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Specifications � Unit Pavers by StDbHK


									Hanson Hardscape Products | MasterFormat Specifications

  Section 32 14 13.19 – Aquaflow® Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement
Note: This is a guide specification for Aquaflow permeable interlocking concrete pavers on a permeable, open graded crushed stone bedding layer
(typically No. 8 stone). This layer is placed over an open-graded base (typically No. 57 stone) and sub-base (typically No. 2 stone). The pavers and
bedding layer are placed over an open-graded crushed stone base with exfiltration to the soil subgrade. In low infiltration soils or installations with
impermeable liners, some or all drainage is directed to an outlet via perforated drain pipes in the subbase. While this guide specification does not
cover excavation, liners and drain pipes, notes are provided on these aspects.

The text must be edited to suit specific project requirements. It should be reviewed by a qualified civil or geotechnical engineer or landscape
architect familiar with the site conditions and local materials. Edit this specification as necessary to identify the design professional in the General
Conditions of the Contract. This guide specification is intended for use in the U.S. or Canada and should be edited to fit terms and standards
appropriate to each region.


1.01      SUMMARY

     A. The work covered by this section includes the furnishing of all labor, materials, equipment and incidentals for
        the inspection and construction of Aquaflow permeable interlocking concrete paver units including all details
        shown on the Construction Drawings and as described by the Contract Specifications. The work in this section
        consists of, but is not limited, to the following:

               a.         Furnishing and placement of Aquaflow permeable interlocking concrete pavers.
               b.         Furnishing and placement of crushed stone bedding material.
               c.         Furnishing and placement of open-graded upper sub-base aggregate.
               d.         Furnishing and placement of open-graded lower sub-base aggregate.
               e.         Furnishing and placement of bedding and joint/opening filler materials.
               f.         Furnishing and placement of edge restraint.
               g.         Furnishing and placement of geotextiles.
               h.         [Furnishing and placement of impermeable liner.]

     B. Related Sections

     Note: Curbs will typically be precast or cast-in-place concrete. Concrete curbs may be specified in another section. Plastic edging with steel
     spikes can be used if the spikes are driven into substantial soils and are not driven into any of the open-graded drain rock or pierce any portion
     of the water containment system. Plastic edging should not be used where wheel loads are within 2.5 feet of the restrained edge. In areas of
     severe freeze-thaw cycles, plastic edge restraints are not recommended.

               a.    Section [                       ] – Curbs.
               b.    Section [                       ] – Stabilized Aggregate Base.
               c.    Section [                       ] – [PVC] Drainage pipes.
               d.    Section [                       ] – Impermeable liner.
               e.    Section [                       ] – Edge restraints.
               f.    Section [                       ] – Drainage pipes and appurtenances.
               g.    Section [                       ] – Earthworks/excavation/soil compaction.

1.02      REFERENCES

     A. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM):

               a.         ASTM C 33 – Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates
               b.         ASTM C 131 - Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse
                          Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine
               c.         ASTM C 136 - Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis for Fine and Coarse Aggregate
               d.         ASTM C 936 - Standard Specification for Solid Concrete Interlocking Paving Units
               e.         ASTM C 979 - Standard Specification for Pigments for Integrally Colored Concrete
               f.         ASTM D 698 - Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using
                                                      3                3
                          Standard Effort (600 kN-m/m (12,400 ft-lbf/ft ))
               g.         ASTM D 1557 – Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using
                                                        3                3
                          Modified Effort (2,700 kN-m/m (56,000 ft-lbf/ft ))

Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement                                                                                                  Page 1
Hanson Hardscape Products | MasterFormat Specifications

             h.      ASTM D 1883 – Standard Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-
                     Compacted Soils

    B. Canadian Standards Association (CSA):

             a.      CSA A231.2 - Precast Concrete Pavers
             b.      CSA A23.2A Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates

    C. Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute (ICPI)

             a.      Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement Manual


    A. In accordance with Conditions of the Contract and Division 1 Submittal Procedures Section.

    B. Manufacturer’s drawings and details: Indicate perimeter conditions, relationship to adjoining materials and
       assemblies, [expansion and control joints], concrete paver [layout], [patterns], [color arrangement] installation
       [and setting] details. Indicate layout, pattern and relationship of paving joints to fixtures and project formed

    C. Minimum 2 kg (4 lb) sample of sub-base, base and bedding aggregate materials.

    D. Sieve analysis per [ASTM C136] [CSA A23.2A] for upper and lower sub-base and bedding aggregate

    E. Soils report indicating density test reports, classification, and infiltration rate measured on site under
       compacted conditions, and suitability for the intended project.

    F. Erosion and sediment control plan.

    G. Storm water management (quality and quantity) calculations.

    H. Permeable Concrete Pavers:

             a.      Manufacturer’s product catalog sheets with specifications.
             b.      [Four] representative full-size samples of each paver type, thickness, color and finish that indicate
                     the range of color variation and texture expected in the finished installation. Color(s) selected by
                     [Architect] [Engineer] [Landscape Architect] [Owner] from manufacturer’s available colors.
             c.      Accepted samples become the standard of acceptance for the work.
             d.      Test results from an independent testing laboratory certifying compliance of concrete pavers with
                     [CSA A231.2] [ASTM C936]
             e.      Manufacturer’s material safety data sheets for the safe handling of the specified materials and
             f.      Manufacturer’s written quality control procedures including representative samples of production
                     record keeping that ensure conformance of paving products to the project specifications.

    I.   Paver Installation Subcontractor:

             a.      A copy of Subcontractor’s current certificate from the Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute
                     Concrete Paver Installer Certification program.
             b.      Job references from projects of a similar size and complexity. Provide
                     Owner/Architect/Engineer/General Contractor names, postal address, phone, fax, and email
                     address and dates of construction.
             c.      Written Method Statement and Quality Control Plan that describes material staging and flow,
                     paving direction and installation procedures, including representative reporting forms that ensure
                     conformance to the project specifications.

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Hanson Hardscape Products | MasterFormat Specifications


    A. Paving Subcontractor Qualifications:

            a. Utilize an experienced installer having successfully completed permeable concrete paver installations
               similar in design, material, and extent indicated for this project.
            b. Utilize an installer holding a current certificate from the Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute
               Concrete Paver Installer Certification program.

    B. Regulatory Requirements and Approvals: [Specify applicable licensing, bonding or other requirements of
       regulatory agencies.].

    C. Review the manufacturer’s quality control plan, paver installation subcontractor’s Method Statement and
       Quality Control Plan with pre-construction meeting of representatives from the manufacturer, paver installation
       subcontractor, general contractor, engineer and/or owner’s representative.

    D. Mock-Ups:

            a. Install a 3 m x 3 m [10 ft x 10 ft] area with base, bedding and pavers.
            b. Use this area to determine surcharge of the bedding layer, joint sizes, lines, laying pattern(s), color(s),
               and texture of the job.
            c. This area will be used as the standard by which the work will be judged.
            d. Subject to acceptance by owner, mock-up may be retained as part of finished work.
            e. If mock-up is not retained, remove and properly dispose of mock-up.


    A. General: Comply with Division 1 Product Requirement Section.

    B. Comply with manufacturer’s ordering instructions and lead-time requirements to avoid construction delays.

    C. Delivery: Deliver materials in manufacturer’s original, unopened, undamaged packaging with identification
       labels intact.

            a. Coordinate delivery and paving schedule to minimize interference with normal use of buildings
               adjacent to paving.
            b. Deliver concrete pavers to the site in steel banded, plastic banded or plastic wrapped packaging
               capable of transfer by forklift or clamp lift.
            c. Unload pavers at job site in such a manner that no damage occurs to the product or existing

    D. Storage and Protection: Store materials in a protected area such that they are kept free from mud, dirt and
       other foreign materials.


    A. Environmental Requirements:

            a.      Do not install in heavy rain or snowfall.
            b.      Do not install over frozen bedding or base material.
            c.      Do not install frozen bedding or base material.
            d.      Do not install pavers on frozen soil subgrade.


    A. Extra Materials: Provide [Specify area or percentage] additional material for use by owner for maintenance and

    B. Pavers shall be from the same production run as installed materials.

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Note: Some projects may include permeable and solid interlocking concrete pavements. Specify each product as required.

     A. Manufacturer:

              a. Hanson Hardscape Products: 1590 North Andrews Avenue Ext., Pompano Beach, FL 33069,
                 Ph: 800 273 7084
              b. Hanson Hardscape Products: 1980 Marley Drive, Haines City, FL 33844, Ph: 888 755 8711
              c. Hanson Hardscape Products: 421 Leonard Boulevard North, Lehigh Acres, FL 33971,
                 Ph: 888 723 2197

     B. Permeable Interlocking Concrete Paver Units:
              a. Aquaflow                        [100 x 200 x 60 mm] [3.93 x 7.87 x 2.36 in]                           [Specify color/finish]
              b. Aquaflow                        [100 x 200 x 80 mm] [3.93 x 7.87 x 3.18 in]                           [Specify color/finish]

     C. Material Standards:

              a. Meet the following physical requirements set forth in CSA-A231.2, Precast Concrete Pavers:
                     i.    Average compressive strength of cubes cut from five pavers to be greater than 50 MPa with
                           no individual cube below 45 MPa when tested in accordance with CSA A231.2.
                    ii.    Average loss of three full size pavers less than 225 g/m after 28 freeze-thaw cycles or 500
                           g/m after 49 freeze-thaw cycles immersed in a 3% saline solution when tested in
                           accordance with CSA A231.2.
              a. Meet the following physical requirements set forth in ASTM C 936 Standard Specification for Solid
                 Concrete Interlocking Paving Units;
                      i.   Average compressive strength of three pavers to be greater than 8000 psi with no individual
                           unit below 7200 psi when tested in accordance with ASTM C140.
                     ii.   Average absorption of three pavers to be less than 5% with no individual unit greater than
                           7% when tested in accordance with ASTM C 140.
                    iii.   Maximum 1.0 % weight loss of five specimens subjected to 50 freeze-thaw cycles when
                           tested in accordance with ASTM C 67.

Note: When 80 mm (3 1/8”) thick pavers are specified, their compressive strength test results per ASTM C140 should be adjusted by multiplying by
1.18 to equate the results to that from 60 mm (2 3/8”) thick pavers.

Note: Freeze-thaw requirements may be waived in applications with no freeze-thaw conditions.


     A. Substitutions: No substitutions permitted.


Note: The bedding and base materials are an integral part of the Aquaflow system design. When designing an Aquaflow system, compliance with
the following points must be strictly observed.

     A. Provide crushed stone with 90% fractured faces, LA Abrasion < 40 per ASTM C131, minimum CBR of 80%
        per ASTM D1883.

     B. Do not use rounded river gravel. Base and bedding materials must be crushed aggregates.

     C. Soft aggregates such as limestone cannot be used as they will lead to total system failure.

     D. All stone materials shall be washed with less than 1% passing No. 200 sieve.

Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement                                                                                        Page 4
Hanson Hardscape Products | MasterFormat Specifications

     E. Joint/opening filler, bedding, lower and upper sub-base: conforming to ASTM D448 gradation as shown in
        Table 1 below:

Note: No. 89 or finer gradation may be used to fill permeable pavers with narrow joints.

                                                                       Table 1
                   Grading Requirements for Bedding Course and Upper and Lower Sub-base
                                      Bedding Material                 Upper Sub-base Material               Lower Sub-base Material
                                         ASTM No. 8                            ASTM No. 57                           ASTM No. 2
Sieve Size                            Percent Passing                        Percent Passing                       Percent Passing
3 in. (75 mm)                                                                                                            100
2 1/2 in. (63 mm)                                                                                                     90 to 100
2 in. (50 mm)                                                                                                          35 to 70
1 1/2 in. (37.5 mm)                                                                 100                                0 to 15
1 in. (25 mm)                                                                    95 to 100
¾ in. (19 mm)                                 100                                                                         0 to 5
½ in. (12.5 mm)                            85 to 100                              25 to 60
3/8 in. (9.5 mm)                            10 to 30
No. 4 (4.75 mm)                             0 to 10                                0 to 10
No. 8 (2.36 mm)                              0 to 5                                0 to 5
No. 16 (1.16 mm)

Note: Dx is the particle diameter size at which x percent of the particles are finer. For example D15 is the particle size of the aggregate for which
15% of the particles are smaller and 85% are larger.

     F. Gradation criteria for the bedding and base:

               a. D15 base stone / D50 bedding stone < 5.
               b. D50 base stone / D50 bedding stone > 2.


     A. Provide accessory materials as follows:

               a. [Edge restraints]:
                       i.   Manufacturer: [Specify manufacturer]
                      ii.   Material: [Specify material]
                     iii.   Material Standards: [Specify material standards]

               b. Geotextile Fabric:
                       i.   Inbitex
                      ii.   Material Standards: [Specify material standard]
                     iii.   As supplied by: Hanson Hardscape Products, Ph: 800 273 7084.



     A. [Specify acceptable paving subcontractors]


Note: The elevations and surface tolerance of the soil subgrade determine the final surface elevations of concrete pavers. The paver installation
contractor cannot correct deficiencies excavation and grading of the soil subgrade with additional bedding materials. Therefore, the surface
elevations of the soil subgrade should be checked and accepted by the General Contractor or designated party, with written certification to the
paving subcontractor, prior to starting work.

Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement                                                                                               Page 5
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     A. Acceptance of Site Verification of Conditions:

               a. General contractor shall inspect, accept and certify in writing to the paver installation subcontractor
                  that site conditions meet specifications for the following items prior to installation of interlocking
                  concrete pavers.

Note: An experienced civil or geotechnical engineer familiar with local soil conditions should be consulted for determining project standards for the
percentage of soil Proctor density and test methods for permeability. If the soil subgrade requires compaction, standard Proctor density per ASTM D
698 for pedestrian and residential driveway areas is recommended. Modified Proctor density per ASTM D 1557 is recommended for vehicular areas.
Compacted soil density and moisture should be checked in the field with a nuclear density gauge or other test methods for compliance to

Compaction of the soil subgrade may be necessary to achieve stability under vehicle loads. Compaction will reduce the permeability of the soil.
Stabilization of the soil and/or base material may be necessary with weak or continually saturated soils, or when subject to high wheel loads. If soil
compaction or stabilization is necessary, reduced infiltration may require drain pipes within the open-graded sub base to conform to local storm
drainage requirements.

For pedestrian and residential driveway areas, compaction of the “open aggregate base” should meet a minimum 95% standard Proctor density per
ASTM D 698. For vehicle and high traffic areas, a minimum 97% modified Proctor density per ASTM D 1557 is recommended.

                        i.     Verify that subgrade preparation, compacted density and elevations conform to specified
                        ii.    Verify compaction of soil to specified density and moisture content. Provide written density test
                               results for soil subgrade to the Owner, General Contractor and paver installation
                       iii.    Verify location, type, installation and elevations of edge restraints, [concrete collars around]
                               utility structures, and drainage pipes and inlets.

               b. Do not proceed with installation of bedding sand and interlocking concrete pavers until subgrade soil
                  conditions are corrected by the General Contractor or designated subcontractor. Beginning
                  installation indicates acceptance of base, edge restraints, drainpipes and overflow devices.


     A. Verify subgrade is free from standing water, uniform, even, free of any organic material or sediment and
        debris, ready to accept bedding materials, pavers and imposed loads.

     B. Stockpile joint/opening filler, upper and lower sub-base materials such that they are free from standing water,
        uniformly graded, free of any organic material or sediment, debris and ready for placement.

     C. Edge Restraint Preparation:

               a. Install edge restraints per the drawings [at the indicated elevations].


Note: The minimum slope of the soil subgrade should be 0.5%. Actual slope of soil subgrade will depend on the drainage design and exfiltration
type. All drain pipes, observation wells, overflow pipes, geotextile (if applicable) and impermeable liner (if applicable) should be in place per the
drawings prior or during placement of the sub-base and base, depending on their location. Care must be taken not to damage drain pipes during
compaction and paving. No mud or sediment can be left on the base or bedding aggregates. If they are contaminated, they must be removed and
replaced with clean materials.

     A. General:

               a. Any excess thickness of soil applied over the excavated soil subgrade to trap sediment from adjacent
                  construction activities shall be removed before application of the geotextile and sub-base materials.
               b. Keep area where pavement is to be constructed free from sediment during entire project. Geotextiles,
                  base and bedding materials contaminated with sediment shall be removed and replaced with clean
               c. Do not damage drainpipes, overflow pipes, observation wells, or any inlets and other drainage
                  appurtenances during installation. Report any damage immediately to the project engineer.

Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement                                                                                               Page 6
Hanson Hardscape Products | MasterFormat Specifications

     B. Geotextiles:

     Note: Geotextile is placed on the compacted soil subgrade under the open-graded base. The geotextile is applied to the bottom and sides of
     the excavation with overlapped joints a minimum of 300 mm (12”). Overlap is a function of CBR, 300-450 mm (12-18”) for CBR 3.0 and above,
     600-900 mm (24-36”) for CBR 1.0 to 3.0, and sewn for CBR values below 1.0. Please consult manufacturer specifications and a geotechnical
     engineer. Overlaps should follow down slope with drainage.

               a. Place on bottom and sides of the excavated area. Secure in place to prevent wrinkling from vehicle
                  tires and tracks.
               b. Overlap a minimum of [300 mm (12”)] [600 mm (24”)] in the direction of drainage.
               c. Allow enough geotextile to exceed the final elevation of the Aquaflow paver surface. Excess geotextile
                  should be cut flush with the finished surface after final compaction.

     C. Open-graded upper and lower sub-base:

               a. Moisten, spread and compact the No.2 lower sub-base in 100 to 150 mm (4 to 6”) lifts without
                  wrinkling or folding geotextile. Place sub-base to protect geotextile from wrinkling under equipment
                  tires. Track vehicles should not be used to spread the initial base course.
               b. For each lift, make at least two passes in the vibratory mode then at least two in the static mode with a
                  minimum 10 T (10 t) vibratory roller until there is no visible movement of the No. 2 stone. Do not crush
                  aggregate with the roller.
               c. The surface tolerance of the compacted No. 2 sub-base shall be +/- 65 mm (2 ½”) over a 3 m (10 ft)
                  straight edge.
               d. Moisten, spread and compact No. 57 upper sub-base in 100 mm (4”) lift over the compacted lower
                  sub-base with a minimum 10 T (10 t) vibratory roller until there is no visible movement of the No. 57
                  stone. Do not crush aggregate with the roller.
               e. The surface tolerance of the compacted No. 57 upper sub-base should not deviate more than +/- 13
                  mm (1/2”) over a 3 m (10 ft) straightedge.
               f. Place the Inbitex geotextile over the upper sub-base with a minimum overlap of 300 mm (12”) in the
                  direction of drainage.

Note: In place density of the base and sub-base may be checked per ASTM D 4254. Compacted density should be 95% of the laboratory index
density established for the base and sub-base.

     D. Bedding layer:

               a. Moisten, spread and lightly compact the No. 8 bedding material using a plate compactor. No visible
                  movement should occur in base material when compaction is complete.
               b. Loose screed the bedding course.
               c. Fill voids left by removed screed rails with No. 8 stone.
               d. The surface tolerance of the screeded No. 8 bedding layer shall be +/- 10 mm (3/8”) over a 3 m (10 ft)
               e. Do not subject screeded bedding material to any pedestrian or vehicular traffic before unit paving
                  installation begins.

     E. Permeable interlocking concrete pavers and joint/opening fill material:

               a. Lay the Aquaflow pavers in the pattern(s) shown on the drawings. Maintain straight pattern lines.
               b. Fill gaps at the edges of the paved area with cut pavers, ensuring no cut unit is smaller than one third
                  of its original size.
               c. Cut pavers to be placed along the edge with masonry saw. Use of guillotine or paver splitters is not
                  acceptable. Do not allow slurry from the cuts to adhere to the surface of the pavers.
               d. Fill the openings and joints with No. 8 stone.

Note: Some paver joint widths may be narrow and not accept most of the No. 8 stone. Use joint material that will fill the joints such as washed
ASTM No. 9 or No. 10 stone. These smaller stone sizes are recommended for filling joints in pedestrian applications that use 60 mm (2 3/8”)

               e. Remove excess aggregate on the surface by sweeping pavers clean.
               f. Compact and seat the pavers into the bedding material using a low amplitude plate compactor
                  capable of at least 23 kN (5200 lbf) compaction at a frequency of 75-90 hz. This will require at least

Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement                                                                                            Page 7
Hanson Hardscape Products | MasterFormat Specifications

                 two passes with the plate compactor. Remove and replace any damaged pavers after the first pass
                 with the plate compactor.
              g. Do not compact within 2 m (6 ft) of the unrestrained edges of the paving units.
              h. Apply additional aggregate to the openings and joints, filling them completely. Remove excess
                 aggregate by sweeping then compact the pavers. This will require at least two more passes with the
                 plate compactor.
              i. All pavers within 2 m (6 ft) of the laying face must be left fully compacted at the completion of each
              j. The final surface tolerance of compacted pavers shall not deviate more than +/- 10 mm (3/8”) under a
                 3 m (10 ft) long straightedge.
              k. The surface elevation of pavers shall be 3 to 6 mm (1/8 to ¼”) above adjacent drainage inlets,
                 concrete collars or channels to allow for future settlement.


    A. After sweeping the surface clean, check final elevations for conformance to the drawings.

    B. Lippage: No greater than 3 mm (1/8”) difference in height between adjacent pavers.

Note: The minimum slope of the finished pavement surface should be 1%. The surface of the pavers may be 3 to 6 mm (1/8 to ¼”) above the final
elevations after compaction. This helps compensate for minor settling normal to pavements.


    A. After work in this section is complete, the General Contractor shall be responsible for protecting work from
       sediment deposition and damage due to subsequent construction activity on site.

    B. Design consideration should be made to prevent migration of softscape materials on to the paver surface,
       maintaining the integrity of the Aquaflow system.

                                                           END OF SECTION

Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement                                                                                       Page 8

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