Wishes and hopes in english grammar by xakJDHF

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									                 CHAPTER TWO
 EXPRESSING WISH AND HOPE IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR


2.1. Wish and Hope in English
      Generally, the acts of wishing and hoping are expressed by the
      words WISH and HOPE. Oxford English Dictionary (1989: xx:
      426-428), defines these words as follows:


I. WISH:
   1. Trans. To have or feel a wish for; to desire.
     (a) with simple object (in O.E. Usually in the genitive). Now
        dialect; superseded in standard English by wish for, or
        colloquially in certain contexts by want.
           (1) I charge you, ..as you wish my peace, not to say
              anything of a letter you have from me.


     (b) with object clause with may or(formally present subject,
        occasionally indic.) expressing a desire that the event may
        happen or that the fact may prove to be so, and often implying
        some want of confidence or fear of the opposite (now
        commonly expressed by hope.)
          (2) I wish I suffer no prejudice by it


     (c) with object clause with past subject (or indic., e.g. was for
        were): expressing an unrealized or unrealizable desire, or in
        modern use sometimes a mild request. To wish to God: to
        wish intensely
           (3) I wish to God we'd gone back to the boat.
           (4) I wish to God I knew how to begin.


     (d) with infinitive As object (usually, now, always, with to)
          (5) I wish to talk to you
          (6) If men really wish to be good, they will become good.


                                   (4)
  (e) with accusative And infinitive or in passive with inf. (usually,
     now, always, with to).
        (7) I rather wish thee climb the Muses hill.

  (f) with object and complement (substansive, adjective,
      participle, adverb, phrase): now chiefly in imprecations or the
      like.
         (8) She could only move uneasily on her seat, and wish
            him miles away.


  (g) after as or than: often ellipse. (so also with related to) for
     various constructions, especially (c), (d), (e).
        (9) You should do just what your grandfather wishes.


  (h) in passive: especially in predicative phrase. To be wished=
     desirable.
        (10) More to be wished and much more durable.

2. intransitive to have or feel a wish; in early use often, to long,
   yearn.

  (a) with after (obsolete). as in 1.(a) also indir. passive as in:
     1.(h).
        (11) I can only wish for more worthiness.

  (b) Absolute:
       (12) It had been one of her children superstitions always 'to
            wish at the new moon'.

  (c) transitive with cognate object:
         (13) wishing all manner of idle wishes.

3. transitive to express a wish for; to say that one wishes… (with
   various const. as in I); esp. to imprecate, invoke (an evil or
   curse).
         (14) He was consumed by such a disease as he had wished
              upon himself.

                               (5)
4. specifically (with to or simple object) to desire (something
   usually good) for or on behalf of a person, etc. in formula of
   greeting of expressions of goodwill, hence as in 3, to express
   such a wish for, especially as a formal greeting: e.g. to wish
   (one) good morning, good- bye, a Merry Christmas, a happy
   New Year, many happy returns of the day, etc.; also interjection
   In to wish (one) well, and int. or transitive (usually with
   negation) in to wish (one) ill(where ill may be taken an adverb or
   substansive) to wish (one) joy of.
         (15) I have been prayed for, and wished well to, in your
              congregation

  To desire or express a desire for, the welfare or misfortune of (a
  person); only in evil wished, ILL- WISHED (v.), WELL-
  WISHED.
       (16) I leave you both as well wished, as if you were to enjoy
            the best wishes bestowed this new year's day in
            England.

5. in expression of desire for something to be done by another, thus
   conveying a request; hence, to request, entreat; formerly
   sometimes, to bid command:

  (a) a thing or action (with various construction)
         (17) I wish that you would tell me about his death.

  (b) a person to do something: DESIRE (v.)
       (18) The Groom was wish'd to saddle crop.

  (c) to invite 'bid' (a person to a place).

6. To recommend (a person) to another, or to a place, etc. obsolete
   or dialect.

        (19) I have been wished to several fine women, but my
             fancy gives the preference to you.



                                 (6)
  7. To influence in a magical or occult way by wishing; to bewitch
     by a desire or imprecation. Dialect.
           (20) When he hears that he has been' wished', he… takes to
                his bed at once.

  8. To foist or impose (something or someone) on (to) someone; to
     endow with at another's wish.
          (21) We owed money everywhere… I wouldn't wish that on
               any of today's young housewives.

     2OED, 1989: xx: 426-428


II. Hope:
  1. (a). Expectation of something desired; desire combined with
     expectation.

     (b) Construction of (that which is hoped for) or with clause
        introduced by that, or (arch) with infinitive.
           (22) I hope… that preaching would prove gainful.

     (c) In plural; often in singular sense, especially in phrase hopes.
        construction as in b
           (23) I was in hopes you would have shown us our own
              nation.

     (d) Personified; especially as one of the three heavenly Graces.
          (24) Faith and hope and love we see joining hand in hand
             agree.


  2. Feeling of trust or confidence, obsolete except as biblical
     archaism, with mixture of sense.
           (25) My hopes then are all in you.


  3. Expectation (without implication of desire or of a thing not
     desired); prospect obsolete.


                                  (7)
4. Transferred sense .
  (a) Ground of hope; promise. Freq.uently in negative in phrase
     not a hope (in hell). Also used ironically for: an expectation
     which has little or no chance of being fulfilled; espacially in
     interjection usually expressing resignation, some hope(s)!,
     what a hope!
        (26) He… wants to put on a good show for her. What a
           hope!


  (b) a person or a thing that gives hope or promise for the future,
     or in which hope is centered.
        (27) If the adult population are the despair of the priest, the
             children are their hope.


  (c) an object of hope; that which is hoped for.
        (28) Staking his very life on some dark hope.


5. (a) combined chiefly objective and instrumental.
         (29) The cheerful and hope stirring tread of passenger.


  (b) special combined hope chest chiefly U.S., a chest or box in
     which a young woman hopefully collects towards a home of
     her own in the event of her marriage.


6. (a) intransitive to entertain expectation of something desired; to
   look mentally with expectation
         (30) I can hope for no support in the equity of my cause.


  (b)         with to, for: to look for, expect (without implication
              of desire).




                                (8)
  7. To trust, have confidence.
  8. Trans. To expect with desire, or to desire with expectation; to
     look forward to (something desired)
     (a) with simple object (= hope for, sense). Now chiefly poetic.
           (31) With looks that asked yet dared not hope relief.
     (b) with object clause (in modern colloquial use often in
        weakened sense, expressing little more than a desire that the
        event may happen, or (with clause in press, or past) that the
        fact may turn out to be as stated)
           (32) We hoped that no repetition of the process would
              occur.

     (c) with infinitive
           (33) When may we hope to see you again in London?


     (d) phrase to hope against hope. to hope where there are no
        reasonable grounds for doing so; to hope very much. Hence
        hope- against – hope.
           (34) I had hoped against hope that he would have gone
                before she returned.


  9. To expect or anticipate (without implication of desire); to
     suppose, think, suspect.
          (35) I hope I shall be hanged tomorrow.

     2OED, 1989: vii: 376-377

Finally, one point to be mentioned is that the word wish is similar in
meaning to the expression "would like":
           (36) I wish I had a big house = I would like to have a big
                house.
           (37) I wish I had been there = I would like to have been
                there.
           (38) I wish you would stop talking = I would like you to
                stop talking.
                                  (9)
           (39) I wish to see the manager = I would like to see the
                manager.
           (40) I wish you a Merry Christmas = I would like you to
                have a Merry Christmas.

2.2. Time and Tense

       Jespersen, 1931:112 points out how important it is to keep the
two concepts Time and Tense strictly apart, the former being
common to all mankind and is independent of language; whereas the
latter varies from language to language and is the linguistic expression
of time- relations, so far as these are indicated in verb forms. In
English, however, as well as in many other languages, such forms
serve not only for time- relations, but also for other purposes; they are
also often inextricably confused with marks for person and mood.
Jespersen,1933:230.
       He also discusses the imaginative use of tenses. He points out
that verbal forms which are primarily used to indicate past time are
often used without that temporal import to denote unreality,
impossibility or non-fulfilment
Jespersen,1931: IV.: 112.

2.2.1. The Imaginative use of Tenses (WISH and HOPE)

   Jespersen, 1931:113 continues his argument under the title of The
Imaginative Use of Tenses to illustrate that preterite is formed in
various ways; as in the following sentences:
             (41) I wish I had money enough.
             (42) If I had money enough, I should pay you.
             (43) You speak as if I had money enough.
      In all these cases the reality or possibility of certain suppositions
is denied; the implication is "I have not money enough".
      In the main sentence of the second example it is stated what
would be likely under the imagined condition that I had money
enough, or what may be considered the logical consequence of its
truth or realization. The use of the preterite unreality may perhaps be
explained psychologically in this way: the tense which is ordinarily
used to express past time here simply removes the idea from the actual
present and keeps the action or state denoted by the verb at some
distance: the sphere of the preterite is thus extended to comprise
                                   (10)
everything not actually present: but of course this can only take place
if the sentence indicates at the same time clearly that it must not be
understood as referring to a real past time; this is achieved through
such words as Wish and If.
  Jespersen, 1931: IV.:113.

2.2.2. Denoting Unreality by the Preterite in Arabic and Other
Languages

      How natural it is to use the preterite to denote unreality may be
seen from the fact that it is found not only in Gothonic and Romanic
languages, but also in Greek, Armenian, and Slav. Some languages,
e.g. Arabic, have two conjunctions corresponding to English If, one
which admits, ‫ ,ان‬and another which excludes the truth or possibility
of the thing mentioned in the clause, ‫.لو‬
 Jespersen, 1931: IV.114.

2.2.3. Pluperfect of Imagination

      Correspondingly we have a pastperfect of imagination I wish I
had money enough etc. as Jespersen ,1931 illustrates and which refers
to some time in the past, which is represented as not having taken
place:
           (44) I wish he had not married her (implying that he has
                done so).
           (45) If he had not married her, he would have been
                happier.
           (46) You talk as if you had really been here (but you have
                not).

Examples of unrealized wishes with regard to some time in the past
are:
           (47) Do you wish then that the Gods had made me
                poetical?
           (48) I wish I had been born in the moon.
Ibid.: 125

     Sometimes the pluperfect of imagination refers to any time in
the past, but really to the present time: it is as if the imaginative

                                   (11)
element inherent in the preterite had been raised to the second power
to emphasize the impossibility or improbability; thus we may say If I
had had the money (at the present moment), I should have paid you,
where the negative element is stronger than If I had the money, I
should pay you, and in the same way I should have been rich enough
to give you the money.
Jespersen, 1931: IV: 126

     Schibsbye, 1965:75 points out that the pluperfect is furthermore
used of past hypothetical matters:
           (49) I wish I hadn't been present on that occasion

2.3. Means of expressing wishes in grammar

2.3.1. WISH

   The main use of the word WISH is to express regret that things are
not different. It is possible to use wish in this way to talk about the
present/future and the past:
           (50) I wish (that) I weren't here now.
           (51) I wish (that) I didn't have to go to school tomorrow.
           (52) I wish (that) I had studied harder when I was at
                 school.

It is important to realize that the verb tenses that follow wish are the
same as those used in the second and third conditionals.
Wishes could be expressed by were and was, as Jespersen mentions
some quotations, giving his quotations for the old were (in the
singular) in Wishes from Shakespeare:
            (53) O that I were a man! Etc, etc.

On the other hand he mentions quotations for was in wishes:
           (54) I wish it was within five miles.
           (55) I wish it was spring all the year around.
Jespersen ,1931:129.

Not infrequently was is shown to be more emphatic than were.
Wishes could also be expressed by auxiliaries like would.


                                  (12)
2.3.2. WOULD

      Would is frequent in content – clauses after expressions of wish,
not only when the fulfilment depends on the will of the subject: I wish
he would stop that noise- but also in other cases I wish he would die
soon.
Wishs also come in the form of a conditional clause:
          (56) If only the rain would stop!
          (57) If only she wouldn't cry in that way!

      The If-clause might be completed: One would be happy, or in
some similar way: such incomplete conditional sentences are used in
many languages to express wishes.
      In the main sentence would is used in the same way in the old
formula God would or would God (that he might live) with God as
the subject :Would God the lovely earl had that, contains the preterite
of Wish in would as well as in the dependent verb.
      When people lost the habit of placing a subject after the verb,
they came to take would as an equivalent of I would and God as a
dative, which was provided with the preposition to on the analogy of I
wish to God:
            (58) He would to God it were his fancy
Jespersen ,1931:309

      Jespersen, 1933 continues his discussion about the chief
employment of would which is imaginative, showing that it indicates
volition under a hypothetical condition:
           (59) I wouldn't be Lady Mickleham's butler if you made me
                a duke.
Jespersen ,1933:283

     Imaginative would without any trace left of volition is the
regular auxiliary in main sentences of "condition contrary to fact":
           (60) It would be a pity if he did not see her alive.
           (61) Suppose he came back, what would happen?

      Jespersen ,1933:248 also illustrates that if the reference is to a
past time, the perfect infinitive is used:


                                  (13)
           (62) He would have died if he had taken that strong dose of
                strychnine.

      In strict Southern English usage this would in main hypothetical
sentences is found in the second and third persons only; but in Scotch ,
Irish and American I (we) would is used very extensively without any
idea of volition, and this is now finding its way to British speakers and
writers:
             (63) If I had Byron's genius and health and liberty, I would
                  make the next three centuries recollect me
             (64) I know you'll be interested – Honestly I don't think I
                  would be
             (65) To reach it I would have to pass in front of the
                  window.
Jespersen ,1933: 248

      The hypothetical character is often obscured, and then would
comes to indicate probability or what one might expect:
           (66) That would be in the year 1878
           (67) That's what most men would say
Ibid.: 285

Leech and Svartvik, mention that Wish is also used to express
something assumed to be hypothetically false:
          (68) I wish that John had agreed
Leech and. Svartvik, 1989:124

      Wish could normally be used in the continuous tense. It has only
one present tense, the simple present. This is because continuous
tenses are chiefly used for deliberate actions, whereas Wish is one of
the verbs that express feelings and emotions, and deliberate actions.
Thomson and Martinet, 1986/1991.156.

       Wish can form a request expressed by I wish you would. It
sometimes implies that the other person should be helping or have
offered to do it
Ibid.:248
            (69) I wish you'd give me a hand


                                  (14)
      Thomson and Martinet 1986/1991 explain that wish with want
and would like as a means of expressing desire, pointing out that wish
is the most formal. The difference between them is explained as
follows:
A- Wish can be followed directly by an infinitive or by object +
infinitive:
            (70) Why do / did you wish to see the manager? ~ I wish /
                 wished to make a complaint.
            (71) The government does not wish Dr Jekyll Hyde to
                 accept a professorship at a foreign university.
   In less formal language we would use want and would like:
            (72) I would like / want to speak to Ann
            (73) I wanted to speak to Ann
            (74)She doesn't / didn't want the children to stay up late.
                 (If we used like here instead of want, it would mean
                 that she doesn't / didn't approve the children staying up
                 late.)
   B- Want and Would like can be followed directly by nouns:
            (75) I want / would like a single room
            (76) He wanted a single room
   Wish has a more restricted use:
   We can wish someone luck /success/a happy Christmas etc.:
            (77) He said, `Good luck!` = He wished me luck.
            (78) We can also send someone `good/ best wishes`:
            (79) With all good wishes, yours, Bill (at the end of a letter)
            (80) Best wishes for the New Year (on a New Year card)
   Except in greeting of this kind, wish is not normally followed by a
   noun object.
   wish + for can be followed by a noun\ pronoun; it usually implies
   that the subject has little hope of obtaining his wish; it is chiefly
   used in exclamations:
            (81) How he wished for a drink! (Presumably he had no
                 hope of getting one.)
            (82) What he chiefly wished for was a chance to explain. (It
                 seems unlikely that he was going to get this chance.)
Thomson and Martinet, 1986/1991:260

Wish + subject + unreal past:


                                   (15)
  A- Wish (that) + subject + past tense
         (83) I wish I knew his address = I'm sorry I don't know his
              address.
         (84) I wish you could drive a car = I'm sorry you can't
              drive a car.
         (85) I wish he was coming with us = I'm sorry he isn't
              coming with us

     Wish can be put into the past without changing the subjunctive:
         (86) He wished he knew the address =
         (87) He was sorry he didn't know the address

     Unreal past tenses do not change in direct speech:
          (88) `I wish I lived nearer my work,` he said =
          (89) He said he wished he lived nearer his work.

  B- Wish (that) + subject+ past perfect (subjunctive) expresses
    regret about a past situation:
          (90) I wish (that)I hadn't spent so much money =
          (91) I'm sorry I spent so much money.
          (92) I wish you had written to him = I'm sorry you didn't
               write to him.

     Wished can replace wish without changing the subjunctive:
         (93) I wished I hadn't spent so much money =
         (94) I was sorry I had spent so much money.

     These verbs will be reported unchanged:
          (95) `I wished I hadn't taken this advice,` she said =
          (96) She (said she) wished she had taken his advice.

  C- If only can be used in exactly the same way. It has the same
    meaning as Wish but is more dramatic:
          (97) If only we knew where to look for him!
          (98) If only she had asked someone's advice!
Thomson and Martinet, 1986/1991: 261

Wish (that) + subject + would:


                                  (16)
  A- Wish + subject + past tense can express regret for a present
    situation, as shown above:
          (99) I wish that he wrote more regularly=
                 I'm sorry he doesn't write more regularly.

     B- Wish + subject + would can be used similarly, but only with
       actions which the subject can control, i.e. actions he could
       change if he wished.

      Wish + would here can express interest in the subject's
      willingness\ unwillingness to perform an action in the present.
      This is usually a habitual action.
         (100) I wish he would write more often=I'm sorry he isn't
             willing to write more often.
         (101) I wish he would wear a coat = I'm sorry he refuses to
             wear a coat.
Thomson and Martinet, 1986/1991: 260-261

        The subject of wish cannot be the same as the subject of
        would as this would be illogical. We cannot therefore have I
        wish + I would.

         Also notice that the word that can be omitted in more
        informal speech.

        The expression wish … would is used to talk about (lack of)
        willingness to do things:

          (102) I wish you would tidy your room.
          (103) I wish you wouldn't always come home so late.

        In a formal style, wish + (object) + infinitive can be used in
        the same way as "want":

          (104) I wish to speak to the director.
          (105) Do you wish me to serve refreshments, sir?

        Wish + subject + would, can also be used to express
        dissatisfaction with the present and a wish for change in the
        future:

                                 (17)
        (106) I wish he would answer my letter. (I have been
            waiting for an answer for a long time.)
        (107) I wish they would change the menu. (I'm tired of
            eating sausages.)
        (108) I wish they would stop making bombs.

     But the speaker is normally not very hopeful that the change
     will take place, and often, as in the third example above, has
     no hope at all.

     As in B above, wish + subject + would here is restricted to
     actions where change is possible, and wish and would cannot
     have the same subject.

     When there is personal subject, the action is in the subject's
     control and the idea of willingness / unwillingness is still
     present, but wish + subject + would here can sometimes be
     used with inanimate subjects:

        (109) I wish it would stop raining.
        (110) I wish the sun would come out.
        (111) I wish prices would come down.
        (112) I wish the train would come.

C- Wish + subject + would here is rather like would like, but
  would like is not restricted to actions where change is possible
  and does not imply dissatisfaction with the present situation.
  Also would like construction does not imply any lack of hope:
       (113) I would like hack to study art. (I want him to study
           art\ I hope he will study art.)
       (114) I wish Peter would study art. (Peter has presumably
           refused to do this.)

D- I wish you would is a possible request form. Here there is no
  feeling that the person addressed will refuse to perform the
  request, but there is often a feeling that this person is annoying
  or disappointing the speaker in some way: I wish you would help
  me often implies `You should have offered to help me`, and I
  wish you would stop humming / interrupting / asking silly


                               (18)
     questions would imply that the speaker was irritated by the
     noise/ the interruptions/ the silly questions.
     However, the expression I wish you would, can be used in
     answer to an offer or help, and does not then imply any
     dissatisfaction:
           (115) Shall I help you check the accounts?~ I wish you
               would. (I would be glad of your help.)
     One can also use wish with would and other modal verbs to
     express refusal combined with regret. It is important to note
     that although we use past modal forms, the reference is to the
     present and future, here, not to the past:

           (116) I wish it would stop raining, but it just carries on. It's
               been raining for days.
           (117) Don't you wish this holiday might last forever? We've
               been having such a marvelous time!
           (118) I wish I could give up smoking, but I can't.
           (119) I wish those two would shut up. They've been arguing
               like that for hours.
           (120) Everybody wishes he would stay away from June, but
               he won't.

     It is noted that to express regret about something which
     happened in the past, we can use wish with could have + past
     participle:
           (121) I wish we could have seen the match live, but we just
                couldn't get tickets.
           (122) I wish my dad could have been here to see me play,
                but he couldn't leave my mum.
  E- If only + would can replace wish + would in B and C above. It
     cannot be used for requests as in D.
     If only is more dramatic than wish: If only he would join our
     party!
Thomson and Martinet, 1986/1991: 261-262

     Under the title (the subjunctive) Thomson and Martinet
1986/1991:253, argue that the present subjunctive is used in certain
exclamations to express a wish or hope, very often involving
supernatural powers:

                                   (19)
           (123) (God) bless you!
           (124) Heaven help us!
           (125) God Save the Queen!
           (126) Come what may, we'll stand by you!

      The present subjunctive is sometimes used in poetry, either to
express a wish or in clauses of condition or concession:
STEVENSON: Fair the day shine as it shone in my childhood. (May
the day shine / I hope it will shine.)
SHAKESPEARE: If this be error, and upon me proved…(if this is an
error)
BRON: Though the heart be still as loving… (Though the heart is)

      On the other hand when we are not making requests, but merely
talking about our wishes, we can use either would like or want in
affirmative, interrogative or negative. There is no difference in
meaning, though I want usually sounds more confident than I would
like.
and I want is not normally used for unrealizable wishes:
           (127) I would like to live on Mars.

One can use wish and if only + past simple to express a wish for
something to be different than it actually is:
          (128) If only I could lose some weight. Then I'd be able to
               wear this dress.
          (129) If only I had more free time. I'm sure I'd be less
               stressed and more cheerful.
          (130) I wish I were younger. I'd love to be able to play
               tennis like Roger Federer.
          (131) I wish you could drive. Then I wouldn't need to be
               your personal chauffeur.

Note that one also use wish and if only with the past perfect to
express a regret about the past, a wish that something might have been
different:

           (132) I wish I'd had more children. Then I wouldn't be so
               lonely now.


                                 (20)
           (133) I wish you'd told me you felt lonely. You could've
               spent the summer with me.

It is important to mention that the shortened forms of I'd had and
you'd told in the above examples are abbreviations of the past
perfect:

           (134) I wish I had had more children. Then I wouldn't be so
               lonely now.
           (135) I wish you had told me you felt lonely. You could've
               spent the summer with me.

Wish is also used in some fixed expressions:

           (136) I/we wish you a Merry Christmas (and a Happy New
               Year).
           (137) I/we wish you well/all the best.

Thomson and Martinet, 1986/1991:253

2.4 Means of expressing hope in grammar:

2.4.1. HOPE

      Leech and Svartvik 1989:70, illustrate Hope with verbs which
refer to a state of mind or feeling; those verbs often cannot be used
with the progressive at all because the notion of 'something in
progress' cannot be easily implied to them. These verbs may be
labeled 'non-progressive' but there is an exceptional case of the
progressive with Hope which is to express greater tentativeness and
tact:
            (138) I am hoping you will support us.
They argue that the simple present tense is used for the future in
certain types of subordinate clauses, especially adverbial time clauses,
conditional clauses and that – clauses following hope, assume,
suppose, etc. can contain a verb in the present tense referring to the
future:
            (139) I hope the train isn't / won't be late.
Ibid.: 139.

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It is possible that that- clause be replaced by so (in an appositive
clause) or not (in a negative clause):
            (140) I hope so / not
Leech and Svartvik, 1989: 300-301

      Jespersen 1931:21, points out that the present tense may be used
in speaking of some future time. This was the regular practice in O.E.,
even in connexions where it would seem necessary to express the
distinction between present and future.
      In using the present tense in speaking of future events one
disregards, as it were, the uncertainty always connected with
prophesying, and speaks of something, not indeed as really taking
place now, but simply as certain.
      Generally some tolerably definite time is either expressly
indicated in the sentence itself or clearly implied by the context or
situation.
      In colloquial English the present tense is pretty common after
Hope, when an immediate future is implied:
            (141) I hope she plays one of Mozart's sonatas.

     This may be compared with the use of the present tense =
present time, and of the perfect, after Hope:
           (142) I hope baby is already asleep
           (143) I hope he has paid this bill.

 (That it will turn out later that the baby is now asleep or that he has
now paid.)
Ibid.: 23

      Jespersen 1931, continues to point out that the pluperfect is the
tense – phrase formed by the help of the preterite of the auxiliary had
and the second participle. It primarily serves to denote before – past
time or a retrospective past – two things which stand in the same
relation to each other as the preterite and the perfect, but which cannot
easily be kept apart.
Ibid.: 81



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      The pluperfect had hoped does not always refer to the before –
past time, but often is temporally the same as the preterite hoped; only
it implies that the (past) hope was not fulfilled:
            (144) We had hoped he would recover. (but he did not)

     If we say "we hoped he would recover" we leave the question
open whether he recovered or not.
          (145) I had hoped to hear that things were all smooth and
              pleasant again.

This had hoped may be followed by the perfect infinitive:
          (146) I had hoped to have seen you at our house.
          (147) I have hoped to have seen you and Clara pull
              together.

The pluperfect in speaking indefinitely of the past:
          (148) I hadn't expected that.

The use of could have hoped instead of the impossible had could
hope:
           (149) If I could have hoped that Steerforth was there, I
               would have lurked about until he came out alone.
Jespersen ,1931: 84
      He figures out that after verbs and other expressions which
naturally have reference to futurity the present infinitive may with
some right be said to take the place of the missing future infinitive:
           (150) I hope to come
Ibid.: 85-86

2.4.2. Expanded Forms of Hope:

      Expanded forms of hope (and synonyms) are not at all rare in
recent times:
           (151) I 'm hoping that he'll come with us.
Some mixed examples:
           (152) I know you want me ill. You're wishing me to be ill
               now… you want me to die
           (153) She hopes I'll go away. She's praying that I will.
Ibid.: 223

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2.4.3. Hope and May

      Jespersen,1931:86, also mentions that the present tense of May
often serves to denote possibility, permission, etc. in the present time
and it is chiefly used in formal or slightly formal language, in clauses
like the following:
             (154) I hope that you may arrive safely
             (155) I hope that I may never kill him
             (156) I hope he won't come!

      In these cases Jespersen (1931/1970:86) argues, we might say
that May keeps its value of expressing present possibility and that the
infinitive following it has acquired the meaning of futurity; but it is
more natural to say that it is the auxiliary May that denotes futurity. A
similar remark applies even more strongly to the present tenses of will
and shall, but the future of them is often shifted on to such a verb as
hope and expect, because it is impossible to say" I hope to shall see":

      I shall hope to see you when we return to town really means a
present hope of a future visit. Thus also:
           (157) We will hope, at some future period, to enjoy many
                returns of that delightful intercourse.
           (158) Shall I hope to see you at Carlyle's lecture on
                Monday?
Ibid.: 86

      Jespersen also adds that when there is no infinitive following,
the same use of shall hope is rare:
           (159) I do wish…so shall hope your virtues will bring him
               to his wonted way again.

      The imaginative character of an infinitive as Jespersen shows is
most often indicated by the use of the perfect. An imaginative perfect
infinitive is frequent after a verb meaning will, intention, expectation
or hope in the past, where it generally serves to denote that the
intention was not carried into effect:
             (160) I hoped to have asked you some day to rejoin us here.


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           (161) I had hoped to have seen you and Clara pull
               together.
Jespersen,1931: 88

     Schibsbye ,1965/1970:75, illustrates Hope with verbs that can
be combined only with infinitive:
          (162) I hope to see him soon.

     He explains that hope, the preterite + perfect infinitive is
sometimes replaced by the pluperfect + infinitive: I hoped to have
given you the money this morning becomes I had hoped to give you
the money this morning, or a mixture of the two expressions: I had
hoped to have given you the money.

2.4.4. Hope and So:

      Schibsbye continues his argument about Hope referring to So as
the object of a number of verbs like Hope and in which So is used to
represent a subject + its predicate:
            (163) 'Will you be back before dark?', ' I hope so, yes.'
Schibsbye ,1965/1970: 215

      Thomson and Martinet, 1986/1991:85, shade the light on Hope
pointing out that a relative clause is replaced by an infinitive or a
participle and one of its cases is when a verb in the clause expresses a
hope:
            (164) Fans who hope / hoped for glimpse of the star =
                Fans hoping for a glimpse of the star.

       Thomson and Martinet also list the verb hope under the table of
the most useful verbs which can be followed directly by the infinitive,
illustrating that an infinitive can be represented by to alone to avoid
repetition. This is chiefly done after hope:
            (165) He hoped to go but he wasn't able to.
Ibid.: 214,221

     Thomson and Martinet also show that the continuous infinitive
can be used after hope :


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         (166) I hope / hoped to be earning my living in a year's
             time =
               I hope I will / I hoped I would be earning etc.
Thomson and Martinet, 1986/1991: 225

      Perfect infinitive is possible but less usual with hope:
           (167) He hopes to have finished by June = He will have
                finished by June.
Ibid: 227

      Thomson and Martinet explain that that – clause can be placed
after a large number of abstract nouns. Hope is the most useful of
these nouns.
(Ibid.: 304)

Thomson and Martinet listed hope as one of the verbs that are possible
after that – clauses:
            (168) I hope that you agree with me.

Finally they point out that So and Not can be used after hope:
           (169) Is Peter coming with us? ~ I hope so.
Ibid.: 306

2.5. The Differences between Wish and Hope

     The main differences between wish and hope are stated in the
following :

      The verb wish is used in different ways and hope cannot be used
as a 'stand alone' verb in a sentence, other than in the expressions 'I
hope so' or 'I hope not.'

2.5.1. WISH

      In wishing someone a Merry Christmas, or when one wish
another good luck or Happy Birthday, one expresses the hope that
they will have good luck in the future, often in connection with a
particular event, or that they will enjoy their birthday which is to
come. Thus we have expressions like:

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           (170) I wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New
               Year.
           (171) Remember it's Sarah's birthday tomorrow. Don't
               forget to wish her many happy returns.
           (172) They wished me all the best in my new job.'
           (173) I wish you good health and every happiness in the
               New Millennium

      As suggested above, wish is also used when one wishes that
something is the case or will be the case even though one knows that it
is impossible or unlikely. In this sense, the verb which follows wish
has a past tense inflection. Thus we have:
            (174) We wish you could be here.
            (175) He wished he hadn't said that, for Fiona was terribly
                upset.
            (176) It rained every day. I do wish I hadn't gone there for
                my holidays.
            (177) I wish you didn't have to work so hard.


Wish, as in 'wish to', is also sometimes used as a slightly more formal
alternative to 'want to'. So we have:
            (178) They were very much in love and wished to get
                 married as soon as it could be arranged.
            (179) I don't wish to see him ever again,' she said, five
                 months after they were married.
            (180) He could do most of his work from home, if he
                 wished.
            (181) I don't wish to interrupt (your conversation), but the
                 potatoes are burning dry.
            (182) I don't wish to be rude, but that red dress really
                 doesn't suit you.

2.5.3. HOPE

     As for hope, one speaks of people's 'hopes for the future' and
hope normally signals future intentions. If one hopes to do something,
one wants to do it and intends to do it if one possibly can.


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        Like wish, it can be used with to, plus infinitive. So we might
have:
             (183) I hope to be a millionaire by the time I'm thirty.
             (184) I was hoping to catch the 5.30 train and would have
                 caught it, if Jennifer hadn't phoned.

     However, when a new subject is introduced, hope must be
followed by a clausal construction. Thus, we would find:
          (185) I hope (that) she'll like these flowers.
          (186) Her mother hoped (that) Judith would become a
               doctor, but her heart was always set on the stage.
          (187) I hope (that) you won't think me rude, but that red
               dress that you're wearing definitely doesn't suit you.
          (188) They were stranded on the side of the mountain and
               hoped (that) the rescue team would reach them before
               nightfall.




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