Getting Organic with the Sketch Filters 549 ✓ Plaster: Creates a look that resembles molten plastic more than it looks like plaster. The filter uses the foreground and background values to color the image. ✓ Stamp: Mimics a rubber or wooden-block stamp (not very sketchlike, indeed!). ✓ Reticulation: Adds texture by reproducing a veritable photographic disaster — the wrinkling of film emulsion that occurs when you move film from one developing chemical to another that has an extremely different temperature. (Think hot developer followed by a bath in cold water.) The highlights look grainy; the shadow areas look thick and goopy. ✓ Torn Edges: Creates the look of ragged paper and colorizes the image, using the foreground and background colors. ✓ Water Paper: Creates the look of paintlike daubs on fibrous wet paper. Even if the Sketch filters don’t all produce sketchy effects, they do have one thing in common: They give your images an organic look that’s decidedly uncomputerlike. Putting It Together Book VII Adding Water Droplets and Other Wet Effects Chapter 2 You can find a lot of techniques for creating nice, neat, round drops of water by using Applying Filters for Special Occasions Photoshop. Unless you’ve just waxed your car and expect a rain shower within moments, however, perfectly beaded water droplets can be fairly rare. In real life, you’re likely to encounter some sloppy drops and driblets. This technique simulates that look. You could use it to add sparkling water drops to a flower, create a wet-look texture for artistic effect, or add a three-dimensional trompe l’oeil (“fools the eye”) optical illusion. Find the flower image I use on this book’s companion Web site if you want to follow along. Follow these steps to add wet effects: 1. Open a plain old bone-dry photograph in Photoshop. I’m using a flower photograph, which will look great wet. 2. Press D to make sure you have the foreground and background colors in Photoshop set to the default values of black and white. 3. Choose Window➪Channels to bring up the Channels panel. From the Channels panel menu, choose New Channel. This choice creates a new alpha channel for the water droplets. (For more on chan- nels, see Book VI.) continued 550 Getting Organic with the Sketch Filters continued 4. In the Color Indicates area of the New Channel dialog box, select the Selected Areas radio button and set Opacity to 100%. Click OK. 5. Select Filter➪Render➪Clouds to create a motley cloud effect to use as the basis for your random water droplets. To view your alpha channel, select it in the Channels panel. 6. Choose Image➪Adjustments➪Threshold, and then move the slider to create black blotches that will become water droplets, as shown in the figure. Click OK. I used a value of 83, but because the Clouds filter produces random results, you may find that a differ- ent value works better for you. 7. Choose Filter➪Blur➪Gaussian Blur and move the Radius slider enough to blur the jagged edges of the droplets. Click OK. I used a value of 3.8 pixels. 8. Choose Filter➪Sharpen➪Unsharp Mask and adjust the Amount and Radius sliders to firm up the edges of the droplets. Click OK. I found that an Amount of 85% and a Radius of about 46 creates soft-edged-but-distinct water droplets, as shown in the figure. 9. Ctrl-click (Ô-click on the Mac) the new channel in the Channels panel to load the selection you’ve created, as shown in the figure. 10. Click the RGB Channel in the Channels panel to return to your full-color picture. The droplets appear as selections. 11. Choose Layer➪New➪Layer via Copy to create a new layer for the droplets to reside in. 12. Choose Layer➪Layer Style and select Bevel and Emboss. Specify your options and click OK. Adding Texture 551 The bevel/embossing effect adds a third dimension to the drops. You can experi- ment with the depth and size controls to get the exact effect you want. I used the Inner Bevel style, set to the Smooth Technique in the Structure area of the dialog box. I used the sliders to increase the Size of the bevel to 27 pixels and Softened the edges by 11 pixels. 13. If you like, you can choose Image➪Adjustments➪Levels to darken the droplets against their background. Click OK. The final image looks like a print that has been drenched with liquid. Adding Texture Photoshop lets you add a lot of interesting textures (which are in the Filter➪ Texture menu) to your image, such as the cracked canvas effect generated by the Craquelure filter (see Figure 2-12) or the pixel effect produced by the Book VII Patchwork filter. Chapter 2 Applying Filters for Special Occasions Corbis Digital Stock Figure 2-12: The Craquelure filter gives an Old-World painting feel to your image. 552 Looking at the Other Filters You can find other filters on this menu to help you create mosaic effects, add yet another kind of film grain, and create stained-glass effects in your images. But the most versatile filter in this set is the Texturizer, shown in Figure 2-13. The Texturizer filter enables you to apply various kinds of textures to your images or selections, including Canvas, Sandstone, Burlap, or Brick. Corbis Digital Stock Figure 2-13: You can apply either preset or custom-made textures to your images with the Texturizer filter. You can select the relative size of the texture compared to the rest of your image by using the Scaling slider and adjust the amount of 3-D relief effect. You can even select the direction of the light source that produces the 3-D look, selecting from top, bottom, either side, or any of the four corners of the image. If those variations aren’t enough for you, then create your own texture, save it as a Photoshop PSD file, and use that file to texturize your image. You can find a handful of other filters that allow you to load your own tex- tures, including Rough Pastels, Underpainting, and Conté Crayon. Looking at the Other Filters The Video and Other categories are the homes of the oddest of the odd. For example, the Other submenu is home to the Custom filter, which is no filter at all — it’s a dialog box that has a matrix in which you can type numbers Looking at the Other Filters 553 that Photoshop uses to process the pixels in your image in unexpected ways. The center box in the matrix represents a pixel in your image; the sur- rounding boxes represent the pixels that surround that pixel. The numbers you type tell Photoshop whether to darken or lighten pixels. You can experi- ment to see what will happen, and, if you like the effect, tell all your friends that you meant to do that. The High Pass filter, also in the Other category, applies an effect opposite to the Gaussian Blur filter. It finds and keeps the details in the edges where it finds distinct color or tonal differences and turns the rest of the image gray. When converting a continuous-tone image into a bitmap (black and white only) image, applying this filter is useful before applying the Threshold adjustment. See Book VIII, Chapter 1 for more on the Threshold command. The High Pass filter is also handy for creating a channel mask. (See Book VI, Chapter 3 for details about working with channel masks.) Two other filters that help with masking are the Minimum and Maximum filters. The Minimum filter expands the black areas while decreasing white areas (a process known as choking in traditional photography). The Maximum filter expands the white portions while decreasing black areas (known as spreading). The radius value you enter tells the filter how many pixels to expand or decrease from the edges of your selection. The Video menu contains its own share of strange filters, including the NTSC Book VII Colors filter, which performs the rather obscure function of converting all the Chapter 2 colors in your image to match the colors used for television reproduction. Applying Filters for Special Occasions (NTSC stands for National Television Systems Committee.) You can use this filter to process digital presentations or slides that you want to show on television, if you’re really, really particular about how the colors are portrayed. 554 Book VII: Filters and Distortions Chapter 3: Distorting with the Liquify Command In This Chapter ✓ Checking out the Liquify window ✓ Liquifying an image ✓ Protecting/unprotecting with freezing and thawing ✓ Canceling your transformations with Reconstruction ✓ Extending transformations to other areas L iquify is the only Photoshop filter that gets a chapter of its own. But, then again, Liquify is no ordinary filter; it’s the ultimate in image distor- tion tools and is therefore a good deal more complex than most of its kin on the Filter menu. What other filter has its own hefty tools panel, loads of but- tons, several different modes, and more than a dozen option categories that amount to dozens more variations? The Liquify command lets you push and pull on parts of your image; twist, turn, and pinch other parts; bloat sections; freeze portions in place so that they remain immune to the transformations going on around them; and perform selective reconstructions if you don’t like everything you’ve done. You can perform this magic with a remarkable degree of control, too. You can almost be assured that every celebrity photo that appears on a magazine cover has been run through the Liquify gauntlet a time or two. This chapter explores all the features of the Liquify command and shows you how to use these features to create sensational images. Exploring the Liquify Window At first glance, the Liquify window is a little daunting. It’s a little daunting on second, third, and fourth glances, too. But when you quit glancing and dive into this versatile filter, you’ll find that the tools and options make a lot of sense. 556 Exploring the Liquify Window You open the Liquify window by choosing Filter➪Liquify, and there, the Liquify Tools panel appears on the left, as shown in Figure 3-1. The other options available with Liquify (which I describe in the section appropriately named “The Options Areas,” later in this chapter) appear on the right side of the window. The Tools panel includes a dozen tools that you can use to paint and distort your image. Like with Photoshop’s main Tools panel, you can activate each tool by press- ing a letter associated with its name. Purestock Figure 3-1: The intimidating Liquify window is really quite user-friendly after you get familiar with its tools and settings. The painting tools The first group of tools is used to paint distortions on your image. Shown in this list with their keyboard shortcuts in parentheses, the painting tools (refer to Figure 3-1) are the following: Exploring the Liquify Window 557 ✓ Forward Warp (W): This tool is faintly reminiscent of the Smudge tool, but it doesn’t blur the pixels quite as much as it pushes them forward while you drag, creat- ing a stretched effect. Use the Warp tool to push pixels where you want them to go, using short strokes or long pushes. When compared to a tool like the Smudge tool, which tends to destroy detail, the Warp tool can preserve Imagestate detail within distortions. ✓ Twirl Clockwise (C): Place the cursor in one spot, press the mouse button, and watch the pixels under your brush rotate like a satellite photo of a tropical storm. Or drag the cursor to create a moving twirl effect. Pixels move faster in the center than along the edges of the brush. To twirl the other way, hold down the Alt (Option on the Mac) key while you drag or hold down the mouse button. Try this technique with the other tools I describe in this list. (With some tools, the effect is more obvious than with others.) Simply hold down the mouse button. The longer you hold down the mouse button, the more prominent the effect becomes. ✓ Pucker (S): This tool is the equivalent of the Pinch Book VII filter, squishing pixels toward the center of the area Chapter 3 covered by the brush while you hold down the mouse Distorting with the Liquify Command button or drag. To reverse the pucker direction, which essentially applies a bloat, hold down the Alt (Option on the Mac) key while you hold down the mouse button or drag. ✓ Bloat (B): Here is an analog to the Spherize filter, pushing pixels toward the edge of the brush area while you hold down the mouse button or drag the mouse. To reverse the bloat direction — doing so applies a pucker — hold down the Alt (Option on the Mac) key while you hold down the mouse button or drag. ✓ Push Left (O): Formerly known as the Shift Pixels tool, this odd tool moves pixels to the left when you drag the tool straight up. Drag down to move pixels to the right. Drag clockwise to increase the size of the object being distorted. Drag counterclockwise to decrease the size. To reverse any of the directions, hold down the Alt (Option on the Mac) key while you hold down the mouse button or drag. 558 Exploring the Liquify Window ✓ Mirror (M): Formerly known as the Reflect tool, the Mirror tool drags a reversed image of your pixels at a 90-degree angle to the motion of the brush. Hold down the Alt key (Option key on the Mac) to force the reflection in the direction opposite the motion of the brush (for example, to the left of a brush moving right, or above a brush moving down). This tool is a good choice for producing shimmery reflections. ✓ Turbulence (T): This tool adds a random jumbling effect to your pixels when you click and hold down your mouse. It acts similarly to the Forward Warp tool when you click and drag. You can use the Turbulence tool to re-create maelstroms of air, fire, and water with (well, yeah) clouds, flames, and waves. The other tools The remaining tools in the Liquify Tools panel (refer to Figure 3-1) are ✓ Reconstruct (R): This tool lets you reverse or alter — completely or partially — the distortions you’ve made. You can retrace your steps if you went overboard in your warping activities. ✓ Freeze Mask (F): Use this tool to protect areas from changes. It paints the frozen area with a red overlay, just like Quick Mask mode. ✓ Thaw Mask (D): This tool unprotects areas by erasing the red protective “freeze” tone. This is a lot like erasing areas you’ve painted in Quick Mask mode. ✓ Hand (H): The Hand tool works exactly like the standard Photoshop Hand tool. Click and drag the image to move it around within the Preview win- dow. You can find more about the Hand tool in Book I, Chapter 4. ✓ Zoom (Z): The Zoom tool works exactly like the standard Photoshop Zoom tool. Indeed, you can also zoom in and out by using Ctrl and the plus sign (Ô and the plus sign on the Mac) and Ctrl and the minus sign (Ô and the minus sign on the Mac) shortcuts. See Book I, Chapter 4, for more on using the regulation Zoom tool. Separate from the Liquify Tools panel and in the lower-left corner of the Liquify window is a magnification box with a pop-up menu that you can use to select magnifications from 6 percent to 1600 percent. Or, if you like but- tons, click your way to magnification by using the +/– zoom control buttons.