orange research 2002 reading for pleasure by 1PHef8h0

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									THE READING HABITS
OF INDIVIDUALS
& COUPLES

Report on a
Panel Study

Volume 1 - Text




Prepared for:
Orange


Prepared by:

Book Marketing Limited
2-4 Idol Lane, London EC3R 5DD
Tel: 020 7398 0705 Fax: 020 7626 3660
E-mail: bml@bookmarketing.co.uk




(c) Book Marketing Limited, May 2002


CONTENTS

Page number
SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION

     1.1   Research aims    1
     1.2   Reading coverage     1
    1.3     Research methodology       1
    1.4     The sample       3
    1.5     This report      4


SECTION 2 SUMMARY       5


PART A INITIAL INTERVIEWS

SECTION 3

    3.1     General reading: individuals     8
    3.2     Time spent reading: individuals    10
    3.3     Reading variations by day: individuals 12
    3.4     General reading: couples 14
    3.5     Time spent reading: couples   15
    3.6     Time and place of reading books: individuals 16
    3.7     Time and place of reading newspapers: individuals 18
    3.8     Time and place of reading magazines: individuals 19
    3.9     Time and place of using Internet: individuals      21
    3.10    Time and place of reading books: couples      22
    3.11    Time and place of reading newspapers: couples      23
    3.12    Time and place of reading magazines: couples 24
    3.13         Time and place of using Internet: couples     24
    3.14    Number of fiction/non-fiction books read per month      25
    3.15    Uncompleted books   27


SECTION 4

    4.1     Book choice: individuals 28
    4.2     Book choice: couples     29
    4.3     Partner's influence on choice of reading material 30
    4.4     Respondent's influence on partner's choice of
                    reading material 31
    4.5     Partner influence: couples    31




Page number

SECTION 5

    5.1     Book source: individuals 32
    5.2     Book source: couples     33


SECTION 6 PRESSS READERSHIP
     6.1     Daily newspaper readership      34
     6.2     Sunday newspaper readership     35
     6.3     Magazine readership 36


SECTION 7 PREFERRED CHOICE OF READING MATERIAL        38



PART B 3-MONTH PANEL


SECTION 8 GENERAL READING

     8.1     General reading: individuals 40
     8.2     Time spent reading: individuals    41
     8.3     Reading variations by day: individuals   43
     8.4     General reading: couples 45
     8.5     Time spent reading: couples   46


SECTION 9 NUMBERS OF BOOKS STARTED

     9.1     New books started in the period overall: individuals   47
     9.2     New books started, by genre: individuals     48
     9.3     Time taken to read books 49
     9.4     New books started: couples    49



SECTION 10       PARTNER INFLUENCE ON BOOK CHOICE     50


SECTION 11       PRESS READING

     11.1 Numbers of newspapers       51
     11.2 Numbers of magazines        52




Page number

PART C FINAL INTERVIEWS


SECTION 12       REACTIONS TO READING TIME
          12.1 Overall time spent reading        53   12.2 Time spent reading
particular materials     54


SECTION 13      PARTNER INFLUENCE ON CHOICE OF
                    FICTION/NON-FICTION 55


SECTION 14      READING OF MATERIALS LEFT BY PARTNER       56


APPENDICES
     A     INITIAL QUESTIONNAIRE    i
     B     DIARY PAGE     vii
     C     FINAL QUESTIONNAIRE viii


1     INTRODUCTION

1.1   Research aims

In the run-up to the 2002 Orange Prize for Fiction, Book Marketing Limited was
commissioned to undertake a study to investigate how much time people spend
reading for pleasure/leisure, and how this varies between partners.

Arising from this were the following more detailed information objectives, to
investigate and establish:

i    how much time people think they spend on different reading activities, and
how this varies across the week
ii   where and when reading tends to take place
iii how much influence the respondent's partner has on their reading material,
and what are the main influences on this
iv   how much time people actually record they spend on reading different types
of material, on a daily basis over a 3-month period.



1.2   Reading coverage

The intention was to cover all reading done for pleasure, to include both
traditional printed materials (books, newspapers, magazines) and electronic
media (e-books, online newspapers, online information/materials).

We excluded letters (postal, e-mails) and reading to other people (whether
children or adults), as well as reading for work or educational purposes. Also
excluded were audiotapes.


1.3   Research methodology
The research was undertaken by:

i    recruiting a panel of adult couples
ii   obtaining initial information from each individual about their reading
habits
iii getting each adult to keep a diary of their reading (and related
information) over a three-month period (with the diaries collected at monthly
intervals)
iv   conducting a final interview with each individual.



Each couple was given a small cash incentive to sign on, and those that returned
their dairies were entered in a prize draw for that month.

The couples were recruited to be representative of all adult couples living in
Great Britain, insofar as this is possible given the panel size, covering
different ages, social grades, presence of children, geographical spread and
couple types (eg same sex2, married, living as married, etc)3. We recruited on
the basis that each person actually read for pleasure, but were not prescriptive
about what and how much they read.

The original intention was to have a panel of 100 couples, but to allow for
attrition over the 3-month period, 203 couples were recruited and interviewed
for the initial questionnaire. As expected, there was a fair degree of
attrition, especially in the first month, with the result that we achieved the
following numbers:


Number of couples

No
%
Initial interview
203
100
February diary
157
   77
March diary
136
   67
April diary
120
   59
Final interview
120
   59
Comparisons of the demographic and reading profiles (as determined in the
initial interview) of the initial sample and the sample achieved for the
February diary show no significant variations.

We have therefore weighted, the diary data for February, March and April back to
the original sample, to counteract the demographic variations for each month.


1.4   The sample

The initial and final samples of couples were structured as follows:


Initial
Final

No
%
No
%
All couples
203
100
120
100




Mixed sex couples
173
  85
104
  87
Same sex couples
  30
  15
  16
  13
of which:
male
  16
     8
  8
     7

female
  14
     7
  8
       6




AB
     37
     18
     23
     19
C1
     73
     36
     45
     38
C2
     65
     32
     34
     28
DE
     28
     14
     18
     12




London/SE
   40
   20
   26
   22
South/South West
   32
   16
   21
   18
Total South
72
35
   47
   39
East Anglia/East Midlands
   24
   12
   14
   12
West Midlands
   29
   14
   15
   13
Wales
   12
      6
      7
      6
Total Midlands
65
32
   36
   30
North West
   22
   11
   12
   10
Yorkshire & Humberside
   18
      9
   10
      8
North East
   12
      6
      7
      6
Scotland
   14
      7
      8
      7
Total North
66
33
   37
   31



This in turn led to the initial and final samples of adults as follows:


Initial
Final

No
%
No
%
All couples
406
100
240
100




Male
205
50
120
   50
Female
201
50
120
   50




16-34
115
28
   64
27
35-44
120
30
   68
28
45-54
   77
19
   46
19
55+
   94
23
   62
26
Working Full Time
201
50
112
   47
Working Part Time
   80
20
   47
   20
Retired
   49
12
   32
   13
Not working
   71
17
   45
   19
Student
      5
      1
      4
      2


From both the above tables it would seem that to a very great extent the initial
and final samples match demographically.


1.5   This report

This report provides information covering the entire study, but does not aim to
provide full detail of the huge amount of information obtained through the
course of this study, but rather concentrates on the major themes.

Although some of the variations according to demographics are indicated within
the main text, the specific data for those variations (with the exception of the
differences between the sexes) are generally only shown in the main tables,
which are shown in Volume 2.

BML can provide further information and analyses if required.

SECTION 2 SUMMARY

This summary does not attempt to prÇcis all the data available, but provides
edited highlights of the main findings.
_
On average people spend 6 hours a week reading for pleasure/entertainment -
equivalent to about 3 years in their total lifetime.


_
Men spend slightly more time reading (about 5%) than women, but this is because
they spent far more time reading printed newspapers and electronic information.
Women are more avaricious book readers, particularly of fiction. Over a quarter
of women's reading is devoted to fiction, compared to one sixth for men.


_
People in the South read nearly an hour a week more than those in other parts of
Britain, and this extends to all forms of printed materials - though Southerners
also read electronic forms rather less.


_
The heaviest readers overall are those aged 55 or over, with a weekly time of at
least one hour more than younger people.


_
Nearly half of all reading time takes place at the weekend.


_
Where both partners read fiction, the total time per week spent reading it in
the household is nearly 6 hours, compared to an average of 2 hours where only
one partner reads this type of material. This is the only type where the fact
that both partners read increases the length of time spent reading it.


_
Those 60% of adults who read fiction/non-fiction at all have started 7 new books
over the 3-month period, so that we estimate that these people read about 30
books a year. For men the figure is about 24, and for women about 35.


_
Those in the South start the most books (c35 pa), compared to c22 in the
Midlands and c30 in the North.


_
Two thirds of all books started are read by women, though this rises to over 70%
for fiction, and falls to under half for non-fiction.
_
Of the new books started, three-quarters are fiction. Over 80% of new books
started by women are fiction, whereas for men this figure is nearer 60%.


_
A fiction book takes about 5 hours to read on average, whereas a non-fiction
book takes 71/4 hours.




_
In the 3 month period, 1600 books were started, but in only 32% of all cases was
the same book started by both partners.


_
30% of readers say they never start a book and not finish it, and on average one
in eight books are started then abandoned. Men (10%) are less likely to do this
than women (15%).


_
The partner is usually not considered to have influenced the book selection in
any way. However, one third of fiction books started by men were influenced a
little by their (usually female) partner, compared to one in four fiction books
started by women.


_
For non-fiction, the situation was reversed, with women being more influenced
(37%) by their partner than were men (29%).


_
In fact, this relative lack of interest extents to reference books and printed
newspapers and magazines, with two-thirds-three-quarters saying their partner
has no influence on their choice.

Even where there is some influence, it is held to be minor rather than major.


_
In fact, when considering the last book started, the recommendation of a
friend/relative was the most common influence mentioned, well ahead of a
recommendation by their partner: indeed 2 or 3 times as many people gave the
former rather than the latter reason, and the influence of the bookshop was just
as great as that of the partner.
_
Reading in bed/last thing at night is the most common location and time for
reading fiction or non-fiction, regardless of the day of the week, though one in
five people working full time mostly read while commuting or in breaks at work.


_
It appears that more people look (however briefly) at a newspaper on a Friday
than on any other day of the week, but the average number of pares looked at
varies little by the day of the week (from 1.2 on Tuesday or Wednesday) to 1.4
on Thursday and Sunday).


_
Only at the weekends to the majority of people look at a magazine at all, with
the average number varying from 1.2 (Monday/Tuesday) to 1.3 (all other days).


_



_
Very few people admit to reading things they would not otherwise read just
because their partner has left them lying around.

However, 12% of men say this is true of magazines, with 4% mentioning fiction.
As far as women are concerned, 8% say this applies to fiction, 5% to each of
non-fiction and reference books, and only 1% say it is true for magazines.


_
The majority (56%) of people say that if they could only have one of the various
types of reading material, they would choose books, with 27% opting for
newspapers, 12% for magazines and 6% for the Internet.


_
Women were more strongly in favour of books than were men (68% and 44%
respectively), and in all demographic groups books were the clear favourite.

Indeed, even 20% of those who say they do not read books would choose that
material above all others (while preferring newspapers overall).




PART A    INITIAL INTERVIEWS
SECTION 3 GENERAL READING

3.1     General reading: individuals4

Table 3.1 show the number of people who ever read the various materials, and as
can be seen virtually everyone reads printed newspapers at least occasionally
(and three out of four read printed magazines), while only a very small number
actually read online newspapers or journals).

One in eight respondents does not read on holiday at all, and it is clear that
quite a few change their reading habits quite substantially when on holiday.

Only with fiction books do more people read on holiday (52%) than at home (44%),
and indeed one in six people reads fiction on holiday but not at home.


Table 3.1 Percentage individuals reading different materials at all




At all
Only

Any
Both
Home
Hol
Home
Hol
Base:
406
406
406
406
406
406

%
%
%
%
%
%
Fiction books
61
35
44
52
   9
18
Non-fiction books
36
15
31
20
16
   6
Reference books
48
   9
45
12
36
   3
Any books
82
55
74
63
19
   7
Printed newspapers
96
64
94
66
30
   3
Printed magazines
74
38
64
49
25
12
Any printed press
99
74
98
75
24
   1
Online press
   9
   1
   7
   2
   7
   2
Internet
35
     4
34
     5
30
   2
Any computer
37
   4
37
   6
32
   1
Teletext/Ceefax
33
   4
33
   6
29
   2




Any
100
88
100
88
12
   0

Base: all


There are a number of demographic variations, including:

i    women are much more likely than men to read fiction, reference books and
magazines
ii   men are much more likely to use the Internet, and somewhat more likely to
read non-fiction, newspapers and Teletext/Ceefax
iii reading of non-fiction rises with age, while the reverse is true of
magazines
iv   use of the Internet is much lower among those aged 55 or over
v    ABs are particularly likely to read fiction and reference books, and
magazines, and to use the Internet
vi   people in full-time employment are the least likely to read books, but the
most likely to use the Internet: those in full or part-time employment are the
most likely to read books only on holiday
vii those living in the South of Britain are the most likely to use books and
to use electronic media.


3.2   Time spent reading: individuals5

On average, people spend just over 1 hour a day (=420 minutes per week) reading
any of these materials, with printed newspapers accounting for a third of this
time and fiction for a fifth (Table 3.2).

This table shows not just the average time spent reading over the week at home
and on holiday for all respondents, but also the time spent by those actually
reading particular materials. For example, while all respondents spend 90
minutes per week reading fiction, those who read fiction at all spend 205
minutes per week. In fact this table indicates that fiction is read more
intensively than any of the other materials.

Those who read at all on holiday spend on average twice as long reading as they
do when not on holiday, though this varies considerably by material. For
example, people spend far more time reading fiction, non-fiction and printed
magazines on holiday than they do at home, but spend far less time on the
Internet or looking at Teletext/Ceefax. there is no real difference when it
comes to reading printed newspapers.


Table 3.2 Time spent reading


Home (per week)
Holiday (per day x 7)
Base:
406
406
(a)
406
406
(b)

Mins
%
Mins
Mins
%
Mins
Fiction books
   90
21
205
300
46
575
Non-fiction books
   46
11
151
   70
11
350
Reference books
   23
   5
   51
   20
   3
145
Any books
159
37
213
390
60
615
Printed newspapers
149
35
159
150
23
225

Printed magazines
   45
10
   71
110
17
225
Any printed press
194
45
194
260
40
345
Online press
      5
   1
   61
      1
   *
   30
Internet
   55
13
161
      3
   *
   65
Any computer
   59
14
162
      4
   1
   70
Teletext/Ceefax
   17
   4
   52
      1
   *
   40




Total
429
100
429
650
100
750

(a) those reading relevant material at all at home
(b) those reading relevant material at all on holiday
* = less than 0.5%




Among the many demographic variations are the following:

i    while the average women spends nearly twice as long reading fiction as the
average man, there is little difference between the sexes when only fiction
readers are considered: men and women overall appear to spend similar amounts of
time reading, with men spending more time on electronic forms
ii   the over 55s and the retired spend the most time in a week on reading (81/2
hours and 91/2 hours respectively)
iii those in the South read about an hour a week more than other people.


3.3    Reading variations by day: individuals6

As can be seen from Table 3.3a, the percentage of people who read particular
materials stays constant across weekdays, and rises (in most cases) at the
weekend (especially Saturday). On any one day of the week, 92-97% will normally
read something - most commonly a newspaper.


Table 3.3a       Percentage reading materials each day


Mon
Tues
Wed
Thur
Fri
Sat
Sun

%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Fiction books
29
30
31
31
31
34
35
Non-fiction books
17
17
17
17
17
20
21
Reference books
19
16
15
17
18
27
22
Any books
50
48
48
50
50
55
56
Printed newspapers
73
72
74
75
74
83
79
Printed magazines
24
26
26
28
25
43
39
Any printed press
79
80
81
82
81
89
85
Online press
   2
   3
   4
   3
   3
   4
   4
Internet
21
20
20
18
23
23
22
Any computer
21
21
21
19
24
25
23
Teletext/Ceefax
20
20
21
20
22
27
24




Total
92
93
93
93
94
97
94

Base: all

There are no significant variation by demographic sub-group beyond the general
reading patterns established earlier.


When the average time   spent reading is considered, we find that not only do more
people read materials   at weekends, but they also tend to read for longer.
However, in this case   there is also longer reading of fiction, non-fiction and
printed newspapers on   Sundays than on Saturdays (Table 3.3b).


Table 3.3b        Average time spent reading each day


Mon
Tues
Wed
Thur
Fri
Sat
Sun

Mins
Mins
Mins
Mins
Mins
Mins
Mins
Fiction books
27
26
27
27
28
34
36
Non-fiction books
19
19
19
20
20
25
29
Reference books
   7
   6
   5
   6
   6
10
   9
Any books
21
20
20
21
21
27
29
Printed newspapers
20
20
20
20
20
27
31
Printed magazines
   7
   7
   8
10
   7
16
15
Any printed press
23
23
24
26
24
36
39
Online press
   5
   7
   8
   7
   6
15
12
Internet
23
20
19
19
24
28
29
Any computer
22
20
20
19
24
29
29
Teletext/Ceefax
   6
   6
   6
   6
   7
11
   9
Total
54
52
53
55
56
78
81

Base: all reading relevant material

3.4     General reading: couples7

Table 3.4 looks at how couples behave: for example, 34% of couples do not read
fiction at home at all, while in 44% of cases one of the two people is a fiction
reader and in the remaining 22% both partners are: on the other hand, when
holiday reading is taken into account too, in 41% of couples both partners read
fiction to some extent.

Perhaps not surprisingly, printed newspapers have the greatest commonality
across couples, with both partners reading them in over 90% of cases.


Table 3.4 Reading overall in general (home)



How many read in couple


Home
At all


None
One
Both
None
One
Both
Fiction books
%
34
44
22
18
41
41
Non-fiction books
%
51
37
12
45
38
17
Reference books
%
25
60
15
32
41
27
Any books
%
10
33
57
   4
29
67
Printed newspapers
%
   4
   5
91
   0
   8
92
Printed magazines
%
14
44
42
11
30
60
Any printed press
%
   2
   2
96
   0
   2
98
Online press
%
88
10
   2
86
11
   3
Internet
%
51
31
18
51
28
21
Any computer
%
47
32
21
49
27
24
Teletext/Ceefax
%
49
37
14
47
37
14

Base: all

We have examined these data on a day-by-day basis, and it appears that in
general the information shown in Table 3.4 holds across the different days
within the variations shown for individuals (Table 3.3a).


We have also examined the data in terms of demographic sub-groups (average age
of couple, social grade and location), and it appears that any variations there
are basically just reflect those for individuals.

3.5   Time spent reading: couples8

Table 3.5 shows the amount of time spent reading the various materials in those
households where they are read at all, and shows the difference between those
households where only one person reads that material and where both do.
If the reading habits of individuals were completely independent, we would
expect that the time spent reading in households with 2 readers of any material
would be (on average) about twice that where only one person does so. In fact,
as can be seen from Table 3.5, it would appear that with fiction and printed
newspapers there appears to be some encouragement between the partners, whereas
for all other materials this is not the case.


Table 3.5 Average time per household spent reading - over the week


Number reading


One
Two
Ratio

Mins
Mins
Two/One
Fiction books
170
475
2.8
Non-fiction books
410
505
1.2
Reference books
110
150
1.4
Any books
400
645
1.6
Printed newspapers
350
780
2.2
Printed magazines
170
225
1.3
Any printed press
440
930
2.1
Online press
180
215
1.2
Internet
430
540
1.3
Any computer
440
500
1.1
Teletext/Ceefax
125
170
1.4

Base: all

We have examined these data on a day-by-day basis, and it appears that the
ratios shown in Table 3.5 are basically maintained across the different days.

3.6   Time and place of reading books9: individuals10

The most common times that people read books11 are in bed/last thing at night
and in the evening at home, though at weekends the afternoon at home is also
very important (Table 3.6a). As can be seen from this table, a significant
minority of relevant readers do not actually read books on particular days of
the week, with over a fifth not doing so on Saturday or Sunday (and 10% not
doing so at all at the weekend).


Table 3.6a        Most common time & place of reading books


Mon-Fri
Sat
Sun

%
%
%
Commuting to/from work
   4
   *
   *
In breaks at work
10
   3
   3
In the morning - at home
11
14
16
In   the afternoon   - at home
13
20
21
In   the evening - at home
26
25
24
In   bed/last thing at night
39
31
33
In  the library
   *
   *
   -
Other
   1
   1
   1
Do not usually read on these days
16
23
22

* = less than 0.5%
Base: all reading fiction/non-fiction books in general

Women are much more likely than men to say they most commonly read in bed/last
thing at night, both during the week and at weekends, whereas men are somewhat
more likely than women to say they read most often in the morning/afternoon at
home.


As might be expected, there is a link between   working status and most common
time/place of reading during the week12, with   people working full time
concentrating their weekday reading mainly in   bed/last thing at night, with a
significant number reading while commuting or   in breaks at work (Table 3.6b).
Those without employment tend to spread their   reading out across the day at
home.


Table 3.6b    Most common time & place of reading books, by work status


Mon-Fri

FT
PT
Not
%
%
%
Commuting to/from work
   8
   2
   -
In breaks at work
14
12
   -
In the morning - at home
   5
   6
24
In the afternoon - at home
   7
14
21
In the evening - at home
30
14
28
In bed/last thing at night
37
47
37
In the library
   1
   0
   -
Other
   1
   2
   1
Do not usually read on these days
18
24
   7

* = less than 0.5%
Base: All reading fiction/non-fiction books in general


3.7   Time and place of reading newspapers: individuals13

Perhaps not surprisingly, newspapers tend to be read rather earlier in the day
than books, with very few people reading them in bed/last thing at night (Table
3.7a), though, also perhaps surprisingly, relatively few claim that their
commute to work is a major time to read newspaper.
It is noticeable how many people read their weekend newspapers mainly in the
morning.


Table 3.7a     Most common time & place of reading newspapers


Mon-Fri
Sat
Sun

%
%
%
Commuting to/from work
   3
   *
   -
In breaks at work
20
   6
   3
In the morning - at home
26
40
46
In the afternoon - at home
   9
21
22
In the evening - at home
35
27
23
In bed/last thing at night
   2
   2
   2
In the library
   1
   *
     *
Other
   1
   1
   *
Do not usually read on these days
11
11
15
* = less than 0.5%
Base: All reading newspapers in general


Again, the difference between those working and those not working is evident
during the week (Table 3.7b) - this also explains the sex differences.


      Table 3.7b    Most common time & place of reading newspapers,
by work status

Mon-Fri

FT
PT
Not

%
%
%
Commuting to/from work
   5
   *
   -
In breaks at work
33
14
   -
In the morning - at home
14
26
46
In the afternoon - at home
   5
10
17
In the evening - at home
36
39
30
In bed/last thing at night
   2
   4
   2
In the library
   2
   -
   -
Other
   1
   3
   2
Do not usually read on these days
13
12
   8

* = less than 0.5%
Base: All reading newspapers in general


3.8   Time and place of reading magazines: individuals14

There is a peak in magazine reading in the evening during the week, and in the
afternoon/evening at the weekend, with magazine readership less common at work
than newspaper reading (Table 3.8a).


Table 3.8a      Most common time & place of reading magazines


Mon-Fri
Sat
Sun

%
%
%
Commuting to/from work
  2
  *
  -

In breaks at work
10
   4
   2
In the morning - at home
11
16
16
In the afternoon - at home
16
23
22
In the evening - at home
33
33
27
In bed/last thing at night
11
   8
   9
In the library
   *
   -
   -
Other
   3
   2
   2
Do not usually read on these days
26
24
30

* = less than 0.5%
Base: All reading magazines in general


Again, the extent to which people works does appear to affect their reading of
magazines, with FT workers often reading at work, and PT workers reading in bed
(Table 3.8b).


    Table 3.8b Most common time & place of reading magazines,
by work status


Mon-Fri

FT
PT
Not

%
%
%
Commuting to/from work
   3
   -
   -
In breaks at work
16
   8
   -
In the morning - at home
   6
   8
22
In the afternoon - at home
   8
13
30
In the evening - at home
37
36
25
In bed/last thing at night
   6
26
   4
In the library
   1
   -
   -
Other
   3
   2
   4
Do not usually read on these days
31
24
21

* = less than 0.5%
Base: All reading magazines in general




3.9   Time and place of using Internet: individuals15

By far the most common time for using the Internet is in the evening at home,
though at weekends the afternoon is also popular (Table 3.9a).


Table 3.9a      Most common time & place of using Internet


Mon-Fri
Sat
Sun

%
%
%
At work, generally
15
   4
   3
In breaks at work
   9
   2
   2
In the morning - at home
   9
   8
   9
In the afternoon - at home
   7
19
20
In the evening - at home
54
44
41
In bed/last thing at night
   3
   1
   3
In the library
   1
   -
   -
Internet cafÇ (anytime)
   -
   1
   -
Other
   1
   1
   1
Do not usually use on these days
15
29
32

* = less than 0.5%
Base: All using Internet in general

Access to the Internet is clearly of great benefit to those in work -
particularly those in FT employment, though for all three groups the most common
time is the evening, at home (Table 3.9b).

      Table 3.9b    Most common time & place of using Internet,
by work status


Mon-Fri

FT
PT
Not
%
%
%
At work, generally
21
13
   -
In breaks at work
13
   -
   4
In the morning - at home
   5
9
24
In the afternoon - at home
   2
17
   8
In the evening - at home
49
61
72
In bed/last thing at night
   5
   -
   -
In the library
   -
   -
   -
Internet cafÇ (anytime)
   -
   -
   -
Other
   -
   -
   -
Do not usually use on these days
17
13
   8

* = less than 0.5%
Base: All using Internet in general

3.10 Time and place of reading books: couples
We have looked at the book reading habits during the week in terms of whether
respondents have the same opportunity in terms of time and place ie both
partners working16 or not working.

Although partners may read different book types, it is clear that where they
have similar working status they also tend to nominate similar times/places for
reading, but where one works and the other does not then during the week reading
is not so usually a joint activity (Table 3.10).


      Table 3.10    Extent of reading books at similar times: weekdays


Number working

0
1
2

%
%
%
Commuting to/from work
   -
   3
10
In breaks at work
   -
   9
18
In the morning - at home
23
14
   -
In the afternoon - at home
20
15
   4
In the evening - at home
27
22
22
In bed/last thing at night
30
31
56
In the library
   -
   -
   1
Other
    3
    2
    2




Same place/time
50
23
75
Different place/time
50
77
25

Base: all where both partners read fiction/non-fiction


When the   time/place data for couples are examined for the weekend, we find that
there is   a large minority (35%) of couples who read books at the same time, and
that the   actual figures are very similar to those shown in Table 3.6a for
Saturday   and Sunday.



3.11 Time and place of reading newspapers: couples

As with the analysis of book reading (3.10), we have looked at the newspaper
reading habits during the week in terms of whether respondents have the same
opportunity in terms of time and place ie both partners working17 or not
working.

As will be shown later (Section 6), in general not only do both partners in the
couple read newspapers, but also they tend to read the same titles.

The picture here is somewhat more confused, and this may be due to the fact that
quite frequently the two partners read the same newspaper, so that they are
forced to read it at different times (Table 3.11).


Table 3.11       Extent of reading newspapers at similar times: weekdays


Number working

0
1
2

%
%
%
Commuting to/from work
   -
   *
   5
In breaks at work
   -
10
13
In the morning - at home
66
36
14
In the afternoon - at home
17
10
   3
In the evening - at home
16
32
44
In bed/last thing at night
   *
   9
   2
In the library
   2
   6
   -
Other
   *
   2
   1




Same place/time
77
20
44
Different place/time
23
80
56

Base: all where both partners read newspapers
At weekends, it appears that the great majority (84%) of people do read
newspapers at the same time as their partners (this is obviously made simpler by
the fact that most of the weekend newspapers have several sections).


3.12 Time and place of reading magazines: couples

Again, we have looked at the magazine reading habits during the week in terms of
whether respondents have the same opportunity in terms of time and place ie both
partners working18 or not working.

Although in c40% of cases both partners in a couple read magazines in general,
it does appear that there is relatively little cross-over in terms of titles (as
will be shown later in Section 3.xyz), and there does not appear to be any
pattern within couples as to when magazines are read, either during the week or
at weekends.



3.13 Time and place of using the Internet

The time and place of using the Internet does not vary according to whether 1
person or both in a couple uses it, though clearly it does vary somewhat because
of access to the Internet at work.

3.14 Number of fiction/non-fiction books read per month19

While respondents, on average, claim to read about 11/2. books per month, those
who read fiction or non-fiction at all say they read 21/2 (Table 3.14a).

Women (79%) are both more likely to read books at all than men (60%), and are
also slightly more likely to read 4 or more books (14% to 8%).


Table 3.14a    Number of fiction/non-fiction books read per month


All
Readers20

%
%
None
31
   3
1
32
38
2
20
22
3
     9
15
4
     5
12
5+
     3
     9



Average
1.4
2.4



There does appear to be some correlation between the numbers of books read, in
that, as a generality, the more one partner reads the more the other does (Table
3.14b).


Table 3.14b    Number of fiction/non-fiction books read per month



Partner 1


0
1
2
3
4
5+

Base
43
69
45
22
12
12
Partner 2

No
No
No
No
No
No
None
80
28
36
   9
   3
2
2
1
62
   6
22
18
12
3
1
2
36
   8
   9
15
   2
1
1
3
15
   1
   2
   3
   3
2
4
4
8
   0
   0
   0
   2
3
3
5+
2
   0
   0
   0
   0
1
1
Partner 1

0
1/2
3-5+
Base
43
114
46
Partner 2
%
%
%
None
65
39
15
1-2
33
56
43
3-5+
   2
   4
41




3.15 Uncompleted books21

Respondents were   asked to estimate the percentage of books they would start and
then not finish,   and the average figure among people reading fiction or non-
fiction was 13%,   with some people claiming they do not finish the majority (up
to 70%) of their   books, while others say they finish them all (Table 3.15).

In fact, readers appear to divide fairly evenly between those who finish all
their books, those who finish 90-99% and those who finish less than 90%.


Table 3.15     Percentage of books not finished


%
0
30
1-5
23
6-10
16
11-15
   2
16-20
   6
21-25
   5
26-35
   4
36-45
   5
46-55
10
56-70
   *


Average %age
13

* = less than 0-5

Men (10%) claim to give up on a lower percentage of books than women (15)%22.

There    does not appear to be any correlation between partners in a couple in this
area:    for example, those who give up on a high percentage of books are as likely
to be    living with someone who gives up on a low percentage as someone who also
gives    up on a high percentage.


4       BOOK CHOICE

4.1     Book choice: individuals23

When asked what made them first consider the last books they had started (in
each of the three book categories), the importance of a recommendation is
clearly illustrated - especially a recommendation from a friend or (non-partner)
relation (Table 4.1). Apart from that, the importance of the bookshop (whether
through recommendation or just visibility) is also significant.

The table also indicates how relatively unimportant reviews or similar (in any
media) have been in the choice of these books.


Table 4.1 Why first consider last book started


Fiction
Non-Fiction
Reference
Recommended by:
%
%
%
friend/relation
39
27
22
partner
13
13
10
bookseller/shop
   7
   9
   4
work colleague
   3
   7
11
other in household
   2
   5
   4
by librarian
   2
   3
   3
broadcast media
   1
   5
   5
press media
   1
   6
   3
other
   4
   6
   5
Any recommended
72
81
67




Saw/heard:



shop
13
14
22
library
   4
   2
   7
radio/TV/film/video
   2
   -
   -




Any shop (recommend+ saw)
20
23
26




Favourite author
  6
  -
  -




Cannot recall
  3
  4
  5

* = less than 0.5%


There are significant differences between men and women in the choice of
fiction. Over half of women fiction readers cite the recommendation of a friend
or relation, compared to c20% of men. Men are more likely then women to say
their choice is influenced by their partner (17%: 10%) or through seeing it in a
shop (20%: 8%).

There are no really significant differences between the sexes for non-fiction or
reference books.


4.2   Book choice: couples24
We have looked at the influences in terms of how whether one or both partners
reads the book type, and as can be seen from Table 4.2, the main differences in
the two types of household (ie 1 or 2 readers of the relevant book type) is the
relative importance of the recommendation by a friend/relation vs the
recommendation of the partner.

Table 4.2 Book choice: couples


All
1
2
Fiction
%
%
%
recommended by friend/relation
39
55
31
recommended by partner
13
   1
20
  seen in shop
13
11
14




Non-fiction
%
%
%
recommended by friend/relation
27
41
12
recommended by partner
13
   2
24
  seen in shop
14
12
16
Reference
%
%
%
recommended by friend/relation
22
35
12
recommended by partner
10
   1
18
  seen in shop
22
18
24

Base: all reading relevant book types at all (home/holiday)

4.3   Partner's influence on choice of reading material25

When asked what influence the feel that their partner has on their choice of
reading material in each of 5 major categories (3 x books types; 2 x printed
press), the majority (two thirds to three quarters) say 'none' (Table 4.3).
There seems to be a bit more influence with newspapers than any of the others,
and less with magazines, but differences are not all that significant.


Table 4.3 Partner's influence on respondent's choice



Fiction
Non Fiction
Refer
ence
News
paper
Maga zine

%
%
%
%
%
None at all
67
66
72
66
75
Only a very little
13
20
13
14
12
Some, but not a great deal
11
   7
   7
   8
   7
A fair amount
   6
   6
   6
   6
   5
A great deal/major influence
   -
   1
   2
   6
   2

Base: all reading relevant material

There are differences between the sexes for both fiction and newspapers. Nearly
half of all male fiction readers say their partner has some influence (however
little) on their choice, compared to c25% of women. Almost exactly the reverse
situation applies to newspapers.



4.4   Respondent's influence on partner's choice of reading material26

When asked what influence the feel that   they themselves have on their partner's
choice of reading material in each of 5   major categories (3 books; 2 printed
press), the great majority (72-83%) say   'none' (Table 4.4). There seems to be a
bit more influence with newspapers than   any of the others.

Table 4.4 Respondent's influence on partner's choice


Fiction
Non-Fic
Ref
N'paper
Mag
%
%
%
%
%
None at all
74
70
73
71
79
Only a very little
15
15
16
14
12
Some, but not a great deal
   6
12
   7
   8
   5
A fair amount
   3
   2
   3
   5
   4
A great deal/major influence
   1
   1
   1
   3
   1

Base: all reading relevant material

Interestingly, for each of the five categories a higher proportion of men than
women say they have some influence (however little) on their partner's choice,
though in all cases at least two-thirds of men say they have no influence.


4.5   Partner influence: couples27

Not surprisingly, where only one partner in the couple reads a particular
material, there is basically no cross-influence.

Where both partners read the same types of material there is a bit more
influence than indicated in Sections 4.3 and 4.4 (Table 4.5). For all but non-
fiction it would appear that the majority of couples do show some cross-
influence - though in the great majority of instances the influence is a
little/some rather than a fair amount/great deal (Table 4.5).


Table 4.5 Partner influence - across couples


Fiction
Non-Fic
Ref
N'paper
Mag

%
%
%
%
%
None at all
45
65
43
35
30
Some influence
55
35
57
65
70

Base: both partners reading relevant material

5     BOOK SOURCES

5.1   Book source: individuals28

When asked about the last book started (in each of the three categories), it
appears that the most common source is self-purchase, followed by borrowing from
a friend or relation (Table 5.1). The influence of the partner is mentioned in
c20-25% of cases.


Table 5.1 Source of last book started


Fiction
Non-Fiction
Reference

%
%
%
Bought   myself
32
28
32
Bought   by partner for me
13
17
12
Bought   by other for me
12
16
   5
Bought   by/for me
57
61
49




Borrow from friend/relation
24
18
21
Borrow from partner
   7
   8
   8
Borrow from work/colleague
   2
   5
   5
Borrowed from person
33
31
34




Borrowed: library by myself
   7
   6
14
Borrowed: library by partner
   2
   1
   1
Borrowed: library by other
   1
   1
   1
Borrowed from library
10
   8
16




Other/don't know
  *
  1
  2

* = less than 0.5%
Base: all reading relevant book types at all (home/holiday)

The main differences between the sexes are shown with fiction, where 72% of men
say the book was bought by or for them, compared to 46% of women: conversely,
the figures for borrowing from a person are 20% and 40% respectively. A similar,
but far less dramatic, trend is shown for non-fiction (and also for reference,
though in a more minor way still).

5.2   Book source: couples29

There is no doubt that where both partners read the same type of book there is
an increase in the influence of the partner in choice, as measured by the number
saying they have borrowed the last book started from their partner: there does
not appear to be any real difference in terms of saying the book was bought, or
borrowed from the library, by the partner (Table 5.2).


Table 5.2 Source of last book started


Fiction
Non-Fiction
Reference
Number reading type in coupleË
1
2
1
2
1
2

%
%
%
%
%
%
Bought   myself
36
30
30
26
35
30
Bought   by partner for me
   5
17
10
25
   3
19
Bought   by other for me
14
11
22
   9
     8
   3
Bought   by/for me
55
58
62
60
46
52




Borrow from friend/relation
28
22
20
15
25
18
Borrow from partner
   1
10
   3
14
   2
12
Borrow from work/colleague
   2
   2
   6
   4
   8
   3
Borrowed from person
31
34
29
33
35
33




Borrowed: library by myself
11
   5
   7
   5
16
12
Borrowed: library by partner
   2
   2
   *
   2
   1
   1
Borrowed: library by other
   1
   1
   2
   *
   1
   1
Borrowed from library
14
   8
   9
   7
18
14
Other/don't know
  *
  *
  1
  1
  1
  1

* = less than 0.5%
Base: all reading relevant book types at all (home/holiday)

6     PRESS READERSHIP

6.1   Daily newspaper readership30 31

As can be seen from Table 6.1, by far the most popular daily paper is The Sun,
mentioned by c30% of all respondents, twice the level for the next most popular
titles, the Daily Mail and the Daily Mirror/Daily Record.

As this table also shows, there is little variation between weekdays and
Saturday.

On average, people claim to read 1.3 titles each in the week and 1.2 on
Saturday,


Table 6.1 Daily newspapers read regularly: individuals


Mon-Fri
Sat

%
%
Sun
31
29
Mail
15
14
Mirror/Record
14
14
Telegraph
   5
   7
Express
   5
   6
Times
   4
   4
Guardian
   1
   1
Independent
   1
   2
FT
   *
   -
Regional
16
12



None
27
24
1 title
59
66
2+ titles
14
10

* = less than 0.5%


As was shown previously, in over 90% of cases both partners in a couple read
newspapers, and in virtually all these instances the two partners claim to read
the same newspaper(s).


6.2   Sunday newspaper readership32 33

Table 6.2 shows that by far the most popular paper to read regularly on a Sunday
is the News of the World, with twice the level of readership of the second-
placed Mail on Sunday.

On average people claim to read 1.3 titles regularly, with 17% reading at least
two.


Table 6.2 Sunday newspaper read regularly: individuals
All

%
NoW
31
Mail
17
Mirror/Record
12
People
   7
Times
   7
Express
   6
Telegraph
   5
Independent
   2
Observer
   *
Regional
   5


None
29
1 title
54
2 titles
17


As with the daily papers, in virtually all cases both partners claim to read the
same papers.

6.3     Magazine reading34

6.3.1        Number of titles read

Respondents were asked to estimate how many magazines they read in an average
week, and as can be seen from Table 6.3.1, over a quarter say they do not read
any, while over half say they read 1 or 2: on average, each person reading any
reads two per week.


Table 6.3.1       Number of magazines read per week
All

%
None
28
1
30
2
27
3
10
4
   4
5+
   1

Base: all

Women (81%) are far more likely to read magazines at all than men (64%), and
also to read more titles per week (2.1 to 1.7).

There does not appear to be any major relationship between the number of titles
read by one partner to the number read by another, in that unless both read only
one title each the numbers across the partnership vary.



6.3.2        Specific titles read in past month

Respondents were given a list of 33 magazine titles, and asked to indicate which
of them they had read at all in the previous month.

Two out of three respondents had not read any of them, and even when we only
consider those claiming to read at least one magazine a week are considered, we
still find that 59% say they have not read any of those specific titles (Table
6.3.2)

The leading title is clearly Good Housekeeping, though it owes its position to
its female readership (as does House & Garden). As far as men are concerned, the
leading title is FHM (but named by only 7% of males), followed by The Big Issue
(5%).


        Table 6.3.2   Leading specific titles read in last month


All
Read+

%
%
None of the listed titles
66
59



Good Housekeeping
   8
10
House & Garden
   7
   8
The Big Issue
   5
   7
FHM
   5
   7
BBC Gardeners' World Mag.
   5
   6
Cosmopolitan
   4
   6
Marie Claire
   4
   6
New Woman
   4
   5
Company
   3
   4
Loaded
   3
   4
Food & Travel
   3
   2
Maxim
   2
   3
Red
   2
   3
Real
   2
   3
Vogue
   2
   2
No other title read by more than 1%.

+ = read at least one magazine per week
Base: all

7    PREFERRED CHOICE OF READING MATERIAL35

The final question asked respondents to indicate which of four forms of reading
material they would choose if they could only keep one of them.

Quite clearly, the overall preference is for books, followed by newspapers, with
Internet browsing in last place (Table 7a).

The only respondent group not placing books in first place (usually with at
least half choosing books) are people who do not read books at all, but even
here one in five still choose books.


Table 7a   Preferred choice of reading material: individuals



Printed Books
Newspapers print/online
Magazines print/online
Internet Browsing
All
%
56
27
12
   6




Read books
%
67
18
11
   5
Read papers
%
56
28
12
   5
Read mags
%
58
21
16
   5
Use Internet
%
48
28
   9
15




Read fiction
%
79
13
   6
   3
Read non-fiction
%
68
19
   9
   5
Read fic and/or non-fiction
%
73
17
   8
   4




Not read books
%
20
57
15
   8
Base: all

Women (68%) are more strongly swayed towards books than men (44%).
Nearly half of the couples agree with each other in their choice, and in one
third of all couples both partners select printed books.


Table 7b Preferred choice of reading material: couples
(% of all couples)


Any
Printed Books
Newspapers print/online
Magazines print/online
Internet Browsing
Both partners
   47
33
11
   2
   *
One partner
   53
45
32
19
10




Any partner
100
79
42
21
11

* = less than 0.5%




PART B 3-MONTH DIARY




SECTION 8 GENERAL READING36
8.1     General reading: individuals

Across the 3-month period, respondents' recording of their reading habits in
general very closely matched what they claimed in the initial interview. Table
8.1 compares the results gained from both the initial interviews and the
diaries, and as can be seen the great majority of people did indeed participate
in the manner they predicted.

In those cases where more people participated than expected (eg fiction books),
the additional readers where those who read only very occasionally over the 3-
month period, and thus would not have indicated initially that they usually read
that type of material.

In those instances where rather fewer participated (eg newspapers), the
shortfall comprised people who claimed to only read those materials for very
short times, usually only on 1 or 2 days of the week.


Table 8.1 Reading overall in general


Initial

Diary
Base:
406

406

%
+/- %
%
Fiction books
44
+2
46
Non-fiction books
31
+1
32
Reference books
45
-2
43
Any books
74
+1
75
Printed newspapers
94
-5
89
Printed magazines
64
-3
61
Any printed press
98
-2
96
Online press
   7
-1
   6
Internet
34
-1
33
Any computer
37
=
37
Teletext/Ceefax
33
-3
30

Base: all


As would be expected from the above, essentially the variations across the
different demographic sub-groups echo those found in the initial survey.


8.2   Time spent reading: individuals

Table 8.2a shows the average time spent reading per week over the 3-month
period, comparing these data with those from the initial interview.

Overall, respondents record themselves as reading about 6 hours per week, well
below the original estimate of c7hours a week.


       Table 8.2a    Time spent reading per week


All
Readers of type

Initial
Diary
Initial
Diary
Ratio
In/dia

Mins
Mins
Mins
Mins

Fiction books
  90
  77
205
174
1.18
Non-fiction books
  46
  41
152
136
1.12
Reference books
  23
  17
  51
  38
1.34
Any books
159
135
213
181
1.18
Printed newspapers
149
119
159
127
1.25
Printed magazines
  45
  34
  71
  53
1.34
Any printed press
194
153
198
154
1.29
Online press
     5
     3
  61
  50
1.22
Internet
  55
  46
162
134
1.21
Any computer
  59
  48
164
135
1.21
Teletext/Ceefax
  17
  15
  52
  46
1.13




Total
429
347
429
347
1.24

Base: all

As can be seen from the last column in Table 8.2a, the extent to which people
over-estimated the amount of time they spent reading varied from around 10% for
non-fiction and online press to 34% for reference books and printed magazines.
As a result of these variations, the percentage of reading time spent on each of
the materials alters slightly, but the differences are not significant (Table
8.2b).


Table 8.2b        Percent of time on each material
Initial
Diary

%
%
Fiction books
21
22
Non-fiction books
11
12
Reference books
   5
   5
Any books
37
38
Printed newspapers
35
34
Printed magazines
10
10
Any printed press
43
43
Online press
   1
   1
Internet
13
13
Any computer
14
14
Teletext/Ceefax
   4
   4



Total
100
100

Base: all


8.3     Reading variations by day: individuals
Although the previous two sections indicate that respondents' initial estimates
of time spent were fairly accurate, the diary data show that there was a greater
variation by day of the week.

Table 8.3a shows that respondents underestimated the amount of time they spent
reading at weekends, and overestimated the time during the week (and especially
Monday-Thursday). This can be summed up by the fact that in the initial survey
37% of reading was done at the weekend, compared to 48% in the diary.


Table 8.3a     Amount of time spent reading overall, each day


Initial
Diary

Mins
%
Mins
%
Monday
54
13
40
12
Tuesday
52
12
34
10
Wednesday
53
12
33
   9
Thursday
55
13
34
10
Friday
56
13
43
13
Saturday
78
18
78
22
Sunday
81
19
86
25




Total
429
100
347
100

Base: all


It does not appear that this overall difference is particularly biased towards
one form of material rather than another. Rather, it appears that rather fewer
people read materials at all on an average weekday, though the numbers hold up
over the weekend (Table 8.3b).


Table 8.3b     Percentage reading at all each day


Mon
Tues
Wed
Thur
Fri
Sat
Sun

%
%
%
%
%
%
%
Initial
92
93
93
93
94
97
94
Diary
86
84
84
88
89
96
94

Base: all


The variations in time spent reading by those reading particular materials
clearly varies little across the weekdays, and rises at the weekend: this echoes
the findings of the initial study (Table 8.3c).


Table 8.3c     Average time spent reading each day (diary data)


Mon
Tues
Wed
Thur
Fri
Sat
Sun

Mins
Mins
Mins
Mins
Mins
Mins
Mins
Fiction books
22
16
18
16
23
36
39
Non-fiction books
13
13
14
13
17
25
33
Reference books
   4
   3
   2
   3
   4
11
12
Any books
17
14
12
14
18
29
33
Printed newspapers
15
12
11
11
16
29
35
Printed magazines
   5
   5
   5
   6
   6
16
16
Any printed press
18
14
13
12
20
39
45
Online press
   5
   6
   6
  5
  6
12
10
Internet
18
12
13
11
17
28
33
Any computer
18
13
13
13
18
31
33
Teletext/Ceefax
   4
   3
   3
   4
   5
12
10




Total
41
34
33
34
44
79
87

Base: all reading relevant material


8.4     General reading: couples
In Table 8.4 we show the percentage of couples in which none, one or both
partners have read any of the materials at all over the 3-month period. These
results are very similar to those for in home in the initial survey, as shown in
Table 3.4.


Table 8.4 Number in couple reading particular materials at all



How many read in couple


None
One
Both
Fiction books
%
31
46
23
Non-fiction books
%
49
38
13
Reference books
%
27
60
13
Any books
%
   8
34
58
Printed newspapers
%
   6
10
84
Printed magazines
%
18
42
40
Any printed press
%
   2
   4
94
Online press
%
90
   8
   2
Internet
%
50
34
16
Any computer
%
47
32
21
Teletext/Ceefax
%
52
36
12

Base: all


8.5     Time spent reading: couples

Table 8.5 shows the amount of time spent reading the various materials in those
households where they are read at all, and shows the difference between those
households where only one person reads that material and where both do.



Table 8.5 Average time per household spent reading, per week


Number reading


One
Two
Ratio

Mins
Mins
Two/One
Fiction books
136
407
3.0
Non-fiction books
362
455
1.3
Reference books
  86
110
1.3
Any books
330
553
1.7
Printed newspapers
310
608
2.0
Printed magazines
147
163
1.1
Any printed press
362
713
2.0
Online press
166
192
1.2
Internet
366
442
1.2
Any computer
379
421
1.1
Teletext/Ceefax
121
145
1.2

Base: all

We have examined these data on a day-by-day basis, and it appears that the
ratios shown in Table 8.5 are basically maintained across the different days.

9     NUMBERS OF BOOKS STARTED37

9.1   New books started in period, overall: individual

Respondents were asked to give the titles of the fiction and non-fiction38 books
they read, on a day-by-day basis.
The number of such books read over the 3-month period varied enormously, from
those who did not to complete a single book (even if they occasionally read
fiction or non-fiction) to someone who read a new book nearly every day (Table
9.1).

On average, those who read fiction/non-fiction at all started 7 new books over
the 3-month period, with women starting 11/2 times as many as men (none of whom
started more than 25 books).


        Table 9.1        Number of new books started in period



Sex

All
M
F
Base:
406
205
201

%
%
%
Read Fiction/Non-fiction at all
60
54
66
of which:



0 = No new books
   2
   3
   1
1
   5
   6
   4
2
   6
   7
   5
3
17
13
20
4-6
13
11
16
7-9
   6
   5
   7
10-15
   5
   5
   6
16-20
   2
   2
   2
21-25
   1
   1
   1
26-30
   1
   -
   1
31-50
   1
   -
   1
51+
   1
   -
   1




Average: readers
7.0
5.5
8.3




Average: all
4.2
2.9
5.5

Base: all
There are a number of other variations in the average number of books started:

i    the number increases with age, so that those aged 55+ started nearly 10
books on average
ii   the number increases as social grade rises, though differences are
relatively small
iii retired people (11) and those without employment (10) start more than those
with full or part-time employment
iv   those living in the South started far more than those in the Midlands.


9.2   New books started, by genre: individual

In Table 9.2a shows the number of fiction and non-fiction books started in the
period, and as can be seen twice as many fiction books were started by fiction
readers as were non-fiction books by their readers (also remembering that not
only did more people read fiction than non-fiction, but also read it for
longer). Throughout the period, a total of almost 1600 new books were started,
three-quarters of which were fiction.


Table 9.2a      Number of new books started in period, by genre



Fiction
Non-Fict
Base:
187
130

%
%
0 = No new books
   3
   5
1
   7
11
2
   9
13
3
25
32
4-6
21
25
7-9
12
   7
10-15
10
   5
16-20
   5
   1
21-25
   3
   -
26-30
   2
   -
31-50
   2
   -
51+
   2
   -



Average: readers
8.4
4.0

Base: all


Looking at the data further, we find that women are responsible for 65% of all
new fiction/non-fiction books started: also, while the majority (over 70%) of
new fiction books are started by women, men have a significant lead in non-
fiction books (Table 9.2b).

Table 9.2b     Numbers of new books started, within genre, by sex


All
Fiction
Non-fiction
Base:
1600
1210
390

No
%
No
%
No
%
Started by men
   555
35
340
28
215
55
Started by women
1045
65
870
72
175
45

Base: all new books started


9.3   Time taken to read books

If we take the total time spent reading fiction and reading non-fiction, as
given in Table 8.2a, and the total number of new books started as shown above,
we can estimate that on average a fiction book takes almost 5 hours to read,
while a non-fiction book takes 71/4 hours.

We have examined the time taken to read books within the various demographic
sub-groups, but have no located any obvious patterns, other than those explained
by the type of book read.

It is clear, however, that the more books people read the faster they read them
- though this may be linked more to the precise type of book read (eg short
romantic fiction, long biographies) than to actual reading speed.


9.4   New books started: couples

We have examined the books started over the 3-month period in terms of whether
couples read the same books or not, and in the great majority of cases there
appears to be little cross-fertilisation.

However, bearing in mind the fact that some people are influenced by their
partners, it is possible that both partners had or will read the same books, but
not necessarily within the 3-month period covered by this study.

Of all the 1600 books recorded, on only 32 occasions have both partners listed
the same title39.


10    PARTNER INFLUENCE ON BOOK CHOICE40
Each time a new fiction or non-fiction book was started, respondents were asked
to record the extent to which their partner had influenced the choice.

For most books, whether fiction or non-fiction, there is no partner influence in
choice, and even in those cases where there is some influence the extent of it
is not all that high (Table 10).

Interestingly, there is some difference by genre, and by sex, with men being
more influenced than women in fiction and the reverse situation applying for
non-fiction.


Table 10   Partner's influence on choice, by sex


Fiction
Non-Fiction

All
M
F
All
M
F
Base:
1210
340
870
390
215
175

%
%
%
%
%
%
None at all (0)
72
62
76
67
71
63
Only a very little (1)
11
16
   9
18
11
27
Some, but not a great deal (2)
12
16
10
   7
10
   3
A fair amount (3)
   4
   5
   4
   6
   7
   5
A great deal/major influence (4)
   1
   1
   1
   1
   1
   2




Average score
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6

Base: all new books started




11   PRESS READING41

11.1 Numbers of newspapers

Respondents were asked to record how many newspapers they read each day
(regardless of how much time they spent reading them, and ignoring the specific
titles).
In fact, there was a remarkable consistency across the days of the week, with
around 75-80% reading at least one paper each day. On each day, on average, the
majority of people read just one newspaper, and each newspaper reader looking at
1.2-1.4 different ones (Table 11.1).

While the number of papers looked at, however briefly, might be expected to be
high on a Sunday, it is perhaps surprising to find it is equally high on a
Thursday.


Table 11.1     Number of newspapers read per day



Number read on average on that day


0
1
2
3
4
5
Ave+
Monday
%
25
59
13
2
1
-
1.3
Tuesday
%
25
60
13
1
1
-
1.2
Wednesday
%
26
62
10
2
1
-
1.2
Thursday
%
24
57
15
2
2
1
1.4
Friday
%
18
65
15
1
1
-
1.3
Saturday
%
21
61
16
1
1
-
1.3
Sunday

%
24
52
20
3
*
*
1.4

+ = average of those reading on that day
* = less than 0.5%
Base: all



11.2 Numbers of magazines

Respondents were asked to record how many magazines they read each day
(regardless of how much time they spent reading them, and ignoring the specific
titles).
Clearly, more people look at magazines at all at the weekend, but the number of
titles looked at (for however long) varies little (Table 11.2).


Table 11.2     Number of magazines read per day



Number read on average on that day


0
1
2
3
4
5
Ave+
Monday
%
68
27
   3
2
-
-
1.2
Tuesday
%
70
26
   3
1
-
-
1.2
Wednesday
%
67
29
   3
1
*
*
1.3
Thursday
%
67
26
   5
2
-
-
1.3
Friday
%
51
39
   7
3
-
-
1.3
Saturday
%
48
38
11
3
*
-
1.3
Sunday
%
39
44
15
2
-
-
1.3

+ = average of those reading on that day
* = less than 0.5%
Base: all




PART C FINAL INTERVIEW




SECTION 12     REACTIONS TO READING TIME42

12.1 Overall time spent reading

In the final interview, respondents were asked to say whether they were
surprised by the amount of time they spent reading overall. In addition, if they
were surprised they were asked to say whether this was because they spent more
or less time overall.

The great majority of respondents, regardless of sex, age or any other
demographic variable, said that it was much as expected, while most of those who
were surprised said they spent a little less time than they had expected (Table
12.1).

Table 12.1     Time spent compared to expectations



Sex

All
M
F
Base:
406
205
201

%
%
%
Much as expected
78
83
73
Surprised
22
17
27




Much more time
  1
  1
  2
A little more time
  4
  2
  5
More time at all
  5
  3
  7
A little less time
10
10
11
Much less time
   6
   4
   8
Less time at all
17
14
19

Base: all


Men feel themselves to be better judges than do women, and also claimed accuracy
declines a little with social grade, and is higher in the South than in the
other regions.

When these data have been examined in terms of couples, we do not find any
relationship between one partner being surprised and the other partner being so.


12.2 Time spent reading particular materials

Similarly, respondents were asked to say whether they were surprised at the
amount of time they spent reading specific materials, and if so, which materials
and in what way.

As can be seen from Table 12.2a, approximately three out of four felt that their
expectations had been fulfilled by their experience - with men rather more
inclined to make this claim than women.

Further, over 90% of respondents gave the same answer here as they had done with
regard to overall time spent reading - implying that 7% felt that either they
had got the total time right but the balance wrong, or vice-versa.


Table 12.2a    Time spent on different materials compared to expectations



Sex
Overall+

All
M
F
Exp
Sur
Base:
406
205
201
316
90

%
%
%
%
%
Much as expected
74
78
70
93
   7
Surprised
26
22
30
   7
93

+ = time overall/expected-surprised (Table 12.1)
Base: all


Considering only those who felt that their expectations had not been met, it
would appear that while there was a slight tendency to have originally
underestimated the comparative time spent reading fiction or non-fiction, the
reverse applied with all other materials, and especially then printed press
(Table 12.2b).


Table 12.2b    Variations in time spent compared to expectations



More
Less
Same
+/-
Fiction
%
50
21
29
+29
Non-fiction
%
30
11
59
+19
Reference
%
11
33
56
-22
Printed newspapers
%
12
63
25
-51
Printed magazines
%
10
51
38
-41
Online press
%
11
23
65
-12
Internet
%
23
46
31
-23
Teletext/Ceefax
%
15
42
43
-27

Base: 107 = all surprised at time spent (Table 12.2a)


Given the small base, it is not appropriate to examine this within the various
demographic sub groups.
In addition, when these data are examined in terms of couples, we do not find
any relationship between one partner being surprised and the other partner being
so.



SECTION 13     PARTNER INFLUENCE ON CHOICE OF
FICTION/NON-FICTION43

Those who read fiction or non-fiction were asked whether they were surprised at
how much or little influence their partner had on their choice of books over the
3-month period.

Only a very small minority said they were surprised, divided evenly between
those saying their partner had more influence, and those saying they had less
(Table 13). There were no significant variations between the demographic sub-
groups.

Table 13    Influence of partner on choice, compared to expectations



Sex

All
M
F
Base:
406
205
201

%
%
%
More influence
   5
   5
   4
Less influence
   4
   4
   5
As expected
91
91
91

Base: all
When these data have been examined in terms of couples, we do not find any
relationship between one partner being surprised at the level of influence
(whether more or less) and the other partner being so.




SECTION14      READING OF MATERIALS LEFT BY PARTNER44

Respondents were asked to say whether they read material they would never have
thought of reading just because their partner left them lying around. If they
did, then they were also asked to say which materials this involved.

While most people say that they do not do this, one in five admits to doing so,
though usually only very occasionally (Table 14).

As can be seen, men are much more likely to do this than women, and there is
also a difference in the sort of materials that are mentioned as being involved.
Men say they read their partner's magazines, while women tend to mention books
(of all types).


Table 14    Whether do read materials left by partner



Sex

All
M
F
Base:
406
205
201

%
%
%
Do not read
81
76
86
Only very occasionally
15
19
11
More often
   4
   5
   3
Do read
19
24
14




Fiction
   6
   4
   8
Non-fiction
   3
   1
   5
Reference
   4
   3
   5
Printed newspapers
   *
   *
   *
Printed magazines
   7
12
   1
Online press
   -
   -
   -
Internet
   -
   -
   -
Teletext/Ceefax
   -
   -
   -

Base: all


As has so often been the case, it does not appear that there is any relationship
between one partner and the other on reading these types of materials. The fact
that one person may read something unusual just because their partner has left
it lying around does not make the other partner more or less inclined to do so
too.
APPENDIX A      INITIAL QUESTIONNAIRE

1    PLEASE PROVIDE YOUR BEST ESTIMATE ON HOW LONG YOU SPEND ON EACH OF THE
FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES, ON A TYPICAL DAY.

     PLEASE ONLY INCLUDE THOSE DONE FOR PLEASURE, AND NOT FOR WORK OR EDUCATION.

     PLEASE GIVE YOUR ANSWERS IN MINUTES, AND PUT '0' IF NOT DONE


Mon
Tues
Wed
Thur
Fri
Sat
Sun
Fiction books




Non-fiction books (eg history, biography)




Reference books (eg cookery, gardening)




Printed newspapers




Printed magazines/journals
Online newspapers/magazines and journals




The Internet - browsing for pleasure/entertainment




Teletext/Ceefax - browsing for pleasure/entertainment




NB   DO NOT INCLUDE E-MAILS, INTERNET CHAT OR BUYING ON THE INTERNET


2    WHEN YOU ARE ON HOLIDAY, HOW MUCH TIME DO YOU SPEND ON EACH OF THESE
ACTIVITIES, ON A TYPICAL DAY?
     PLEASE GIVE YOUR ANSWERS IN MINUTES, AND PUT '0' IF NOT DONE

Fiction books

Non-fiction books (eg history, biography)

Reference books (eg cookery, gardening)

Printed newspapers

Printed magazines/journals

Online newspapers/ magazines/journals

The Internet - browsing for pleasure/entertainment
Teletext/Ceefax - browsing for pleasure/entertainment



3    Thinking about the last book that you started reading, what first made you
consider starting to read it?


Book


Fiction
Non Fiction
Refer
ence
Recommended
Partner



by or given by:
Other in household




Friend/relation




Work colleague




Bookseller/shop




Librarian




TV/radio
Other



Recommended
TV/radio



on/in:
Internet




Newspaper/mag.



Saw/heard
Bookshop



on/in:
Library




TV/radio version




Film/video version



Literary prize entry/shortlist/winner



Other (write in)
4      And how did you obtain it?

Book

Fiction
Non Fiction
Refer
ence
Bought it for myself



Bought by partner



Bought by someone else



Borrowed from partner



Borrowed from friend/relation



Borrowed from work colleague



Borrowed from library by myself



Borrowed from library by partner



Borrowed from library by other person



Other (write in)
5    How much influence does your partner have on what you read?

Book
Printed


Fiction
Non Fiction
Refer ence
News
paper
Magaz/
journal
None at all




Only a very little




Some, but not a great deal




A fair amount




A great deal/major influence




I DO NOT READ THESE
6    And how much influence do you have on what your partner reads?

Book
Printed


Fiction
Non Fiction
Refer ence
News
paper
Magaz/
journal
None at all




Only a very little




Some, but not a great deal




A fair amount




A great deal/major influence




I DO NOT READ THESE
7    On an average day, where and when do you do most of your reading of fiction
or non-fiction (not reference) books?

Mon-Fri
Sat
Sun
DO NOT USUALLY DO



Commuting to/from work



In breaks at work (eg tea/coffee/lunch, etc)



In the morning/at home



In the afternoon/at home



In the evening/at home



In bed/last thing at night



In the library



Other (write in)




8    On an average day, where and when do you do most of your reading of printed
newspapers?

Mon-Fri
Sat
Sun
DO NOT USUALLY DO



Commuting to/from work



In breaks at work (eg tea/coffee/lunch, etc)



In the morning/at home



In the afternoon/at home



In the evening/at home



In bed/last thing at night



In the library



Other (write in)




9    On an average day, where and when do you do most of your reading of printed
magazines or journals?

Mon-Fri
Sat
Sun
DO NOT USUALLY DO



Commuting to/from work
In at work (eg tea/coffee/lunch, etc)



breaks In the morning/at home



In the afternoon/at home



In the evening/at home



In bed/last thing at night



In the library



Other (write in)




10   On an average day, where and when do you do most of your Internet browsing
for pleasure/entertainment?

Mon-Fri
Sat
Sun
DO NOT USUALLY DO



At work, generally



In breaks at work (eg tea/coffee/lunch, etc)



In the morning/at home
In the afternoon/at home



In the evening/at home



In bed/last thing at night



In the library



In an Internet CafÇ (morning/afternoon)



In an Internet CafÇ (evening/night)



Other (write in)




11   Which of the following daily newspapers do you read regularly during the
week (Monday to Friday) - that is, at least 3 out of every 5 issues?

12   And which of them do you usually read on a Saturday (at least 3 out of
every 4 issues)?

Mon-Fri
(3 out of 5)
Saturday
(3 out of 4)
Express


Financial Times


Guardian
Independent


Mail


Mirror/Record


Sun


Telegraph


Times


Regional Daily
(eg Scotsman, Yorkshire Post)


NONE OF THESE




13   Which of the following Sunday newspapers do you read regularly, that is at
least 3 out of every 4 issues?

Sunday
(3 out of 4)
Express

Independent

Mail

Mirror/Record

News of the World

Observer

People

Telegraph

Times
Regional Sunday

NONE OF THESE



14   In an average week, how many different magazines/journals (whether in print
or in online format) do you read?
     None r         1r        2r        3r        4r        5+r


15      Which of the following magazines have you read in the past month?


In past month


In past month
Arena


House & Garden

BBC Gardeners' World Magazine


Investors Chronicle

Big Issue


Investor's Week

Business Week


Loaded

Company Magazine


Marie Claire

Conde Nast Traveller


Maxim

Cosmopolitan
New Woman

Economist


Real

Elle


Red

FHM


SantÇ!

Food and Travel


She

Front


The Spectator

Geographical


Time

Glamour


Vanity Fair

Good Housekeeping


Vogue

GQ


Wallpaper

Harpers & Queen


NONE OF THESE
16   In an average month, how many fiction or non-fiction (e.g. exclude
reference books such as cookery or gardening) books do you tend to read?
     None r      1r 2r        3r        4r        5+r


17   If you were to read 100 books, about how many would you start and then not
finish?

     (Write in)



18   If you could only have one of these forms of reading material, which one
would you keep?
Books - printed

Newspapers - print/online

Magazines - print/online

Internet browsing for pleasure/entertainment




19   Which ONE of these statements most applies to you?
I do not have a mobile phone

I have a mobile phone, but only use it very occasionally

I use my mobile phone fairly often, but not nearly as often as other people I
know

I use my mobile phone as much, if not more than, most other people, for phoning
and texting

I have a mobile phone and am very keen on having one which has all the latest
technology, and allows me to do more than phoning and texting




20   How interested would you be in trying each of the following methods of
listening to or reading stories on your mobile phone, assuming that you had a
phone with the appropriate technology, and the price was acceptable to you?


How interested?
Very

Fairly
Not very
Not
at all
Not sure
Downloading a whole story that you could listen to on your phone




Receiving a whole story in serial form by text on your mobile phone, with one
episode per day for about a week




THANK YOU

APPENDIX B      DIARY PAGE


Friday February 1st                                    Saturday February 2nd

Time you spent on each reading activity this day.
Mins

Time you spent on each reading activity this day.
Mins
Fiction books


Fiction books

Non-fiction books (eg history, biography)


Non-fiction books (eg history, biography)

Reference books (eg cookery, gardening)


Reference books (eg cookery, gardening)
Printed newspapers


Printed newspapers

Printed magazines/journals


Printed magazines/journals

Online newspapers/ magazines/journals


Online newspapers/ magazines/journals

The Internet - browsing for pleasure/entertainment


The Internet - browsing for pleasure/entertainment

Teletext/Ceefax - browsing for pleasure/entertainment


Teletext/Ceefax - browsing for pleasure/entertainment




Titles of fiction/non-fiction books read today
Author


Titles of fiction/non-fiction books read today
Author




Number of newspapers read at all that day
Number of newspapers read at all that day

Number of magazines read at all that day


Number of magazines read at all that day




If you started a new book today, how much influence did your partner have on
your choice?


If you started a new book today, how much influence did your partner have on
your choice?

None at all


None at all

Only a very little


Only a very little

Some, but not a great deal


Some, but not a great deal

A fair amount


A fair amount

A great deal/major influence


A great deal/major influence



APPENDIX C      FINAL QUESTIONNAIRE

1
Please think firstly about the total time you spend reading (ignoring the
different ways of reading we have asked about).
As a result of actually completing the diary for the past 3 months, have you
been surprised about how much time you have spent reading during that period, or
was it pretty much what you had expected?



Much as expected

GO TO Q3



Surprised

GO TO Q2




IF SURPRISED

2
Were you surprised because you spent more time reading overall, or less time?



Much more time overall




A little more time overall




A little less time overall




A lot less time overall
3
Now thinking about the ways in which you read, could you say whether you have
found that you were reading particular forms of material rather more or less
than you had expected?



Much as expected

GO TO Q5



Surprised

GO TO Q4




IF SURPRISED

4
Please indicate which of the various forms of reading you found yourself reading
more of and which less of.



More
Less
Same


Fiction books




Non-fiction books




Reference books
Printed newspapers




Printed magazines/journals




Online newspapers/magazines




Internet




Teletext/Ceefax




5
If you read fiction or non-fiction books (but excluding reference books), have
you been surprised about how much or how little influence your partner has had
on your choice of books over the past 3 months?



Partner had more influence




Partner had less influence
About what I had expected




6
Did you find you read material you would never have thought of reading just
because your partner left them lying around?



Yes

GO TO Q7



No




IF YES

7
If yes, which form of reading material did you find yourself reading?



Fiction books




Non-fiction books
Reference books




Printed newspapers




Printed magazines/journals




Online newspapers/magazines




Internet




Teletext/Ceefax




THANK YOU

1    For the definition of what was included in this, see Section 1.2.
2    In fact, we somewhat over-sampled same sex couples, to enable us to look at
them as a separate sub-group.
3    We did not attempt to cover ethnic minorities (eg Asians, West Indians)
unless we were confident in the quality of their English.
4    See also Volume 2 Tables 3.1a-c
5    See also Volume 2 Tables 3.2a-c.
6    See also Volume 2 Table 3.3.
7    See also Volume 2 Tables 3.4a-c.
8    See also Volume 2 Table 3.5.
9    Respondents were asked to indicate the most common time/place, and not to
say all times or places that they ever read.
10   See also Volume 2 Tables 3.6a-b.
11   Fiction and/or non-fiction ie excluding reference.
12   There are no significant differences at weekends, though some people do
work on those days.
13   See also Volume 2 Tables 3.7a-b.
14   See also Volume 2 Tables 3.8a-b.
15   See also Volume 2 Tables 3.9a-b.
16   Not differentiating between FT and PT working.
17   Not differentiating between FT and PT working.
18   Not differentiating between FT and PT working.
19   See also Volume 2 Table 3.14.
20   People claiming to read fiction and/or non-fiction books generally.
21   See also Volume 2 Table 3.15.
22   This accords with BML's experience that men are less willing to start books
they are not sure about than are women.
23   See also Volume 2 Table 4.1.
24   See also Volume 2 Table 4.2.
25   See also Volume 2 Table 4.3a-b.
26   See also Volume 2 Tables 4.4a-b.
27   See also Volume 2 Tables 4.5a-b.
28   See also Volume 2 Table 5.1.
29   See also Volume 2 Table 5.2.
30   Daily newspapers read regularly - at least 3 out of 5 during the week, and
4 out of 5 on Saturdays.
31   See also Volume 2 Tables 6.1a-b.
32   Sunday newspapers read regularly - at least 3 out of every 4 issues.
33   See also Volume 2 Table 6.2.
34   See also Volume 2 Tables 6.3.1 and 6.3.2.
35   See also Volume 2 Table 7.
36   See also Volume 2 Tables 8.1 - 8.3
37   See also Volume 2 Table 9.
38   Excluding reference books.
39   In fact, there are only a handful of titles that are mentioned by more than
one person on the whole panel, and only two (which are series rather than
individual titles) mentioned by even 5. These two are Lord of the Rings and
Tolkein.
40   See also Volume 2 Table 10.
41   See also Volume 2 Tables 11.1-11.2.
42   See also Volume 2 Tables 12.1 -12.2.
43   See also Volume 2 Table 13.
44   See also Volume 2 Table 14.
7



39



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