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					                  Working with the Advanced Blending Options           419

   Blend Interior Effects as Group selected                                     Book V
                                                                               Chapter 3

                                                                               with Opacity and
                                                                                Blend Modes


  Figure 3-10: The Blend Interior Effects as Group option applies
  the blend mode of the type layers to the layer’s inner glow, bevel
  and emboss, and color overlay.

✓ Layer Mask Hides Effects: Confines layer effects to the area designated
  by the layer mask. (For more on layer masks, see Book VI, Chapter 3.)
✓ Vector Mask Hides Effects: Confines layer effects to the visible area des-
  ignated by a vector mask, as shown in Figure 3-12. (For more on vector
  masks, see Book VI, Chapter 3.)

   Transparency Shape Layer selected          Deselected

  Figure 3-11: The Transparency Shapes Layer restricts layer styles
  to the opaque areas of a layer.
420      Working with the Advanced Blending Options

Figure 3-12: Choose to confine your effects to the vector mask, or not.

              Blend If options
              By using the slider bars, you can specify which colors are visible in the
              active layer and which colors show through from the underlying layers. You
              can select a specific channel from the Blend If pop-up menu to apply the
              option to a single channel. The default channel, Gray, affects all channels in
              the image. The two sliders at the bottom of the Layer Style dialog box do the

                ✓ This Layer: Allows you to set a blending range. In other words, you can
                  hide certain colors according to the brightness values in the active layer.
                  By dragging the black triangle to the right, you exclude darker colors. By
                  dragging the white triangle to the left, you exclude lighter colors.
                ✓ Underlying Layer: Forces the colors from the underlying layers to show
                  through the active layer. Again, dragging the black and white triangles
                  excludes ranges of colors.

              Excluding and forcing colors can result in some harsh color transitions. You
              can provide for a smoother transition between blended and unblended areas
              by splitting the slider into two parts, allowing the pixels to gradually fade to
              transparency. Alt-drag (Option-drag on the Mac) on either the black or white
              triangle in either slider bar to split the triangle into two halves. The left and
              right triangles mark the beginning and end of the blending range, where pix-
              els fade into or out of view.
                           Working with the Advanced Blending Options                         421

Putting It Together                                                                                   Book V
                                                                                                     Chapter 3
      Fine-Tuning and Adjusting Opacity Settings in Your Collage

                                                                                                     with Opacity and
                                                                                                      Blend Modes
      If you’ve followed along with the Putting It Together projects I discuss in Book V, Chap-

      ters 1 and 2, you may have a collage that you’re pretty satisfied with. You just need to
      make the final tweaks and then go to sleep (or go home to your spouse and children).

      One of the most important tweaks you can make is to opacity. Follow these steps to
      adjust the opacity settings on some of the layers:

      1.   Open your saved collage file.
           If the Layers panel isn’t already visible, open it.
      2.   Select a layer in your collage and move the opacity slider to the left or right.
           If you want the layer to be more opaque, move the slider to the right. If you’re inter-
           ested in making the layer more transparent, move the slider to the left.
           I chose Layer 4 and adjusted the opacity to 75%. I like the blue sky in my collage, but
           it’s a tad too vibrant in comparison to the rest of the image. Adjusting the opacity
           tones it down and allows the blue to blend in more naturally.

      3.   Save the file and move on to the next layer you want to adjust.
           If you have more complicated opacity settings to adjust, keep reading.
      4.   Select the background layer and then select Duplicate Layer from the Layers panel
           pop-up menu. Click OK to close the Duplicate Layer dialog box.
422   Working with the Advanced Blending Options

              Making a copy of the background is great because it allows you to add a blend
              mode, like you do in Step 5, and then adjust it to get just the right amount of the
              For example, if you want to define an element in your collage, but applying it directly
              on the layer makes the effect too intense, make a copy of the layer. I wanted to
              pump up the definition of the canyon in my collage, but when I used the blend mode
              directly on the background, the result looked too harsh.
              By the way, I couldn’t resist the urge to include a pair of hiking boots in my collage.
         5.   Select the background copy layer and select a mode (such as Vivid Light) from the
              Mode pop-up menu in the Layers panel.
              The definition likely looks great, but the contrast is over the top.
         6.   Adjust the opacity to tone it down.
              I changed the opacity in mine to 35%.

         7.   When you’re satisfied with the opacity and contrast, save the collage file.
       Chapter 4: Getting Jazzy with
       Layer Styles and Clipping Groups
       In This Chapter
       ✓ Getting the facts on layer styles
       ✓ Using the Styles panel
       ✓ Creating a custom style
       ✓ Clipping layers

       A     fter you have all the basic elements in your layered composite image,
             you may want to give it a little pizzazz and finesse. Maybe a headline
       would pop out a little more if you beveled the edge, or maybe that silhou-
       etted image would take on a little more dimension if you placed a drop
       shadow behind it. This chapter is where you find out how to do that and
       more. (If you’re wondering how to create a composite image with layers, see
       Book V, Chapters 1, 2, and 3, which introduce the basics of creating compos-
       ites with layers.)

Layer Styles Basics
       Back in the day, creating a drop shadow in Photoshop
       took a concerted effort. And beveled or embossed
       type? Well, I’ll just say that you really had to have
       the inside scoop on some Photoshop tricks. Now,
       however, Photoshop makes creating these kinds of
       effects as easy as selecting an option.

       In this chapter, you may see the terms effect and
       style used interchangeably. Technically, however,
       Adobe says that after layer effects are applied to a
       layer, they become part of a layer’s style. You can save
       and load styles, but not effects. So, if you apply a bunch
       of effects and want to be able to easily re-create the look,
       save it as a style.

       When you get started with layer effects and styles, keep the following tips in

        ✓ You can apply layer effects to regular layers, shape layers, fill layers, and
          type layers, but not to backgrounds, completely locked layers, or layer
424   Introducing the Many Layer Styles

             groups. For more on backgrounds, see Book V, Chapter 1. For details on
             locking layers and creating layer groups, see Book V, Chapter 2.
          ✓ Layer effects are dynamically linked to the contents of a layer. If you
            move or edit the contents of the layers, the effects are updated.
          ✓ When you apply effects, they become part of the layer’s style. A styled
            layer has an fx symbol next to the layer’s name in the Layers panel. You
            can expand (to view the individual effects) or collapse the layer style by
            clicking the triangle icon next to the florin.
          ✓ Drag the fx symbol from one layer to another to move it. Or Alt+drag
            (Option+drag on the Mac) the fx symbol from one layer to another to
            copy the style easily.
          ✓ If you create a style so fantastic that you want to save it for later use,
            you can save a custom style as a preset and store it in the Styles panel.
            (See the section “Saving your own style,” later in this chapter.)
          ✓ Feel free to cut loose and have some fun. Layer styles are completely
            nondestructive. They don’t muck around with your actual pixel data. If
            you don’t like them, edit them. If you really don’t like them, delete them
            to go back to your original unstylized image.

Introducing the Many Layer Styles
         Layer effects fall into a few categories. You can add shadows, glow effects,
         beveled and embossed edges, and overlay colors and patterns, and you can,
         of course, tweak to your heart’s content. This list introduces the various
         effects that you can apply. (In the following sections, I explain how you apply
         each layer style and tweak its settings.)

          ✓ Shadows: Add a soft drop or inner shadow to the contents of a layer.
            You can adjust the blend mode, color, opacity, angle, size, and contour
            to suit your needs. Figure 4-1 shows examples of both types of shadows.

                     Drop Shadow                   Inner Shadow

             Figure 4-1: Add dimension by applying an inner or drop
             shadow to your object or type.
                                   Introducing the Many Layer Styles              425

 ✓ Glows: Add a soft highlight that appears on the outside or inside edges               Book V
   of the contents of a layer, as shown in Figure 4-2. Like shadows, you can            Chapter 4
   fine-tune the appearance by adjusting numerous options.

                                                                                        Getting Jazzy with
                                                                                         Layer Styles and
                                                                                         Clipping Groups
              Outer Glow                      Inner Glow

    Figure 4-2: Inner and outer glows add a soft highlight to edges.

 ✓ Bevels: Create a 3-D edge on either the outside or inside edges of the con-
   tents of a layer, giving the element some dimension. Similarly, emboss
   effects make elements appear raised off of or punched into the page. Satin
   creates a satiny or draped fabric effect over your element. All these effects
   (shown in Figure 4-3) offer numerous options to adjust their appearances.

        Outer Bevel                       Inner Bevel                    Emboss

       Pillow Emboss                    Stroke Emboss                    Satin

Figure 4-3: Bevel and Emboss make your element look raised or punched.
426   Applying a Layer Effect

          ✓ Overlays: Apply a fill of color, a gradient, or a pattern over the contents
            of your layer, as shown in Figure 4-4. You can adjust the opacity of the
            overlay, among other options, so that your original element shows
            through more clearly. You can also surround your layer with a stroke
            consisting of a color, gradient, or pattern.

                    Color Overlay                 Gradient Overlay

                   Pattern Overlay                     Stroke

             Figure 4-4: Overlays cover your object or type.

Applying a Layer Effect
         Follow these steps to apply a layer effect:

          1. Select your desired layer in the Layers panel.
          2. Choose Layer➪Layer Style and choose an effect from the submenu.
             You can also click the Add a Layer Style icon in the Layers panel and
             select an effect from the pop-up menu.
             An intimidating Layer Style dialog box with a ton of options rears its
             head, as shown in Figure 4-5.
          3. Select the Preview check box in the top-right portion of the dialog box
             so you can see your effects while you apply them.
                                        Managing and Editing Layer Styles        427

       4. To accept the default settings, just click OK.                                 Book V
                                                                                        Chapter 4
           Or you can experiment with the settings.
           You can use sliders or check boxes, enter values in the text boxes, and

                                                                                        Getting Jazzy with
                                                                                         Layer Styles and
                                                                                         Clipping Groups
           so on. The following sections in this chapter describe the options and
           settings in detail.
       5. If you refine your effect settings, click OK when you finish.
           Photoshop applies your effect to your layer, as indicated by the fx icon.

      Figure 4-5: The Layer Style dialog box allows you to easily turn effects
      off and on with a mere check of a box.

Managing and Editing Layer Styles
      You can always just apply the layer effect with Photoshop’s default settings,
      but what fun is that? To edit a style, double-click the Effect name or the
      Effects label, double-click the layer thumbnail or double-click the Layer Style
      icon in the Layers panel, and make your desired adjustments in the Layer
      Style dialog box. If you double-clicked the layer thumbnail or the icon, be
      sure to select your desired effect from the left side of the dialog box to get
      access to your effect’s settings.

      The following sections give you the details on each of the options. But a pic-
      ture is worth a thousand words. Experiment to see these effects come alive.
428   Managing and Editing Layer Styles

         Managing layer styles
         Here are a few pointers to keep in mind when working with and editing layer

          ✓ Choose several effects at one time. Simply select the check box for the
            effect on the left side of the Layer Style dialog box. To access the options
            for each effect, you must click the effect name so that it’s highlighted.
          ✓ Remove an effect. Deselect the check box associated with it.
          ✓ Move a style onto a separate layer. By default, layer styles are attached
            to a layer. To put a style on a separate layer, select the styled layer and
            choose Layer➪Layer Style➪Create Layer. You see a new layer in the
            Layers panel with a name, such as Layer 0’s Drop Shadow.
             Although separating a style onto its own layer may give you more man-
             ual editing capability and allow you to apply filters, you lose all editing
             ability with the Layer Style dialog box. Also, the style won’t dynamically
             update when you change the layer itself. Your style basically becomes
             just a generic mass of colored pixels.
          ✓ Copy and paste effects onto other layers. Select the layer containing
            the effect and choose Layer➪Layer Style➪Copy Layer Style. Select the
            layer or layers on which you want to apply the effect and choose Layer➪
            Layer Style➪Paste Layer Style. Even easier, you can also just hold down
            the Alt (Option on the Mac) key and then drag and drop an effect from
            one layer to another.
          ✓ Hide effects. Choose Layer➪Layer Style➪Hide All Effects to hide all
            effects on the image, not just the selected layer.
          ✓ Display hidden effects. Choose Layer➪Layer Style➪Show All Effects.
          ✓ Remove all the effects on a layer. Choose Layer➪Layer Style➪Clear
            Layer Style. You can also drag the Effects bar (what Adobe calls the
            name Effects) or fx icon to the trash can icon in the Layers panel.
          ✓ Remove a single effect. Simply drag and drop the single effect to the
            trash can icon in the Layers panel.
          ✓ Resize a layer effect. Select your desired layer in the Layers panel.
            Choose Layer➪Layer Style➪Scale Effects. Select Preview and enter a
            value between 1 and 1,000 percent. This command allows you to scale
            the effect without scaling the element.

         Editing drop shadow or inner shadow effects
         If you used the default settings to apply your drop shadow or inner shadow
         and want to do some tweaking, edit by following these steps:

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