Click OK.
               I used a value of 3.8 pixels.
          8.   Choose Filter➪Sharpen➪Unsharp Mask and adjust
               the Amount and Radius sliders to firm up the edges
               of the droplets. Click OK.
               I found that an Amount of 85% and a Radius of about
               46 creates soft-edged-but-distinct water droplets,
               as shown in the figure.
          9.   Ctrl-click (Ô-click on the Mac) the
               new channel in the Channels panel to
               load the selection you’ve created, as
               shown in the figure.
        10.    Click the RGB Channel in the Channels
               panel to return to your full-color
               picture.
               The droplets appear as selections.
        11.    Choose Layer➪New➪Layer via Copy
               to create a new layer for the droplets
               to reside in.
        12.    Choose Layer➪Layer Style and select
               Bevel and Emboss. Specify your options and click OK.
                                                                         Adding Texture     551

            The bevel/embossing effect adds a third dimension to the drops. You can experi-
            ment with the depth and size controls to get the exact effect you want. I used the
            Inner Bevel style, set to the Smooth
            Technique in the Structure area of
            the dialog box. I used the sliders
            to increase the Size of the bevel to
            27 pixels and Softened the edges
            by 11 pixels.
      13.   If you like, you can choose
            Image➪Adjustments➪Levels to
            darken the droplets against their
            background. Click OK.
            The final image looks like a print that
            has been drenched with liquid.




Adding Texture
      Photoshop lets you add a lot of interesting textures (which are in the Filter➪
      Texture menu) to your image, such as the cracked canvas effect generated
      by the Craquelure filter (see Figure 2-12) or the pixel effect produced by the              Book VII
      Patchwork filter.                                                                           Chapter 2




                                                                                                     Applying Filters for
                                                                                                     Special Occasions




                                                          Corbis Digital Stock
      Figure 2-12: The Craquelure filter gives an Old-World painting
      feel to your image.
552   Looking at the Other Filters


         You can find other filters on this menu to help you create mosaic effects, add
         yet another kind of film grain, and create stained-glass effects in your images.
         But the most versatile filter in this set is the Texturizer, shown in Figure 2-13.
         The Texturizer filter enables you to apply various kinds of textures to your
         images or selections, including Canvas, Sandstone, Burlap, or Brick.




                                                                                     Corbis Digital Stock
         Figure 2-13: You can apply either preset or custom-made textures to your images with the
         Texturizer filter.


         You can select the relative size of the texture compared to the rest of your
         image by using the Scaling slider and adjust the amount of 3-D relief effect.
         You can even select the direction of the light source that produces the 3-D
         look, selecting from top, bottom, either side, or any of the four corners of
         the image. If those variations aren’t enough for you, then create your own
         texture, save it as a Photoshop PSD file, and use that file to texturize your
         image.

         You can find a handful of other filters that allow you to load your own tex-
         tures, including Rough Pastels, Underpainting, and Conté Crayon.



Looking at the Other Filters
         The Video and Other categories are the homes of the oddest of the odd. For
         example, the Other submenu is home to the Custom filter, which is no filter
         at all — it’s a dialog box that has a matrix in which you can type numbers
                                       Looking at the Other Filters        553

that Photoshop uses to process the pixels in your image in unexpected
ways. The center box in the matrix represents a pixel in your image; the sur-
rounding boxes represent the pixels that surround that pixel. The numbers
you type tell Photoshop whether to darken or lighten pixels. You can experi-
ment to see what will happen, and, if you like the effect, tell all your friends
that you meant to do that.

The High Pass filter, also in the Other category, applies an effect opposite to
the Gaussian Blur filter. It finds and keeps the details in the edges where it
finds distinct color or tonal differences and turns the rest of the image gray.
When converting a continuous-tone image into a bitmap (black and white
only) image, applying this filter is useful before applying the Threshold
adjustment. See Book VIII, Chapter 1 for more on the Threshold command.
The High Pass filter is also handy for creating a channel mask. (See Book VI,
Chapter 3 for details about working with channel masks.)

Two other filters that help with masking are the Minimum and Maximum
filters. The Minimum filter expands the black areas while decreasing white
areas (a process known as choking in traditional photography). The
Maximum filter expands the white portions while decreasing black areas
(known as spreading). The radius value you enter tells the filter how many
pixels to expand or decrease from the edges of your selection.

The Video menu contains its own share of strange filters, including the NTSC         Book VII
Colors filter, which performs the rather obscure function of converting all the      Chapter 2
colors in your image to match the colors used for television reproduction.




                                                                                        Applying Filters for
                                                                                        Special Occasions
(NTSC stands for National Television Systems Committee.) You can use this filter
to process digital presentations or slides that you want to show on television, if
you’re really, really particular about how the colors are portrayed.
554   Book VII: Filters and Distortions
       Chapter 3: Distorting with
       the Liquify Command
       In This Chapter
       ✓ Checking out the Liquify window
       ✓ Liquifying an image
       ✓ Protecting/unprotecting with freezing and thawing
       ✓ Canceling your transformations with Reconstruction
       ✓ Extending transformations to other areas



       L    iquify is the only Photoshop filter that gets a chapter of its own. But,
            then again, Liquify is no ordinary filter; it’s the ultimate in image distor-
       tion tools and is therefore a good deal more complex than most of its kin on
       the Filter menu. What other filter has its own hefty tools panel, loads of but-
       tons, several different modes, and more than a dozen option categories that
       amount to dozens more variations?

       The Liquify command lets you push and pull on parts of your image; twist,
       turn, and pinch other parts; bloat sections; freeze portions in place
       so that they remain immune to the transformations going on
       around them; and perform selective reconstructions if you
       don’t like everything you’ve done. You can perform this
       magic with a remarkable degree of control, too. You
       can almost be assured that every celebrity photo that
       appears on a magazine cover has been run through
       the Liquify gauntlet a time or two.

       This chapter explores all the features of the Liquify
       command and shows you how to use these features
       to create sensational images.



Exploring the Liquify Window
       At first glance, the Liquify window is a little daunting. It’s a little
       daunting on second, third, and fourth glances, too. But when you quit
       glancing and dive into this versatile filter, you’ll find that the tools and
       options make a lot of sense.
556   Exploring the Liquify Window


         You open the Liquify window by choosing Filter➪Liquify, and there, the
         Liquify Tools panel appears on the left, as shown in Figure 3-1. The other
         options available with Liquify (which I describe in the section appropriately
         named “The Options Areas,” later in this chapter) appear on the right side of
         the window. The Tools panel includes a dozen tools that you can use to
         paint and distort your image.

         Like with Photoshop’s main Tools panel, you can activate each tool by press-
         ing a letter associated with its name.




                                                                                                  Purestock
         Figure 3-1: The intimidating Liquify window is really quite user-friendly after you get familiar
         with its tools and settings.



         The painting tools
         The first group of tools is used to paint distortions on your image. Shown in
         this list with their keyboard shortcuts in parentheses, the painting tools
         (refer to Figure 3-1) are the following:
                                 Exploring the Liquify Window         557

✓ Forward Warp (W): This tool is faintly reminiscent of
  the Smudge tool, but it doesn’t blur the pixels quite as
  much as it pushes them forward while you drag, creat-
  ing a stretched effect. Use the Warp tool to push pixels
  where you want them to go, using short strokes or
  long pushes.
  When compared to a tool like the Smudge tool, which
  tends to destroy detail, the Warp tool can preserve                  Imagestate
  detail within distortions.
✓ Twirl Clockwise (C): Place the cursor in one spot,
  press the mouse button, and watch the pixels under
  your brush rotate like a satellite photo of a tropical
  storm. Or drag the cursor to create a moving twirl
  effect. Pixels move faster in the center than along the
  edges of the brush. To twirl the other way, hold down
  the Alt (Option on the Mac) key while you drag or hold
  down the mouse button.
  Try this technique with the other tools I describe in this list. (With some
  tools, the effect is more obvious than with others.) Simply hold down
  the mouse button. The longer you hold down the mouse button, the
  more prominent the effect becomes.
✓ Pucker (S): This tool is the equivalent of the Pinch                              Book VII
  filter, squishing pixels toward the center of the area                            Chapter 3
  covered by the brush while you hold down the mouse




                                                                                       Distorting with the
                                                                                       Liquify Command
  button or drag. To reverse the pucker direction, which
  essentially applies a bloat, hold down the Alt (Option
  on the Mac) key while you hold down the mouse
  button or drag.
✓ Bloat (B): Here is an analog to the Spherize filter,
  pushing pixels toward the edge of the brush area
  while you hold down the mouse button or drag the
  mouse. To reverse the bloat direction — doing so
  applies a pucker — hold down the Alt (Option on
  the Mac) key while you hold down the mouse button
  or drag.
✓ Push Left (O): Formerly known as the Shift Pixels tool,
  this odd tool moves pixels to the left when you drag the
  tool straight up. Drag down to move pixels to the right.
  Drag clockwise to increase the size of the object being
  distorted. Drag counterclockwise to decrease the size.
  To reverse any of the directions, hold down the Alt
  (Option on the Mac) key while you hold down the
  mouse button or drag.
558   Exploring the Liquify Window


          ✓ Mirror (M): Formerly known as the Reflect tool, the
            Mirror tool drags a reversed image of your pixels at
            a 90-degree angle to the motion of the brush. Hold
            down the Alt key (Option key on the Mac) to force
            the reflection in the direction opposite the motion
            of the brush (for example, to the left of a brush
            moving right, or above a brush moving down). This
            tool is a good choice for producing shimmery
            reflections.
          ✓ Turbulence (T): This tool adds a random jumbling
            effect to your pixels when you click and hold down
            your mouse. It acts similarly to the Forward Warp tool
            when you click and drag. You can use the Turbulence
            tool to re-create maelstroms of air, fire, and water with
            (well, yeah) clouds, flames, and waves.


         The other tools
         The remaining tools in the Liquify Tools panel (refer to Figure 3-1) are

          ✓ Reconstruct (R): This tool lets you reverse or alter — completely or
            partially — the distortions you’ve made. You can retrace your steps if
            you went overboard in your warping activities.
          ✓ Freeze Mask (F): Use this tool to protect areas from changes. It paints
            the frozen area with a red overlay, just like Quick Mask mode.
          ✓ Thaw Mask (D): This tool unprotects areas by erasing the red protective
            “freeze” tone. This is a lot like erasing areas you’ve painted in Quick
            Mask mode.
          ✓ Hand (H): The Hand tool works exactly like the standard Photoshop Hand
            tool. Click and drag the image to move it around within the Preview win-
            dow. You can find more about the Hand tool in Book I, Chapter 4.
          ✓ Zoom (Z): The Zoom tool works exactly like the standard Photoshop
            Zoom tool. Indeed, you can also zoom in and out by using Ctrl and the
            plus sign (Ô and the plus sign on the Mac) and Ctrl and the minus sign
            (Ô and the minus sign on the Mac) shortcuts. See Book I, Chapter 4, for
            more on using the regulation Zoom tool.

         Separate from the Liquify Tools panel and in the lower-left corner of the
         Liquify window is a magnification box with a pop-up menu that you can use
         to select magnifications from 6 percent to 1600 percent. Or, if you like but-
         tons, click your way to magnification by using the +/– zoom control buttons.

				
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