4g technology

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					                                                  which is to be get advented in the nearby
                                                  future.
                                                   4G will connect the entire globe and be
                                                  operable from practically anyway on the
                                                  Earth. It would allow more complex voice-
                                                  over-IP services, mode media-rich messaging
                                                  services and more native support for local area
                                                  networking on handsets.




                                                   The 4G communication system is the merger
                                                  of consumer electronics, computer systems,
                                                  telecommunication systems, broadcasting
                                                  leading to an information convergence that
                                                  will require increasing seamless connections
                                                  that is getting over barriers of different
ABSTRACT:-                                        wireless standards and bands.

                                                                 The        4G        wireless
The 4G communication system has sprung            communication system can be integrated with
from a usage-driven research framework to         the INTERNET PROTOCOL backbone
invent new technologies for the wireless world    network to provide quality-of-service (QoS)
vision.The evolution of such a wireless           support for multimedia applications. It will
system (Also called beyond ‘3G’ or ‘B3G’) is      support dynamic scheduling, link adaptation
closely linked to rapid advances in the digital   and frequency selection as well as full
and component technologies.                       roaming capabilities. 4G will also mean
                                                  mobile telephony at a data rate of 100Mbits
The 4G technology communication system is         per second globally (between any two points
the futuristic wireless communication system      in the world) and 1GBPS locally.
    This paper starts with an         revolution of 4G, 4G initiatives, 4G
overview of        advent of 4G       architecture, 4G characteristics,
technology, what actually 4G means,   applications.
       INTRODUCTION:-                              100Mbps for downlinks-upto 260 times faster
                                                   than popular 3G services.

Telecommunication was the most discussed           Competition and the need for differentiation
subject of the past decade . From Wi-Fi to         are driving the industry to move us out of this
WiMax, and from cell phones to smart phones        relatively stable environment and into the
and the sky is the limit for the heated debates.   brave new third-generation (3G) world of
In this modern arena one is connected totally      mobile multimedia and Internet access. 1G
connected, through not only much improved          was a commercial venture intended to grow
phone that allow oneself to stay connected         mobile communications business - it expanded
anywhere and at anytime.                           the network. 2G was a "rescue lines but also
 The terms 2G, 3G and 4G essentially stand         the Internet, wireless networks and Gadgets
for the rate at which data is transmitted. While   mission" to improve the quality of the network
2G refers to the speed of 9.6Kbps , 3G data        experience - it optimized the network access.
rates are 384Kbps maximum for downloads            3G is a commercial venture intended to grow
(typically around 200 Kbps) and 63 Kbps for        mobile communication business. 4G will
uploads. Compared to this, 4G refers to            again be a rescue mission to improve the
transmission of 20Mbps for uplinks and             access to the new network.
ADVENT OF 4G:-                                 This leads to the advent of 4G technology
                                               from the most popular 3G services.
 There is a shift from wide range radio                 4G wireless network will bring in
communication to the short range radio         some major changes in the battery-driven
communication. Pervasive broadband wireless devices in use, sensors integrated into
networking will encompass personal area        communication networks and use of new
network (PANs) , which use bluetooth, zigbee frequency band with a release of bandwidth.
and ultra-wide band (UWB) technologies,        Cooperation across terminals and subnetworks
sensor networks as well as other advanced      and features such as reconfigurability,
applications and services like radio-frequency adaptivity, programmability and flexibility of
identification (RFID) and mesh networking.     excess schemes, services and terminal devices
                                               will also be schemed.


Reasons to Have 4G

      Support interactive multimedia services: teleconferencing, wireless
       Internet, etc.
      Wider bandwidths, higher bit rates.
      Global mobility and service portability.
      Low cost.
      Scalability of mobile networks.


What's New in 4G

      Entirely packet-switched networks.
      All network elements are digital.
      Higher bandwidths to provide multimedia services at lower cost (up to 100Mbps).
      Tight network security.




      Comparison of 3G and 4G

                          3G                       4G

                                                    Extend 3G
                          Back
                                                     capacity by
                           compatible to
                                                     one order of
                           2G.
                                                     magnitude.

                          Circuit and              Entirely
                         packet switched          packet
                         networks.                switched
                                                  networks.

                                                 Higher
                        Data rate (up to
                                                  bandwidth (up
                         2Mbps).
                                                  to100Mbps).


                        Combination of
                                                 All network
                         existing &
                                                  elements are
                         evolved
                                                  digital.
                         equipment.




4G CHARACTERISTICS:-


   No circuit switching ( since it has an IP core network ).
   Distributed architecture, a decentralized network ( pushes intelligence away from the
    centre).
   Improved spectral efficiency .
   Flexible allocation .
   Significantly lower cost per bit than 3G.
   Seamless network of multiple air interfaces and protocols.
   Higher data bandwidth (greater than 100Mbps).
   End – to – End and context – aware services.
   Location – and orientation – dependent applications.
   Layered architecture a line for independent evolution of underline parts as they are
    transparent to ‘application’.
                                                        Let us consider a person say(sunny)
                                              who makes a call request to another person
                                              (say vinit) , the sunny’s agent first locates
AN OVERVIEW OF 4G:-                           vinit’s agent by making a location request to
                                              his home network . By looking up vinit’s
             The future mobile devices will   profile his home network sends back the
be capable of supporting multiple wireless    location of vinit’s agent to the sunny’s agent .
standards , and operate in a multimode ,      One’s the sunny’s agent identifies vinit’s
multiband fashion. To analyse the 4G          location , the sunny’s agent can directly
communication system, let us consider an      communicate with his agent . Different agents
example which will demonstrate this concept   may be used for different services .
using a personalized video message
application.
                                               at high bit rates for fast-moving terminals. In
                                               indoors one can find separate excess points.

4G ARCHITECTURE:-                                      Cells will be created within moving
                                                vehicles (like buses and trains) and served by
                                                a mobile router having wireless functions.
        The      conceptual 4G system by Signals will be relayed through this routers
DoCoMo is very different from the present instead of the terminals individually
2.5G architecture as it has cells for outdoors, communicating with the base stations.
indoors and inside moving vehicles. Outdoors
cells cover a wide area and allow data transfer
       Shadows and electronic interferences               dead spots. Smart antennas can also help

       cause dead spots—areas within the                  prevent dead spots resulting from

       coverage of a wireless network in which            ultipath propagationspots resulting from

       transmission falls off. A multihop                 multipath propagation.

       connection like 4G service makes it

       effective in expanding the cell size, is

       being investigated as a way to overcome




4G INDUSTRY INITIATIVES:-                                 In Japan , the telecommunciation council of ministery
                                                          of Internal Affairs and Communication in overseeing
The wireless world research forum , consisting of         efforts to develop technologies for 4G commercial
Alcatel, Ericsson, Nokia and Siemens , has begun          services by 2010. Verizon wireless , large service
research on 4G . NTT DoCoMo has started conceptual        provider , is also likely to conduct trials of 4G
design of the 4G network on paper and , along with        applications .
Siemens , in conducting indoor tests with the radius      DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA. The Indian government
radio condition as preparation for future field test to   has established the Centre of Excellence in Wireless
develop of 4G global standard in coordination with        Technology (CEWT) in collabaration with IIT Madras
the International Telecommunications Union Radio –        to work on 4G wireless communication . India , as also
communication sector .                                    China may directly jump to 4G by the end of this
                                                          decade.
CONCEPT OF RADIO ACCESS:-                                 vintilation, air-conditioning and security. It is
                                                          also well suited to building automation, industrial
            4G radio access equipment will employ the , medical, and residential control and monitoring
variable-spreading-factor spread orthogonal frequency applications.
division multiplexing (OFDM) radio access method
and multiple- input multiple-output (MIMO) 2. UWB:-
multiplexing techniques. They will also use a new                  UWB is a short range wireless RF signal that
signal-detection algorithm to achieve 1Gbps peak data can be used to relay data from a host device to other
transmission with a 100MHz downlink               Smart devices in the immediate area. A signal is UWB if its
antennae, OFDM, software-defined radio and mesh bandwidth is greater than ‘0.25*carrier frequency’. It
networking will be the building blocks of the 4G works for devices 10 metres apart, helping to create a
infrastructure. In fact, cell sites in the 4G world will wire – free home or office. For example, all the
eventually reside in the handset and towers will components of a gome entertainment centre can be
become as ubiquitous as handsets that will be ‘on’ all connected without using wires.
the time.
                                                                    UWB technology can transmit data between
                                                        consumer electronics, PC peripherals and mobile devices
TRANSITION FROM 3G TO 4G:-                              at very high speeds while consuming little power. It’s
                                                        not a complete communication standard like Bluetooth.
1. ZIGBEE:- Zigbee is a new wireless standard               3.WiBro:-
based on IEEE’S 802.15.4 specification that               The WiBro technology, short for ‘Wireless
could serve as a lower-cost alternative for             Broadband,’ is based on the 802.16e standard. It offers
wireless sensing and contro. It allows small            mobility , wide-area services and global standardization
devices to quickly.                                     for wireless broadband applications.
Zigbee finds applications in professional               With WiBro, users can transmit small amounts of data
installation kits for lighting contol, heating,         such as temperature readings for thermostats and on/off
requests for light switches or other remote monitoring       Health monitoring:- 4G could result in an increase in
and control needs. Zigbee devices can transmit             remote health monitoring of patients, as faster , real –
information beyond 20 metres and run for years on          time communication enables better two-way
inexpensive primary batteries.                             transmission of vital medical data.
  wirelessly receive data applications and
  multimedia content, at speeds up to 121 Kmph             What type of services will 4G allow?
  (75 miles per hour), while traveling across large         Of course it is impossible to predict technology
  geographic areas.                                        developments and the evolution of culture and
    The applications of WiBro are diverse, including m-    customer needs. 4G in principle will allow high-
    commerce, mobile trading, entertainment (for real-     quality     smooth       video      transmission.
    time streaming and broadcasting), 3-D gaming,
    interactive news and distance education. It can also    Is video really a killer application for 3G and
    be for information flow to networked homes—the         4G?
    deepest recesses of a country.                         Usage data in Japan do not show that video telephony
                                                           is a real killer application for 3G. However, this may
   4.Wireless system discovery:-                           change if quality and market penetration improves or
                                                           different marketing models are found.
                To use 4G services, devices should be
   able to dynamically select the wireless system. This    We believe however that music is a killer application -
   process is complicated in a 4G network because of       compare for example the success of iPod. At the
   its heterogeneous nature.                               moment (3G) only very short music clips can be
                One solution is to use software            downloaded. 4G is likely to enable the download of
 radio devices that can scan all the available             full length songs or music pieces which may change
 networks. After scanning , these devices will             the market response dramatically. Music rights
 load the required software and reconfigure                management will be a major              issue to solve.
 themselves for the selected network. The
 software can be downloaded from such media as
 a PC server , smart card or memory card , or over         CONCLUSION:-
 the air. Operators wil also enjoy simplified                             4G will bring true human-like
 network management.                                       interaction with wearable, and maybe disposable,
                                                           devices. Terminals will encompass speech, hearing,
 4G AND ITS APPLICATIONS:-                                 sight and other human senses as well as environmental
                                                           data pertinent to the application, making the user
                        4G wireless networks are           permanently connected to both the cyber-world as well
 expected to sweep the cell phone users off their feet,    as the real world. The services will provide effortless
 and make all our lives less complicated. With abundant    access to other people and devices around us and the
 services and media-rich broadband that will be 20         4G network will be designed for the highest possible
 times faster than DSL, 4G networks will make even         integrity and security. In fact , 4G can be best
 the common e-mail facility more interactive than it       described as MAGIC (a short for ‘Mobile multimedia,
 already is. Mobile users will have a multimedia inbox ,   Anytime anywhere, Global mobility support,
 and receive mail attachments in the form of high-         Integrated wireless solution and Customized personal
 resolution images, audio and video clips. The user can    service). The 4G era, beginning 2012 , might just be as
 reply by recording an audio message, snapping a photo     Magical as we dream it!
 or shooting a video, and sending it right back, using
 just the mobile.
REFERENCES:-

 1.) MULTI CARRIER TECHNIQUES FOR 4G MOBILE COMMUNICATION
         -SHINSUKE HARE
 2.) 4G MOBILE TECHNOLOGY
        - HENDRIK BERNDT
 3.) ELECTRONICS FOR YOU
       - UNKNOWN

				
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posted:10/1/2012
language:English
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