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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP CS5 DESIGN 8

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					                                     Creating Effects with Blend Modes                  409

Adjusting the Fill Opacity                                                                          Book V
                                                                                                   Chapter 3
       In addition to adjusting the regular




                                                                                                   with Opacity and
       opacity for a layer, you can also




                                                                                                    Blend Modes
       adjust the fill opacity. Fill opacity




                                                                                                       Playing
       works a little differently from regular
       opacity. The regular Opacity setting
       affects layer styles (see Book V,
       Chapter 4) and blend modes (see
       the following section) that have
       been applied to the layer. Fill opacity,
       however, affects only the pixels or
       shapes that reside on the layer. It
       doesn’t affect the styles or blends.
       As you can see in Figure 3-2, the
       drop shadow and emboss styles
       in the bottom example show through
       full strength.                             Figure 3-2: Fill opacity (bottom) affects only
                                                  layer pixels, not styles or blend modes that
       To adjust the Fill Opacity setting,        have been applied to the layer.
       select your desired layer, or layers, in
       the Layers panel, and then enter a value in the Fill Opacity text box or drag
       the pop-up slider. The other methods for adjusting fill opacity are similar to
       the regular opacity option.



Creating Effects with Blend Modes
       Photoshop’s 25 blend modes (27 when you work with the painting and edit-
       ing tools) determine how the colors in different layers interact with each
       other. Blend modes can produce a multitude of interesting, sometimes even
       bizarre, effects. And what’s more, you can easily apply, change, or discard
       blend modes with no permanent damage to your layers.

       Most options in the Blend Mode pop-up menu (located under the Layers tab)
       in the Layers panel are the same as those on the Mode pop-up menu on the
       Options bar. The exceptions are the Behind and Clear modes, which you can
       find only on the Options bar because they’re available for use only with
       painting and editing tools.
410   Creating Effects with Blend Modes


         I urge you to pick an image with a few layers and apply each blend mode to
         get a good handle on what the various blend modes do. In fact, try a few dif-
         ferent images because the effects may be subtle or intense, depending on
         the colors in the image. Throw in some different opacity percentages, and
         you’re on your way to endless hours of creative fun.

         You’ll find these modes called blend modes, painting modes, brush modes,
         layer modes, calculations, or just plain modes. They’re usually referred to as
         blend modes or layer modes when used with layers and painting modes, and
         brush modes when used in conjunction with a painting or editing tool.


         General blend modes
         In the General category, you find the following modes, which are shown in
         Figure 3-3 and explained in Table 3-1.


           Table 3-1                        General Blend Modes
           Blend Mode     Description
           Normal         You’re probably very familiar with the Normal blend mode by now. It’s
                          the default that lets each pixel appear in its very own unadulterated
                          state. The other three modes are used only in certain circumstances.
           Dissolve       The effects of Dissolve can be seen only with a layer that has an
                          opacity setting of less than 100% — the lower the opacity, the more
                          intense the effect. The effect is created by allowing some pixels
                          from lower layers, which are randomized, to show through the
                          target layer.
           Behind         Available only when you have a painting or editing tool active. Type
                          must be rasterized, and Lock Transparency must be deselected.
                          It allows you to edit or paint only on the transparent areas of the
                          layer, giving the illusion that the strokes are behind the layer.
           Clear          Available only when you have a painting or editing tool active. Type
                          must be rasterized, and Lock Transparency must be deselected. It
                          allows you to edit or paint with transparency, giving the appearance
                          that holes are being punched into your image.


         Blend modes that darken
         Overall, the blend modes in this category all produce effects that darken
         your image, as shown in Figure 3-4. However, one of my favorite uses for the
         Darken blend mode is a little different. Scan a handwritten letter or sheet of
         music and layer it over an image. Apply the Darken blend mode to the letter
         or sheet-music layer. The white areas of the paper become transparent, and
         only the letters or musical notes display, creating a nice composite image.
         Table 3-2 describes these modes.
                                  Creating Effects with Blend Modes   411

           Normal                          Dissolve                          Book V
                                                                            Chapter 3




                                                                            with Opacity and
                                                                             Blend Modes

                                                                                Playing
           Behind                            Clear




Figure 3-3: The Behind and Clear blend modes are available only
with a painting or editing tool.


           Darken                           Multiply




         Color Burn                       Linear Burn




        Darker Color




Figure 3-4: These blend modes darken, or burn, your layers.
412   Creating Effects with Blend Modes



           Table 3-2                      Blend Modes That Darken
           Blend Mode       Description
           Darken           If the pixels on the layer are lighter than those below, the lighter
                            pixels turn transparent. If the pixels on the layer are darker,
                            they appear unchanged. It’s a great mode, as is Darker Color,
                            for superimposing scanned text or line art because it allows the
                            white color of the paper to essentially drop out, leaving only the
                            dark letters or lines.
           Multiply         Burns the layer into the layers underneath. The Multiply mode
                            darkens all colors where they mix. With layers, it’s comparable
                            to sticking two slides in the same slot in a slide projector. If
                            you’re painting, each successive stroke creates a darker color,
                            as if drawing with markers.
           Color Burn       Darkens the layers underneath and burns them with color.
                            Increases contrast. Blending with white pixels has no effect. It’s
                            like applying a dark dye to your image.
           Linear Burn      Darkens the layers underneath by decreasing the brightness.
                            This is similar to Multiply but tends to make portions of your
                            image pure black. Blending with white pixels has no effect.
           Darker Color     When blending two layers, the darker of the two colors will be
                            visible.



         Blend modes that lighten
         If you have blend modes that darken, having modes that lighten just makes
         good sense. So, if you have the need to throw some digital bleach on your
         brightly colored pixels, try a couple of these blend modes, which I describe
         in Table 3-3. Figure 3-5 shows examples of these effects.


           Table 3-3                      Blend Modes That Lighten
           Blend Mode       Description
           Lighten          If the pixels on the layer are darker than those below, the darker
                            pixels turn transparent. If the pixels on the layer are lighter, they
                            appear unchanged. This is the opposite of Darken.
           Screen           Lightens the layer where it mixes with the layer underneath.
                            Blending with black pixels has no effect. It’s like putting two
                            slides in two different projectors and pointing them at the same
                            screen. Screen is the opposite of Multiply.
                                   Creating Effects with Blend Modes                  413

  Blend Mode            Description                                                           Book V
                                                                                             Chapter 3
  Color Dodge           Lightens the pixels in the layers underneath and infuses them
                        with colors from the top layer. This is like bleaching your layer.




                                                                                             with Opacity and
                        Blending with black pixels has no effect.




                                                                                              Blend Modes

                                                                                                 Playing
  Linear Dodge          Lightens the layers underneath by increasing the brightness.
  (Add)                 It’s similar to Screen but tends to make parts of your image pure
                        white. Blending with black pixels has no effect.
  Lighter Color         When blending two layers, the lighter of the two colors will be
                        visible.



           Lighten                            Screen




         Color Dodge                       Linear Dodge




        Lighter Color




Figure 3-5: These blend modes lighten, or dodge, your layers.



Lighting blend modes
This group of blend modes plays with the lighting in your layers. Some of
these blend modes, such as Pin Light, are reserved for the occasional wacky
special effect. The following list and images explain and show each mode:
414   Creating Effects with Blend Modes


          ✓ Overlay: Multiplies the dark pixels in the top          Overlay
            layer and screens the light pixels in the underly-
            ing layers. Enhances the contrast and saturation
            of colors.
          ✓ Soft Light: Darkens the dark pixels and lightens
            the light pixels. If the pixels on the top layer
            are lighter than 50% gray, the lighter pixels
            are lightened further. If the pixels on the top
            layer are darker than 50% gray, the mode               Soft Light
            darkens pixels. Blending with black or white
            results in darker or lighter pixels, but it doesn’t
            make parts of your image pure black or pure
            white. It’s similar to Overlay, but softer and
            subtler, like shining a soft spotlight on the
            image.
          ✓ Hard Light: Multiplies the dark pixels and            Hard Light
            screens the light pixels. It’s like shining a
            bright, hard spotlight on the image. If the pix-
            els on the top layer are lighter than 50% gray,
            they’re screened. If the pixels on the top layer
            are darker than 50% gray, the mode multiplies
            the pixels. You can use this mode to add high-
            lights and shadows to an image. Blending with
            black or white gives you black and white.             Vivid Light
          ✓ Vivid Light: If the pixels on the top layer are
            darker than 50% gray, this mode burns (or
            darkens) the colors by increasing the contrast.
            If the pixels on the top layer are lighter than
            50% gray, the mode dodges (or lightens) the
            colors by decreasing the contrast. Vivid Light
            is a combination of Color Burn and Color
            Dodge.                                                Linear Light
          ✓ Linear Light: If the pixels on the top layer
            are darker than 50% gray, the mode burns
            (or darkens) the colors by decreasing the
            brightness. If the pixels on the top layer are
            lighter than 50% gray, the mode dodges (or
            lightens) the colors by increasing the bright-
            ness. It’s a combination of Linear Burn and
            Linear Dodge.                                          Pin Light

          ✓ Pin Light: Replaces the colors of pixels,
            depending on the colors in the top layer. If the
            pixels on the top layer are darker than 50%
            gray, the mode replaces pixels darker than
            those on the top layer and doesn’t change
            lighter pixels. If the pixels on the top layer are
                                  Creating Effects with Blend Modes                415

    lighter than 50% gray, the mode replaces the pixels that are lighter than                Book V
    those pixels on the top layer and doesn’t change pixels that are darker.                Chapter 3
    Pin Light is a combination of Darken and
    Lighten and it’s useful for special effects.              Hard Mix




                                                                                            with Opacity and
                                                                                             Blend Modes
 ✓ Hard Mix: Similar to Vivid Light, but it reduces




                                                                                                Playing
   the colors to a total of eight — cyan, magenta,
   yellow, black, red, green, blue, and white.
   Although the results depend on the mix of
   existing colors on the top and bottom layers,
   this mode usually creates a highly posterized
   effect.


Blend modes that invert
If the blend modes discussed in the preceding sections are a tad too tame
for you, you may want to check out the inverters — Difference and Exclusion
(described in Table 3-4). These blend modes invert your colors and can pro-
duce some interesting special effects, as shown in Figure 3-6.


                Difference                                    Exclusion




Figure 3-6: The Difference and Exclusion blend modes invert colors.



   Table 3-4                          Blend Modes That Invert
  Blend Mode        Description
  Difference        Produces a negative, or inverted, effect according to the brightness
                    values on the top layers. If the pixels on the top layer are black,
                    the mode doesn’t change the colors of the underlying layers. If the
                    pixels on the top layer are white, the mode inverts the colors of the
                    underlying layers. This can produce bizarre results.
  Exclusion         Similar to Difference, but with less contrast and saturation. If the
                    pixels on the top layer are black, the mode doesn’t change the
                    colors of the underlying layers. If the pixels on the top layer are
                    white, the mode inverts the colors of the underlying layers. Medium
                    colors blend to create gray.
416   Creating Effects with Blend Modes


         HSL color model blend modes
         These blend modes use the HSL (Hue, Saturation, and Lightness) color
         model to mix colors. My favorite blend mode in this group is Color, which
         allows you to apply color to images without obscuring the tonality. The
         Color mode is great for “hand painting” grayscale images. See details on this
         technique in Book IV, Chapter 1. Table 3-5 lists these modes, and Figure 3-7
         shows their effects.


                     Hue                            Saturation




                     Color                         Luminosity




         Figure 3-7: These blend modes use the Hue, Saturation, and
         Lightness color model to mix colors.



            Table 3-5                   HSL Color Model Blend Modes
           Blend             Description
           Mode
           Hue               Blends the luminance (brightness) and saturation (intensity of the
                             color) of the underlying layers with the hue (color) of the top layer.
           Saturation        Blends the luminance and hue of the underlying layers with the
                             saturation of the top layer.
           Color             Blends the luminance of the underlying layers with the saturation
                             and hue of the top layer. This mode is great for colorizing gray-
                             scale (with a color mode set to RGB) images because it preserves
                             the shadows, highlights, and details of the underlying layers.
           Luminosity        Blends the hue and saturation of the underlying layers with the
                             luminance of the top layer. Preserves the shadows, highlights, and
                             details from the top layer and mixes them with the colors of the
                             underlying layers. Luminosity is the opposite of Color.
                         Working with the Advanced Blending Options            417

      The following blend modes work with 8-, 16-, and 32-bit images: Normal,            Book V
      Dissolve, Darken, Multiply, Lighten, Linear Dodge, Difference, Hue,               Chapter 3
      Saturation, Color, Luminosity, Lighter Color, and Darker Color.




                                                                                        with Opacity and
                                                                                         Blend Modes
Working with the Advanced Blending Options




                                                                                            Playing
      If you want to get serious about layers, then you need to know about the
      Advanced Blending Options, which you can find in the Layer Style dialog
      box. These options allow you to tailor the way your layer styles and blend
      modes interact with your layers. Getting to the advanced options is just like
      accessing opacity and blend modes: You can double-click a layer thumbnail,
      choose Layer➪Layer Style➪Blending Options, or select Blending Options
      from the Layers panel pop-up menu. The massive Layer Style dialog box
      rears its multi-paneled head, as shown in Figure 3-8.

      (By the way, if you’re ready to know more about these blending features,
      skip to Book V, Chapter 4, where I cover layer styles.)




      Figure 3-8: The Layer Style dialog box is home to Advanced Blending
      Options.



      Advanced options to blend with
      The advanced options aren’t for the faint of heart. To be frank, the options
      are, well, advanced, so you might find them a tad too eggheady for your
      taste. But if not, here you go:

       ✓ Fill Opacity: I cover this in the section “Adjusting the Fill Opacity,” ear-
         lier in this chapter.
418   Working with the Advanced Blending Options


          ✓ Channels: This option allows
            you to restrict your blending
            options to specific channels
            only. For all you need to know
            about working with channels,
            check out Book VI.
          ✓ Knockout: This option allows
            you to specify which layers have
            holes in them so that you can
            view the layers underneath. You
            first have to use the Fill Opacity
            option to set the opacity of the
            knockout. The lower the opacity,
            the more the hole shows; there-
            fore, set it to 0% (like in my
            example in Figure 3-9) to see
            all the way through. Set the
            Knockout to Shallow to create
            a hole through one layer group       Figure 3-9: A knockout cuts holes in your
            (see Book V, Chapter 2) or a         layers to enable you to view the layers
            clipping group. (See Book V,         underneath.
            Chapter 4.) Set the Knockout to
            Deep to create a hole all the way through to the background. If you’re
            working with just layers, and not layer groups or clipping groups, the
            knockout cuts through to the background. If there’s no background,
            it cuts through to transparency.
          ✓ Blend Interior Effects as Group: This option applies the blend mode
            of the layer to interior layer effects, such as inner glows, satin and
            color overlay, and so on. Deselect this option to prevent the blend
            mode from affecting the layer effects. You can see the difference in
            Figure 3-10.
          ✓ Blend Clipped Layers as Group: The blend mode of the bottom layer in
            the clipping group affects all the other layers in the group. Deselect this
            option to make each layer retain its own blend mode and appearance.
          ✓ Transparency Shapes Layer: Confines layer effects and knockouts to
            opaque areas of a layer. Deselect this option to apply the mode’s layer
            effects and knockouts to the entire layer. (See Figure 3-11.)

				
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