PY101: Concept Sheet: Psychology of Learning
Learning Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
Pavlovian/Classical Conditioning/ Reinforcement Contingencies
Unconditioned Association (primary) Rate of Response
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Cumulative Record
Unconditioned Response (UCR) Acquisition
Neutral Stimulus Shaping
Conditioned Association Extinction
Condition Stimulus Reinforcement Schedules
Conditioned "Psychic" Reflex Continuous/Intermittent
Acquisition Ratio Schedules
Trial Fixed Ratio
Conditioned Emotional Response Variable Ratio
S-R bond Strength Interval Schedule
Extinction Fixed interval
Temporal Contiguity Variable Interval
Spontaneous Recovery Positive/Negative Reinforcement
Stimulus Generalization Punishment
Stimulus Discrimination Observational Learning (Bandura)
Higher Order Conditioning models
1. What is learning? Give some common examples.
2. What did Pavlov show regarding learned behavior in classical conditioning?
3. Explain why Pavlov called the CR a "psychic reflex". Why was this simple finding powerful?
4. Understand the difference between the UCR, UCS, CS, CR and Neutral Stimulus (NS).
5. Why are many fears called conditioned emotional responses? Can you identify other CERs?
6. How does temporal contiguity and stimulus strength relate to the strength of S-R bonds?
7. What is the relationship between extinction and spontaneous recovery?
8. What is Stimulus Generalization and how does it relate to "Little Albert"?
9. What is Stimulus Discrimination and how does it related to my dog Grady?
10. What is Higher Order conditioning. Give an example from class.
11. What is operant conditioning and how does it differ from classical conditioning, and how does the
concept of "reinforcement" fit into your explanation?
12. What types of conditions strengthen (reinforce) behaviors?
13. What is the difference between interval and ratio reinforcement schedules? What are the 2 variations
in each of these schedules? Describe their characteristics reinforcement patterns.
14. Differentiate 2 kinds of reinforcement? Define each clearly.
15. What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment? Define each completely.
16. What are 3 problems with punishment and rules for effective application if utilized?