(Q) what activity is done in Acceptance Testing, which is not done by 397731

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									(Q) what activity is done in Acceptance Testing, which is not done in System testing
to ensure the Customer requirements?


Ans:-


Main objective of both system and acceptance testing is ensure all the functionalities and
requirement are implemented correctly or not. In Acceptance testing real time test data is
used, usually acceptance testing is done by client or clients representative. Here client will
check the all functionalities. But in System testing - project team and testing team should do
testing. Here we have to do all system testing like load, stress, performance etc. - Its not
mandatory that we have to use real time data again its depends on the type of application.


a) Acceptance test is executed by users where as system test is executed by the testers.
b) Acceptance test is the responsibility of the client and is a final check point to accept or
reject the software.
c) Acceptance testing involves the actual production environment where as system testing
simulates the production environment


d) Acceptance testing involves testing the acceptance test criteria mentioned in the
Acceptance test plan and verifying that the product meets those criteria where as system test
involves testing the entire system and verifying the performance as a whole.
e) System test is carried out when the entire system is ready where as acceptance tests can
be carried out at pre - defined intervals.




(Q) Write standards for test plan, test script, test report.


Ans:-


Test Plan (Make this in table format)




    1. Preface
    2. Executive Summary
    3. Introduction of the Project
    4. Organization of Document
    5. Test Organization
    6. Test Techniques
    7. Test Tools
    8. Acceptance Criteria
    9. Glossary
Test Script


    1. Date of Test Conducted
    2. Type of Test Conducted
    3. Serial Number
    4. Statement to Execute
    5. Expected Result
    6. Actual Result
    7. Remark




Test Report


    1. Name of the Project
    2. Name of the Module/Subsystem
    3. Type of the Testing
    4. In the Heading Present the total number of Defects
    5. Graphical Analysis of Test Result visa Histogram or so….




(Q) Characteristics of Good Test Cases (TC) are?


Ans:-


a) A good test case has a high probability of finding errors.


b) It is traceable to the requirements.


c) It has all the characteristics of a good requirement. i.e., it is clear, correct and
unambiguous.


d) It should be repeatable




(Q) Differentiate between verification and validation.


Ans:-
S no.                        Verification                                                     Validation

 1.     Verification is a static testing procedure.               Validation is dynamic testing procedure.

 2.     It involves verifying the requirements, detailed design   Validation involves actual testing of the product as per the test
        documents, test plans, walkthroughs and inspections       plan (unit test, integration test, system test and acceptance test
        of various documents produced                             etc).
        during the development and testing process.

 3.     It is a preventive procedure.                             It is a corrective procedure.




 4.     Are we building the product RIGHT?                        Are we building the RIGHT product?

 5.     It involves more then two to three persons and is a       It involves the testers and sometimes user.
        group activity.

 6.     It is also called Human testing, since it involves        It is also called Computer testing, since errors are found out by
        finding the errors by persons participating in a review   testing the software on a computer.
        or walk through.

 7.     Verification occurs on Requirements, Design and           Validation occurs only on code and the executable application.
        code.



 8.     Verification is made both in the Executable and Non       Validation is done only on Executable forms of a work product.
        Executable forms of a work product



 9.     Verification finds errors early in the requirement &      Validation finds errors only during the testing stage and hence
        design phase and hence reduces the cost of errors.        cost of errors reduced is less than Verification.




 10.    An effective tool for verification tool is a Checklist.   Various manual and automated test tools are available for
                                                                  Validation.


 11.    It requires cooperation and scheduling of meetings        It is to check that the product satisfies the requirements and is
        and discussions.
                                                                  accepted by the user.




 12.    Verification tasks include:                               Validation tasks include:
S no.                          Verification                                               Validation

        1) Planning 2) Execution                               1) Planning 2) Test ware Development


                                                               3) Test Execution 4) Test ware Maintenance

 13.    Verification activities include: 1) Requirements       Validation activities include:
        Verification
                                                               1) Unit testing 2) Usability testing
        2) Functional design verification 3) Internal Design
        Verification                                           3) Function testing 4) System testing 5) Acceptance testing


        4) Code Verification

 14.    Verification deliverables (work products) are:         Validation deliverables are:


        1) Verification test plan                              1) Test plan 2) Test Design Specification


        2) Inspection report                                   3) Test Case Specification 4) Test Procedure Specification


        3) Verification test report                            5) Test log 6) Test incident report




Functional testing Techniques (Some examples)




Boundary Value Analysis: Testing the edge conditions of boundaries


Equivalence Partitioning: Grouping test cases into classes in which executing one test cases
is equivalent to executing any other test cases in the same group


Cause Effect Graphing: When the behavior of the unit under test is specified as cause and
effect. Design test cases that validate this relationship.


Structural test Cases Techniques

Statement Coverage: Identify Test cases such that every line of code is executed in one test
case or other.


Branch Coverage: Identify Test cases such that every branch of code is executed in one test
case or other. 100% Branch Coverage automatically assures 100% Statement Coverage.
Condition Coverage: Identify Test cases such that condition in each predicate _expression is
evaluated in all possible ways.


Modified Condition-Decision Coverage: Identify Test cases such that each Boolean
operand can independently affect the outcome of a decision.




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(Q) Difference Between QA & QC?


Ans:-


                                    Quality Control                                       Quality Assurance
                      QC is about checking at the end of some
                                                                      QA is about having an overall development and
                      development process (eg.- a design activity)
Definition                                                            management process that provides right environment for
                      that we have built quality in i.e. that we have
                                                                      ensuring quality of final product.
                      achieved the required quality with our methods.
                      QC is like testing a module against requirement QA gives us added assurance that the whole producing o
Description           specification or design document, measuring       checking process is properly planned and executed and
                      response time, throughput etc.                    thus maintaining high quality.
                      To check that the modern methods of software
                                                                        It gives us added assurance that the while producing /
                      development are largely designed to ensure
                                                                        checking process is being properly planned and executed
What id does          right quality is achieved. QC checks that these
                                                                        and hence is keeping high our chances of producing
                      methods are in place and to discover where
                                                                        software of required quality.
                      they are not then corrections are to be made.
                      Define features and levels Define feature check
                                                                        1. Determination of quality policy through Quality
                      procedure Carrying out the check
Stages                                                                  Management System 2. Checking that predetermined
                      procedure Record the result take and record
                                                                        Quality control activities are being properly taken care off.
                      any corrective action taken.
Best carried out on   QC is best carried out on products                QA is best carried out on process.
Phase of              QA should be done at end of every SDLC i.e.
                                                                        QC should take place at every stage of SDLC.
implementation        when product building is complete.
                                                                        Quality policy defined and generally implemented in the
                      Structured walkthrough, Fagan Techniques are
Technique                                                               form of Quality Management System is used to carry out
                      some of QC techniques.
                                                                        QA.




(Q) Difference between structural v/s functional testing?


Ans:-
    1. Structural analysis based test sets tend to uncover errors that occur during "coding" of
        the program. While functional analysis based test set tend to uncover error that occur
        in implementing requirement or design specification
    2. Functional testing ensures that the requirements are properly satisfied by the
        application system. The functions are those tasks that the system is design to
        accomplish.
    3. Functional testing is not concerned with how processing occurs, but rather with the
        results of processing
    4. Structural analysis used primarily during the coding phase.




(Q) what is software quality? What are the characteristics of software quality?


Ans:


Quality is frequently defined as meeting the customer's requirement the first and every time.


Characteristics: -


    1. Transcendent – I know when I see it
    2. Product based – possess desired feature
    3. User based – fitness for use
    4. Development and manufacturing based – conforms to requirement
    5. Value based – at an acceptable cost




(Q) what is test strategy? List the four components of a good test strategy?


Ans78: A test strategy is a statement of the overall approach to testing, identifying what
levels of testing are to be applied and the method, techniques and tool to be used.


a) Critical success factor


b) Risk analysis


c) Assumptions


d) Methodology to be followed




(Q) what is software configuration management? List the configuration items?
Ans:- Configuration management / control are a systematic way of controlling the changes to
the software items.


Items:-


   1. All types of plans (project, test etc.)
   2. S/w code
   3. Test scripts & test cases documents
   4. Defect log
   5. Test reports
   6. User documentation

								
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