Mann Plan

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					 Mann Township Comprehensive Plan

                                                                                                    Table of Contents

Contents                                                                                                Page

      Table of Contents                                                                                         i
      Prologue - A Message from the Mann Township Board of Supervisors                                          ii
      Introduction - The Role and Purpose of the Comprehensive Plan                                            iii
      Acknowledgements                                                                                         v

      Chapter 1 Mann Township Yesterday – A History of the Township                                            1
      Chapter 2 Mann Township Today – A Summary of Current Trends and Issues                                   9
      Chapter 3 Mann Township Tomorrow – Values, Visions, and Goals                                           13
      Chapter 4 A Plan for the Future –The Plan of Cooperation and Partnership                                18
      Chapter 5 Action Planning and Implementation Strategies                                                 25

                                                Appendix A Technical Background Studies                       43
                                                Appendix B Survey of Public Opinion                         110
                                                Appendix C Glossary                                         124
                                                Appendix D Geographic Information Systems Mapping           130
                                                Appendix E Public Comments                             front flap

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                          i
  Mann Township Comprehensive Plan

                                                    Prologue - A Message from the Mann Township Board of Supervisors

To the Citizens of Mann Township:

In June, 2001, the three rural townships of Mann, Monroe, and Southampton
joined together to develop a Comprehensive Plan for each Township. This           The background data was collected and analyzed by Gannet Fleming, our
Plan serves as a blueprint for the future for our Township. With this             Project Consultant. The project was funded by a grant through the
document and the planning process that created it, we have developed a            Department of Community and Economic Development. The Bedford County
vision for our Township that integrates our rural character with the economic     Planning Commission and also the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy
and development changes in the future and our desire to protect our rich          provided much guidance and research throughout the project.
natural resources.
                                                                                  We hope that you will find the Comprehensive Plan for Mann Township
The policies of the Comprehensive Plan provide a guide for decisions made         visionary and inspiring. As we look to the future we believe that there will
by the Board of Supervisors. It also outlines specific strategies to help us      many opportunities and challenges. The Comprehensive Plan will be our
reach the goals and objectives identified throughout the planning process.        guide in the decisions we make about our Township’s future.
The goals, objectives, and strategies for the Comprehensive Plans were
developed from data collected through municipal surveys, key person               The Joint Comprehensive Plan Steering Committee:
interviews, public meetings, and information available through local, county,
state, and national sources. These action items detail the tasks to be carried    Richard T. Talbert – Supervisor, Mann Township
out by Mann Township and its partners, Monroe and Southampton                     Mary Stanley – Planning, Mann Township
Townships, as well as other quasi-governmental agencies at various levels         Bryon L. Mearkle – Supervisor, Monroe Township
(i.e., county, state, etc.) These action strategies will enable the Township to   Annabelle Barkman – Resident, Monroe Township
focus efforts on helping it manage the future growth and development, while       Ivan Mearkle, Jr – Planning, Monroe Township
protecting its rural character.                                                   Karen E. Cregger – Supervisor, Southampton Township
                                                                                  Regina Williams – Planning, Southampton Township
In addition, Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships developed a Plan             Tolif Hunt – Western Pennsylvania Conservancy
of Cooperation and Partnership. In the planning process community                 Frank Burrgraf – Bedford County Planning Commission
volunteers identified ways the townships can work together in meeting the
goals and objectives for the area. Recognizing the strengths and                  Mann Township Board of Supervisors:
weaknesses of each township, the Plan of Cooperation will build on these
qualities to benefit each of the three townships. This Plan (Chapter 4)           Richard T. Talbert, Chairman
includes the ideas and suggestions of community members on how the                George E. Smith, Vice Chairman
townships can work together, and provide for and protect their community.         Gary E. Kifer, Supervisor

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                                 ii
   Mann Township Comprehensive Plan

                                                                     Introduction – Role and Purpose of the Comprehensive Plan


The Comprehensive Plan is a general policy guide for the physical               The Comprehensive Plan:
development of the Mann Township community. The Pennsylvania
Municipalities Code (MPC), Act 247 of 1968, as reenacted and amended,                  Does not affect individual properties.
requires the Comprehensive Plan to consider many factors that influence a              Does not determine land development, neither public nor private.
community such as location, character, and timing of future development.
                                                                                       Does not preclude future analysis or decision making.
The Comprehensive Plan evaluates the existing land use, transportation
systems, housing, community facilities and services, and natural and cultural   RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COMPREHENSIVE PLAN AND OTHER
resources of Mann Township - primarily, within the County boundaries but        PLANS
also in the context of the broader region, where relevant. The Plan projects
future growth trends based on these analyses, and proposes the best             The Mann Township Comprehensive Plan gives policy guidance and
possible land use and implementation tools to accommodate expected              direction to Township regulations and codes. The Plan makes policy
growth while protecting the Township’s vast and precious resources.             recommendations to update the following plans and regulations to provide
                                                                                residents of Mann Township with the best possible quality of life. Planning
WHAT THE COMPREHENSIVE PLAN DOES                                                products may include:

                                                                                       Parks and Recreation Plan
The Comprehensive Plan:
                                                                                       Act 537 Sewage Facilities Plans
       Focuses on current trends and issues in Mann Township and
        addresses these with innovative solutions.                                     Act 167 Stormwater Management Plans
       Provides the best possible projection on future conditions based on         Subdivision and Land Development Ordinance
        current patterns and strategies to create a more desirable and          Local Municipal Comprehensive Plans
        sustainable future.
                                                                                The Mann Township Comprehensive Plan aims to achieve its established
       Directs future change through a vision of community potential.          goals and objectives in a manner that is consistent with that of other local
       Establishes the framework for consistency between future land use       municipal comprehensive plans and the Bedford County Plan, as required by
        policies and land use regulatory measures.                              the Pennsylvania MPC. The Plan acknowledges the local goals of the
                                                                                Municipality while making broad recommendations appropriate for the
       Assists State, County, and Township officials in their decision         neighboring municipalities and the County.
        making processes.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                             iii
                                                                                                            Introduction – Role and Purpose

                                                                                  Does this plan protect the Township’s natural areas and open space?
 The Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code, Act of 1968, P.L.                 Through meetings with the public, as well as the Planning Advisory
 805, No. 247, as reenacted and amended, empowers local                           Committee, citizens identified natural areas and open space conservation as
 municipalities, including Second Class Townships…                                priorities for the Township. Through a variety of recommended strategies,
                                                                                  this Plan proposes conservation of these areas.
 …To plan for their physical development,

 …To develop a “blueprint” for housing, transportation, community
 facilities and utilities, and for land use.

 …To establish community development goals and objectives that                      Ninety years ago, Frederick Law Olmstead, Jr., renowned
 guide future growth and development.                                               designer/planner of several communities in Pennsylvania
                                                                                    including the first planned industrial town designed to be sold to
                                                                                    its worker, urged municipalities to “…create or acquire statistical
                                                                                    databases on the physical, social, economic and financial
                                                                                    environment; compile information on relevant legal and
                                                                                    administrative matters, and draw up accurate topographical
                                                                                    maps." To this end, a comprehensive plan entails such an
                                                                                    inventory and makes recommendations regarding policies
FAQ - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS                                                    designed to guide future development, thereby avoiding costly
                                                                                    unwise development. Olmstead also noted that “prevention is
How will the Plan be used?
                                                                                    cheaper than the cure.”
The Plan will be used by Township officials, citizen volunteers, land owners,
and developers to guide daily decisions, and evaluate proposed changes
against the Plan’s vision and goals.
Who is in charge of making this Plan work?
While the Board of Supervisors, Planning Commission, and municipal
officials will implement this Plan, public support for the vision and
recommendations will be most important. This public includes residents,
business owners, and organizations that have a direct interest in the future of
Mann Township.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                             iv
  Mann Township Comprehensive Plan



  The completion of the Comprehensive Plans for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships was accomplished through the cooperation and
      sharing of resources of the three Townships, and also through the time and efforts of many volunteers. We would like to extend our
                                                 acknowledgment and thanks to the following:

                                         Mann Township Board of Supervisors – 2001-2004
                                                  Richard T. Talbert, Chairman
                                                 George E. Smith, Vice Chairman
                                                 Gary E. Kifer, Head Roadmaster

                                        Mann Township Planning Commission – 2001-2004
                                                   Mary Stanley, Chairman
                                                Roy Clingerman, Vice Chairman
                                                  Virginia Conrad, Secretary
                                                  Barbara Snider, Treasurer
                                                          Janet Elbin
                                                           Tolif Hunt
                                                           Allen Jay
                                                       Ronnie Northcraft
                                                        Richard Talbert

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                          v

              Joint Comprehensive Plan Steering Committee for Mann, Monroe and Southampton Townships
                                             2001- 2004 Voting Members:

                              Mary Stanley, Chair and Chairman of Mann Township Planning Committee
                     Karen Cregger, Secretary/Treasurer and Chair of Southampton Township Board of Supervisors
                                                Annabelle Barkman, Monroe Township
                                Bryon Mearkle, Chairman of Monroe Township Board of Supervisors
                                      Ivan Mearkle Jr., Monroe Township Planning Commission
                               Regina Williams, Chair of Southampton Township Planning Commission
                                 Richard Talbert, Chairman of Mann Township Board of Supervisors

                                                      Auxiliary Members:
                                           Tolif Hunt, Western Pennsylvania Conservancy
                                        Frank Burggraf, Bedford County Planning Commission
                                         Alan Weaver, Bedford County Planning Commission

                           Participants in the Plan of Cooperation and Partnership Focus Group

                        Mann                              Monroe                             Southampton

                        Dick Talbert                      Bryon Mearkle                      Karen Cregger
                        Mary Stanley                      Annabelle Barkman                  Regina Williams
                        Joleen Jones                      Craig Kern                         Earl Miller
                        Denise Jay                        Seri Kern                          Ralph Molovich
                        Roy Clingerman                    Linette O’Neal                     Christine Gruitt
                        Tolif Hunt                        Tom O’Neal                         Don Gruitt
                        Tanya Hunt                        Thelma Blankley                    Doug Cessna
                        Delores O’Rourke                  George Blankley

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                  vi

                                            Participants in the Key Person Interviews

                        Mann                                Monroe                              Southampton

                        Barbara Snider                      Guy Akers                           Grant Ruby, Jr.
                        Roy Clingerman                      Greg Clark                          Wayne Cessna
                        Allen Jay                           Dwane L. Barkman                    Samuel Yokum
                        Ronnie Northcraft                   George Blankley                     Ralph Molovich
                        Richard Talbert                     Ronald W. May                       Karen Cregger
                        George E. Smith                     Bryon L. Mearkle                    Jay Tarleton
                        Gary E. Kifer                       A. Tod Pittman                      Christine Gruitt
                        Joleen Jones                        William I. Plank                    Justin Corey
                        Dave Ondrish                        Susan Shaw                          Paul Clark III
                        Virginia Conrad                     Tony Shaw                           Richard Roland, Sr.
                        Sloan Clingerman                    Shirley Collins                     Regina Williams
                        Delores O’Rourke                    Roger Hedrick                       Craig Hartsock
                        Larry Jay                           Peggy Clark                         Autumn Trail
                        Denise Jay                          Timothy Prather
                        Rachel Conrad
                        Tolif Hunt

                                                    OTHER CONTRIBUTORS:
                                   Department of Community and Economic Development (DCED)
                                            Bedford County Planning Commission (BCPC)
                                             Western Pennsylvania Conservancy (WPC)
                               Cynthia Whitman, Ph.D. Statistical Analysis of Data for the Public Survey
                                             Charleston Freidberg, Township Newsletters
                                     Helen Jay, 911 Mapping of Township and Historical Mapping
                                          Virginia Conrad and Allen Jay, Historical Mapping
                                                 Delores O’Rourke, Township History

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                 vii

                                                 OTHER CONTRIBUTORS (cont’d):

                                   Tolif Hunt, (WPC), Township Community Resources Technical Report
                                          Frank Burggraf, BCPC, Technical Assistance and Support
                                    Jeffry W. Kloss, Director, BCPC, Technical Assistance and Support
                                               Alan Weaver, BCPC, GIS Technical Assistance
                                                           Karen Cregger, Editing
                                                Use of Mann and Monroe Township Building
                                            Dick Talbert and Annabelle Barkman, Transportation

      This project was funded by a grant from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development,

The Western Pennsylvania Conservancy through a Growing Greener Grant from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Environmental

                                               The Bedford County Planning Commission,

                            And the volunteer efforts of citizens of Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships.

                                                        Planning Consultant:
                                                          Gannett Fleming, Inc.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                        viii
 Mann Township Comprehensive Plan
                    - Location and Regional Context                     - Mann Township History

                    - Settlement and Development History

                                                 Chapter 1 – Mann Township Yesterday – A History of the Township

                                                               LOCATION AND REGIONAL CONTEXT

                                                               The development of Mann Township can be attributed to a number of factors.
                                                               These include the existence of natural resources, farmland and timber, the
 Tewell Family Home Place, House Built c.1888                  ability of early settlers to tame the wilderness, and the development of
                                                               transportation networks connecting the area with the outside world. The current
                                                               character and resources of the community are a direct result of this historical
                                                               development, and these resources can play significant roles in the current
                                                               quality of life for the local residents. The rural and agricultural nature of the
                                                               community is greatly impacted by the historic events from the past.

                                                               SETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT HISTORY
                                                               A Brief History of Bedford County
                                                               Bedford County has an historic heritage spanning more than three centuries. Its
                                                               earliest settlement and exploration is associated with the early history of the
                                                               Commonwealth and the Nation. Bedford County was officially created in 1771
                                                               with the current boundaries established in 1850. The area is shaped by the
                                                               ridge and valley topography. Place names frequently refer to the ridges as
                                                               “knobs” and the low lands as “coves”. Land transportation routes usually pass
                                                               through the gaps in the ridges to avoid the mountainous terrain. Both Bedford
                                                               and Everett are examples of such settlements.

                                                               Early settlers were drawn to the area because of its natural resources,
                                                               waterways, and rich farmland. The early settlement period was characterized
                                                               by skirmishes with Native Americans, and the struggle between the French and
                                                               British for control of the land. Native trails proved insufficient for the
                                                               transportation of soldiers, pack animals, and wagons. Forbes Road was built so
                                                               that Pennsylvania could assist in securing the area for English trade and
                                                               settlement. A series of forts were constructed to provide for security and military
                                                               defense. Fort Bedford was a substantial fort along the road continuing west
                                                               toward Ligonier, the site of another fort, and on towards Fort Duquesne.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                1
                                                                                                                                    Chapter 1 - History

Whiskey, distilled from rye and wheat, which were the dominant crops           county. All historic structures were ranked by age, location, acreage, and
raised by early farmers, was a staple consumer good in frontier culture        current ownership. Each building and site was described, including its
and served as an important medium of exchange in a region short of             architectural style and contributing significance to the history of Bedford County.
cash. When the U.S. Congress levied a tax on whiskey, it outraged              This effort documents the rich heritage of the area and its many historic
frontier residents who felt the burden fell disproportionately on them. This   communities.
dissatisfaction increased the sense of isolation and alienation from
                                                                               Located in Bedford County today is a virtually unparalleled collection of historic
government authorities, as they believed they were unresponsive to their
                                                                               buildings and sites, many of them now in stages of use and restoration. Unlike
special needs and interests. This open rebellion was considered a threat
                                                                               many areas rich with historic background, Bedford County can boast that the
to the sovereignty of the new nation. Troops were sent to settle what is
                                                                               actual sites and buildings that have figured in most of its major past events
known as the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794.
                                                                               remain standing, in use, and in good condition in the late 20th century.
Agriculture was the predominant activity during the early settlement
period. Later industrial development included gristmills scattered             MANN TOWNSHIP’S HISTORY
throughout the county. Tanneries were other early industrial enterprises,
                                                                               Authored by Delores O’Rourke, Mann Township Resident
which utilized the abundant water resources. Blacksmiths were other
early businesses turning raw materials into useful goods. There were           On December 8, 1876, Mann Township separated from Southampton Township
early iron furnaces, which operated in Bedford County.                         to become its own Township. It was named after the late Hon. Job Mann.
                                                                               Although Native Americans were prevalent in the area during the early years of
Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon completed a three-year project to             settlement, there were no permanent Native American villages in the Township.
survey the boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland in the 1760’s.           It is believed that Native Americans living to the south frequently came to the
In the period before the Civil War, the famous Mason-Dixon Line                area, set up temporary camps to hunt and fish. John Shaffer and his wife, some
represented the boundary between slave and free states. The area               of the first settlers in the county, used to work reaping grain with rifles strapped
particularly around Bedford was heavily involved in the Underground            to their backs in order to guard against attacks from Native Americans.
Railroad, which transported escaped slaves to freedom.
                                                                               The Township’s development continued after the Civil War, and much of the
In the early 20th Century, the Lincoln Highway became the first improved       development centered on the villages of Artemas, Piney Creek, Inglesmith,
road that crossed the entire country. Coinciding with the boom in              Silver Mills, and Purcell. Most of these villages contained a general store, post
automobile ownership, the Lincoln Highway fostered the rapid growth of         office, school, blacksmith shop, gristmills, and, later on, even automobile repair
automobile tourism and transformed the lives of residents of southwestern      shops. But with the advent of the automobile and improvements in the road
Pennsylvania. Commerce along this important road and the many paved            systems, people began to travel to Everett and Bedford, PA, and Cumberland
roads it spawned transformed the roadside landscape of America. In the         and Hancock, MD, to shop and attend to other business and family concerns.
more than 140 miles where the Lincoln Highway left the western piedmont        The discovery of the gas fields in the early 1960’s also brought the need for
and crossed the rugged Alleghenies, an unusual concentration of historic,      workers to the area, but because large equipment and trucks were needed in
cultural, and scenic resources have survived and provide glimpses of the       the area the roads were further improved. Route 26, south of Kinser Heights to
early transportation era in Pennsylvania’s and the Nation’s history. These     the intersection of Big Creek Road, was first paved in the early 1970’s, probably
resources are managed, marketed, and preserved by the Lincoln Highway          to accommodate the gas drilling operation that was taking place in the
Heritage Corridor, Inc.                                                        Township. This slowly took away the need for the general stores. The small
                                                                               schoolhouses in each village closed in 1953. On November 4, 1953, the Mann-
In 1977, a countywide historic research project inventoried, studied,
                                                                               Monroe Elementary School was opened, and children from Mann Township
described, photographed, and mapped the historic resources of the

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                                 2
                                                                                                                                   Chapter 1 - History

began the long bus ride to the consolidated school in Clearville. The          George Poole and his wife Lula founded the second store in Artemas. They
small villages became just the few homes that remained.                        bought the property from John Bennett and proceeded to erect a one-story
                                                                               building within sight of Bennett’s store. The competition did not sever their
For many, the loss of these small nearby communities is felt in many           friendship. Both stores thrived, with Poole’s grocery continuing in business until
ways. One of the most obvious ways is the one remaining general store          the mid 1970s when Mr. Poole’s grandson Richard Hartley, who owned the
in Mann Township – The Road Kill Café and General Store. The store is          store at that time, closed the store.
open 7 days a week and serves breakfast, lunch, and dinner 6 days a
week. The store is always busy, with customers picking up a needed loaf        Quinter Bennett, son of John Bennett, owned the lathe mill. It was located
of bread or getting a last minute dessert – one of Barbara Snider’s famous     southwest of Artemas, about a mile from the village. Quinter made small
pies. But it may just be that people are there to visit with neighbors, chat   wooden lathes that were used in the construction of homes at that time.
about the latest issue, and check up on how folks are doing. It supplies       Combined with a plaster mixed with horsehair, the combination made for sturdy
what is missing from the lost villages of Mann Township – a sense of           walls, although not very warm. Mr. Bennett sold the mill in the early part of the
community.                                                                     1930s and moved to the Flintstone, Md. area.

                                                                               Artemas boasted two churches at one time in its small town limits. The first was
The Villages Of Mann Township                                                  the Dunkard Brethren church adjacent to the home of Rev. John Bennett. The
                                                                               building was erected in 1879 on property bought from Rev. Bennett for $1000.
Artemas                                                                        Rev. Bennett served as minister to the church and the Brethren faith for sixty
The Village of Artemas is situated in Mann Township 35 miles southeast         years, until his death in 1939. The building was discontinued as a place of
of the county seat of Bedford, Pa. It was named in honor of Artemas            worship in the 1950s. It was vacant until the mid 1990’ when it was renovated.
Bennnett, the first resident. In its heyday, it consisted of two general       It is presently used as a community building for the citizens of Mann Township.
stores, a post office, a one-room school, a lathe mill, a saw mill, a          The other church in the Artemas area is the Lebanon Christian church,
blacksmith shop, two churches, and eight private residences.                   established in 1900. Pastors who served this church through the years were,
                                                                               T.P.Garland, Henry May, Walter Twigg, and Charles Perrin. The church is still
The post office was opened on June 23, 1892, and it is still in operation.     active with a small, but spirited membership with John Miller, presiding minister.
The first postmaster was John Bennett. It is noted here that, in Artemas,
the post office was located in the residence of the first four postmasters.    The one room school was located in the center of Artemas across the road from
The postmasters in succession were Mary Bennett (daughter of John),            the post office and the Brethren church. It served the needs of the local children
Thelma Shipley, Mary Potts, Warren Golden, and Geraldine Strait                from the late 1800's to the 1940's when the local school board closed it. John
(present postmaster).                                                          Bennett’s daughter Ursula was one of the many teachers at this school. The
                                                                               building was sold to Fred Miller and moved to his property in Monroe Township
John Bennett was a descendant of founder Artemas Bennett, and                  along Big Creek Road. It was renovated into a home for Mr. Miller and his
perhaps its most prominent resident. Born in 1850, he became the sole          family.
support of his mother and siblings when his father, Israel Bennett, was
called to serve in the civil war. He eventually came to own several            Today, the small Village of Artemas is home to a small group of residents who
hundred acres of land in and around Artemas. He was not only the               relish the rural life still available to them. The Road Kill Café, the present
postmaster and storekeeper, but also a minister for the Dunkard Brethren       general store and restaurant, is just down the road. Occasionally a stray tourist
church. His store was located across the road from his home in the             will drive through looking for this small town attraction.
center of the village. He maintained this store until 1920 when blindness
and a thriving church ministry forced him to close.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                                3
                                                                                                                                  Chapter 1 - History

Inglesmith                                                                     Browning. This writer remembers going to that store as a little girl, with her
The Village of Inglesmith is located in Mann Township approximately            father. For a nickel she could purchase a whole bag of penny candy from the
midway between the villages of Purcell and Artemas. Situated in the            ever-pleasant Mrs. Lashley. The store was closed and sold in the mid 1960’s.
southwest corner of Bedford County it is approximately 31 miles from the       The building stands today as a private residence.
county seat of Bedford, Pa. The little village was named after one of its
                                                                               The church was the Fairview Christian Church, organized by Elder Benjamin
former lifetime residents, Ingle Smith, known to his friends as, Ing. In its
                                                                               Seever in 1838. The church building was erected around 1871. It still stands
earlier history, the little town consisted of a church, general store, post
                                                                               today as one of the most prominent churches in the township with a very
office, blacksmith shop, and a resident undertaker.
                                                                               devoted membership.

                                                                               The blacksmith shop was
                                                                               owned and operated by         Fairview Christian
                                                                               Palmer Howsare and was        Church , c. 1875
                                                                               located on the opposite
                                                                               side of the road from
                                                                               Fairview Church. The
                                                                               village blacksmith was a
                                                                               very important member of
                                                                               this and other
                                                                               communities in the area,
                                                                               as transportation during
                                                                               those earlier times was by
                      Ingle Smith and                                          horse and buggy and
                      3 Sons, 1950                                             other horse drawn
                                                                               conveyances. The
                                                                               blacksmith would make
The post office opened on August 20, 1902, and closed its doors on             the horseshoe out of
March 15, 1934. It was located across the road from Barnes General             metal heated on his forge,
Store. The first postmaster was Ingle (Ing) Smith. Mail service was            formed by the strength of
provided through the Artemas post office.                                      his hammer and his own
                                                                               muscle. He would also fit the shoe on the horses, and repair the wheels and
The general store was owned and operated by Oscar and Lula Barnes              axles of the buggies and wagons.
until 1954 when Mr. Barnes sold the store to Bruce Boden. He ran the
business until 1957 when the store was destroyed by fire. Mrs. Barnes          Perhaps the most prominent citizen in Inglesmith was Ephraim Smith, local
lived in the homestead until 1995, when ill health forced her to sell the      undertaker. His home and business was located near Barnes General Store.
house.                                                                         Eph Smith was one of the best-known men in southern Bedford and Fulton
                                                                               counties in Pennsylvania and the adjoining areas in Maryland. Through his
In later years, during the 1940’s, a general store was operated about a        professional services as a funeral director, he became known far and wide for
mile northeast of Inglesmith along Route 26. It was owned by Russ              his help and concern for people in time of need. He also took a very active part
Browning and was sold in the early 1950’s to Ernest and Pearl Lashley.         in the workings of the Fairview Church.
They also lived in the residence in back of the building, as did Mr.
Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                               4
                                                                                                                                  Chapter 1 - History

Ingle Smith’s son, Woodrow, ran a small gas station, located near his         located along a stream of water to power the mill’s large stone wheel, this mill
home, from the early 1950s until the late 1980s. He sold only gasoline        was located on the banks of Piney Creek.
and oil from the small building, but it was a very essential enterprise and
very much appreciated by the local people.                                    The steam-powered sawmill was situated on the farm of John Barns. In a
                                                                              newspaper item dated June, 1894, the mill’s fireman was Moses Robison who
In 1953, Robert Watson opened a barrel stave mill in Inglesmith. Known        had recently resigned. Clay Nee, who showed himself to be more than able to
as Watson’s Stave Mill, the company made barrel staves for the                handle this dangerous job, filled the position. Also in that same newspaper
manufacture of wooden barrels. The stave mill also produced wooden            article was made mention of resident Henry May, who had laid a large
ties that were used in the coal mines as props to hold up the roof of the     foundation for an ice house, which he expected to finish in the near future. The
mines. The barrel staves and mine ties were made from white oak, which        icehouse was built next door to Mr. May’s residence, about a mile east of the
was of great abundance in the area at this time. This company employed        general store of John Morse.
about 6 men on a regular basis.
                                                                                                                 Ice Cutting on Persimmon Pond
Watson’s Stave Mill ceased operations in the late 1970’s. The mill was
located just south of the Fairview Church. The home of Kenny and Eileen
Barnes stands in that location today.

Today the Village of Inglesmith is not as nearly as populated as it was in
times past. The church and adjoining cemetery remain, along with
several homes. The area still maintains its rural atmosphere, along with
the memories of its past, which are deeply rooted in each succeeding

Piney Creek
The Village of Piney Creek was located on a stream of that name in Mann
Township, approximately 25 miles southeast of the county seat of
Bedford, Pa. The village was situated along what is currently Route 26, or    The one room schools in the Piney Creek area were the Conrad School, located
Clear Ridge Road, between the villages of Artemas and Clearville.             about two miles east of the general store/post office. The other was the
In its heyday, there were several private residences, a general store with    Blackberry Lick School, located west of the store in an area of Piney Creek
a U.S. post office contained within, a gristmill, a sawmill, an icehouse, a   known as Blackberry Lick Road - hence the name of the school.
church, and 2 one-room schoolhouses.                                          Charles Clingerman remembers attending four different one room schools in the
The post office was open from July 17, 1872, to February 28, 1920, with       Mann Township area when he was a child. This was due to the fact that his
service provided through Clearville. The first postmaster was John            father, Marshall Clingerman, was one of the teachers in the Mann Township
Morse, who was also the proprietor of the general store, as was the case      area schools. Young Charles attended whatever school his father happened to
in many of these small rural areas.                                           be teaching in at the time. Vera Jay Foster was the teacher of the Conrad
                                                                              school. She boarded with members of the Silas Robison family during the
The gristmill was located on the Jacob Conrad homestead, which was            school term. As she was within a mile of the school, she was able to keep the
situated down the hill behind the John Morse house. As gristmills must be     school open during inclement weather. Marshall Clingerman was at the mercy

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                               5
                                                                                                                                  Chapter 1 - History

of the weather. His schools’ terms ran longer than Mrs. Foster’s because     backyard of his home in 1947, giving this house a touch of history - remembered
he had to drive some distance to teach.                                      more for the tragedy than the fact that it was the home of the Village’s founding
The church that was situated in the Piney Creek area was known as the
Greenfield Christian Church. It was organized in 1854, and the actual        Francis Smith ran the planing mill, and local citizens would bring their saw milled
meetinghouse was built in 1861. In a newspaper article dated November,       lumber to Mr. Smith to be planed into workable boards to be used for various
1894, there was a very successful church revival in progress under the       building projects. The mill was located across from Mr. Smith’s residence, near
guidance of Rev. A. G. Garland.                                              the creek that ran through the village. The mill ceased operations during the
The church remained active until the early years of 1900 when a rift
occurred between the members. Apparently, there were arguments and           The blacksmith shop was owned and run by the Smith brothers, Job, Walt,
bad feelings among many of the parishioners. An impasse had been             Frank, and Bert. Job Smith performed the duties of farrier, which was the job of
reached, and no one would budge. One night, the church building burned       putting new shoes on the local farmers’ horses. He performed this task at the
to the ground. The person or persons responsible were never brought to       barn of local farmer Oscar Shipley. Sadly this task became almost non-existent
an accounting. The membership dissolved, and the congregation went           with the advent of the farm tractor in this area in the 1940’s.
their separate ways. The cemetery is the only remaining evidence of
there ever having been a church in that area.                                The largest general store was owned and operated by Hiram and Oscar
                                                                             Shipley. They carried all the groceries, household products, clothing, and
The Village of Piney Creek is no longer in existence. There are about        assorted goods necessary for maintaining the homes of the local citizens.
three families living in the approximate area. They are direct descendants   Hiram and his wife Laurie continued to run the store for many years after the
of Silas Robison who lived in the Piney Creek area in the late 1800’s and    death of his brother Oscar. Even after the untimely death of his wife in 1957,
early 1900’s. Charles and Evelyn Clingerman live in the house once           Hiram ran the business into the late 1960's, when old age and ill health forced
occupied by Henry May (who built the icehouse). Their sons Roy and           him to finally close the store. The building was torn down in 1985. Many stories
Lance live in the other two residences in the Piney Creek area.              and local legends about the life of the store are all that remain of this icon of
                                                                             rural life.
Purcell                                                                      Ralph Smith owned the other general store in the confines of the little Village. It
The Village of Purcell is located in Mann Township, approximately 28         was situated next door to the home of Francis Smith, who ran the planing mill.
miles southeast of the county seat of Bedford, Pa. It is situated along      This store was not in operation for any length of time, due to the competition
what is known as Big Creek Road. It has a population of about 30 full        from the larger store run by the Shipley brothers.
time residents and several small homes that are occupied during the
summer months and during hunting season.                                     The educational needs of the children of the immediate area were met by the
                                                                             Miller’s Grove school, which sat near the center of the Village of Purcell on a
Purcell once boasted a post office, planing mill, blacksmith shop, church,   small hillside. Marshall Clingerman, Guy Snowden, and Ira Robinson were
two general stores, and a one room school house. The post office was         three of the teachers at the school in the course of its history. The school was
opened on April 29, 1870 and was in operation until February 28, 1920.       closed in 1952. The building still stands today, renovated and used as a private
Mail service was provided through the Clearville office. The first           residence.
postmaster was James Purcell, and the post office was located in Mr.
Purcell’s home. Local opinion is that the ancestors of James Purcell         Elders Smith and Pennell organized the Bethel Christian Church in 1845. The
founded the Village of Purcell. This house is known today as the old         building was established in 1877, and is located along Big Creek Road,
Therman Smith homestead. Mr. Smith died in a tragic auto fire in the         approximately 1 mile northeast of the Village of Purcell. Membership has
Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                               6
                                                                                                                                       Chapter 1 - History

fluctuated at the church over the years. It was even closed for short             for feed for their animals. Oliver Akers and Harry Wigfield operated the gristmill
periods of time during its history. However, it now boasts a membership           for James Akers, who was occupied with the operation of the store. The mill
and congregation that is one of the largest in the Mann Township area.            was closed down near the late 1930s or early 1940s. It is not known when the
Ministers over the years were T. P. Garland, Walter Twigg, Charles                general store was closed.
Perrin, and Russell Hoffman, present minister.
                                                                                  There was a swinging bridge located over the creek. This footbridge was used
Purcell once hosted a sect of the Patriotic Order of Sons of America. It          as a means of crossing the creek, instead of using the main bridge used for
was known as the Washington Camp Post # 493. The membership                       vehicle traffic. It was also a shortcut to the store/post office. The swinging
consisted strictly of veterans of U.S. military service who had fought in         bridge was destroyed by a flood in the spring of 1936, and never replaced. It is
America’s wars. In a newspaper article dated May 6, 1894, local resident          noted here that the flood in 1936 was due to heavy spring rains and the melting
Silas Miller, who was president of the local chapter, was thrown from his         of the snow accumulated during the sever winter of 1935-36.
horse on his way home from visiting Camp #520, located at nearby Silver
Mills. He was bruised somewhat, with only his ego receiving most of the           A blacksmith shop was also located here during the decade of the 1870s. It
damage.                                                                           was owned and operated by Oliver Leasure. Once again, note that the
                                                                                  blacksmith held a very prominent spot in the everyday life of the citizenry of this
The little Village of Purcell stands today in the pristine mountainous area       rural hamlet.
of south central Pennsylvania. It is home to only a few people now and
not nearly as large as it once was, but it is rich in its history as one of the   The one room school in Silver Mills was located on a knoll overlooking the
many tiny hamlets that became the building blocks of our country’s                village. Nothing remains today of the school building. However, a large oak
heritage.                                                                         tree that stood next to the school remains a silent memorial scarred perhaps
                                                                                  with the jack knife carvings of many a school boy of bygone days.

Silver Mills                                                                      A local chapter of the Patriotic Order of the Sons of America was established in
The small Village of Silver Mills was located in the southeast corner of          Silver Mills. It was known as Chapter # 520, and was affiliated with the
Mann Township, near the Maryland and Fulton County, Pa. boundary                  Washington Camp Post #493, just over the ridge in neighboring Purcell. It is not
lines. Nestled among the rugged terrain and ridge tops that make up the           known in what building or home the group met. It is possible that it was the
Allegheny mountain chain, its stunning rural beauty of trees, Sideling Hill       general store. The membership was comprised of veterans who served in the
Creek, and sharp rock outcroppings make it truly one of nature’s finest           U.S. military.
works of art. In its heyday, it boasted a one room school, grist mill,
                                                                                  Today only a few permanent residences and summer homes dot the landscape
blacksmith shop, post office, and a local chapter of the P O S of A
                                                                                  of what was known as Silver Mills. The road running through it still bears the
(Patriotic Order of the Sons of America). Local belief holds that the name
                                                                                  name. The only remaining evidence of the former gristmill is a stone formation
Silver Mills is derived from the existence of the flour mill located there.
                                                                                  known as a mill trace. Nature seeks to reclaim that which was hers, as dense
The post office opened on August 15, 1895, and closed on February 28,             tree foliage and undergrowth grow rampant in the area near the old mill and
1920. Mail service was provided through Belle Grove, Maryland. The first          store site.
postmaster was James N. Akers.
                                                                                  Many of these small villages that were once so prolific have disappeared into
The general store was owned and operated by Nels Akers. The store                 the pages of history. At one time, impassable roads, bad weather, and
was located near Sideling Hill Creek, which ran through the village. Mr.          unreliable transportation made the rural way of life more tightly knit. This knot of
Akers also owned the gristmill that was powered by the water from the             humanity has come unwound with the developments of modern technology.
adjoining creek. Local farmers brought their grain to the mill to be ground
Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                                    7
                                                                                                                                 Chapter 1 - History

The close-knit environment of the small rural village has quickly and        A one-room school was also located along the road known as Blackberry Lick
quietly vanished. Perhaps we are not the better because of it.               Road. The school took its name from this rather uniquely named road. One of
                                                                             the teachers at this school was Blanche Bennett, a sister to another teacher,
                                                                             Ursula Bennett Jay, who taught at the Fairview School. Miss Bennett taught at
One Room Schools Of Mann Township                                            the school around 1912. It is not known when this school was closed.
Based upon the recollections of some former students that attended the
one-room schools in Mann Township, it is believed that there were a total    The seventh one-room school known to have existed in the Mann Township
of 8 schools in operation during the first half of the 20th century.         area was the Northcraft School located at the intersection of Bennett Road and
                                                                             Perrin Road near Murphy Springs. Nothing remains of this school other than
The Artemas School was located in the heart of the Village of Artemas,       the foundation and some crumbling chimney bricks. One stone step stands
just across the road from the post office. It was closed sometime in the     silent - a mute testimony to the many small feet that once trod each day into this
early 1940’s, and local resident Fred Miller purchased the building. Mr.     vanished symbol of early American education.
Miller then hauled the building to his property, located in Monroe
Township along Big Creek Road. He then renovated the former school           The last school known to have existed in the Township was located in the heart
into a home for himself and his family. It still stands today as a private   of the Village of Purcell. Known as the Millers Grove School, it was the last one-
residence.                                                                   room school to be active in the immediate area. Two of the teachers were
                                                                             Marshall Clingerman and Guy Snowden. The school was closed in 1952. The
The second school was named the Center Schoolhouse, and was located          building still stands today, renovated as a private residence.
near the homestead known as the Savannah Smith property. This is
adjacent to the farm of prominent resident Allen Jay. The school building    The fate of these one-room schools was sealed with the growth of the many
was sold to an out-of-area person, dismantled and moved away. It is not      communities that they served. More schools were needed and it was not
known when the school was closed.                                            economically feasible to maintain so many widely ranging buildings. Larger
                                                                             schools were built in more centrally located areas as school districts merged
The Silver Mills School was located on the Silver Mills Road, which was      and students were bused to them in mass. A better and higher form of
the site of an old gristmill. It was located on a hilltop northeast of the   education was achieved with the advent of the larger schools; still there are
village of the same name. The only remnant of the school is an old           many of the older citizens among us that believe that something has been lost in
weathered oak tree, which stood next to the school.                          the transition to bigger and better.

The fourth one-room school was located along Crooked Run Road in the         A Map showing the location of many of the historic homes, churches, and
southern portion of Mann Township, near the present-day Road Kill Café.      cemeteries can be found in Appendix D – Geographic Information Systems
It was known as the Fairview School. Lifelong resident and former road       Mapping. A matrix that provides the details for the labeled properties is included
supervisor, Eugene Jay, recalls hearing from his father that his             as part of the introduction to the Appendix.
grandmother, Ursula Bennett Jay, once taught at this school around 1900.
It is believed that the school was closed in the early 1920s.

Another school that is only a memory is the Conrad School located on
Route 26, or Clear Ridge Road, near the former homestead of Simon Jay.
Two of the teachers at that school were, Ada Foster Jay and Marshall
Clingerman, father of local resident Charles Clingerman.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                              8
 Mann Township Comprehensive Plan
                   - Introduction              - Community Facilities and Services                    - Transportation
                   - Population                - Environmental Resources                              - Land Use
                   - Housing                   - Economics                                            - Administration and Finance

                                        Chapter 2 – Mann Township Today – A Summary of Trends and Issues


                                                                Before realistic plans can be made for future development, it is essential to
                                                                understand the community of Mann Township as it is today, what trends
                                                                have defined its existing condition, and what forces are likely to shape its
                                                                future. This chapter summarizes the key trends and issues surrounding the
                                                                Township’s natural, social, and functional characteristics, and examines their
                                                                potential impact on its future sustainability. More details about these trends
                                                                and issues can be found in Appendix A – Technical Background Studies. The
                                                                supporting maps can be found in Appendix D – Geographic Information
                                                                Systems Mapping.

                                                                POPULATION TRENDS AND ISSUES

                                                                       While Mann Township has experienced significant population
                                                                        increases over the past thirty years (42.7 percent), during the 1990s
                                                                        its population remained constant at 481 persons.
                                                                       The Township’s population is aging, with just over 58 percent over
                                                                        35 years old. In fact during the 1990’s, the median age in the
                                                                        Township increased from 37.4 years to 39.7 years. This trend is
                                                                        likely to produce increasing demands on the region’s health, social,
 Overlook of Allen Jay Farm                                             and recreational services and facilities.
                                                                       Relatively high levels of immigration contribute significantly to the
                                                                        planning area’s population increases. According to 2000 Census
                                                                        data, approximately 6 percent of the Township's population (31
                                                                        persons) older than age 5 resided outside of Pennsylvania in 1995.
                                                                        Given the Township’s proximity to Maryland and the accessibility to
                                                                        Interstates 70 and 68, it is likely that many of these immigrants are
                                                                        coming from the greater Washington D.C. and Baltimore
                                                                        metropolitan areas.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                             9
                                                                                                                     Chapter 2 Trends and Issues

                                                                                             Census, comprised 68.7 percent (272 units) of the Township’s
                                                                                             housing stock. Another 25 percent are mobile homes.
                   Percent of Total Population (5 Years Old and Over)
                       Whose Residence in 1995 was Outside of
                                                                                      COMMUNITY FACILITIES AND SERVICES TRENDS AND ISSUES
                                   Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000
                                                                                            Many of Mann Township’s community facilities and services are
                 10.0                                                                        located in adjoining or nearby communities, which is often the case
                                                                                             in rural areas throughout Pennsylvania.
                                              6.0             6.3                           At the present time, there are no public sewage or drinking water

                  6.0                                                                        systems within the Township.
                                                                                      NATURAL RESOURCES TRENDS AND ISSUES
                                                                                            Preservation of Mann Township’s rural character is a very important
                  0.0                                                                        issue, as it is one of its greatest assets. However, measures to
                        Bedford County      Monroe      Mann Township   Southampton          protect the natural resources and open spaces that are the essence
                                           Township                      Township
                                                                                             of this character are very limited.
                                                                                            There is a diverse array of biological resources within the Township.
                                                                                             Therefore, great care must be exercised in routine decision-making
            According to 2000 Census data, Mann Township residents have                     to control/prevent the potential negative impacts to them.
             seen a decrease in Median Household Income of approximately 10
             percent, as well as a slight increase in the number of persons who
             fall below the poverty level.


            Mann Township experienced significant housing unit growth rates
             between 1980 and 2000. During this twenty-year period, 144 new
             homes were built. Of these new homes, 80 were built since 1990.
             Overall, this represents a 59.8 percent increase since 1980.
            According to the U.S. Census Bureau, just over 43 percent of the
             housing units in Mann Township are classified as vacant for
             “seasonal, recreational, or occasional use”.
                                                                                                                                Sideling Hill Creek
            The predominant residential unit design in Mann Township is the
             single-family detached dwelling, which, according to the 2000

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                                  10
                                                                                                                  Chapter 2 Trends and Issues

                                                                                         transportation costs and increasing inaccessibility of supplies are
                                                                                         becoming difficult hurdles for the small producer to overcome.
        PA Department of Environmental Protection has designated Sideling
         Hill Creek, which is located in the eastern part of the Township, as           The local labor force is transitioning from a manufacturing and
         an Exceptional Value Waterway                                                   agricultural based labor force to a service based labor force. A
                                                                                         concern here is the low wages paid by many service industry jobs.
                                                                                         Future declines in the manufacturing and agricultural industry will
                                                                                         produce a significant impact on the planning area residents.

        More than half of the Township’s employed population works in the
         manufacturing or services sector according to 2000 Census data.
        While only 8 percent of the work force is employed in agricultural
         pursuits, this is a slight increase over 1990 Census figures. This is a
         significantly higher percentage than for the state as a whole, where
         less than 1.5 percent of the workforce is employed in agriculture.

               Mann Township                         Forestry,
       Resident Employment by Industry            Fisheries and
                    2000                              Mining
          Source: U.S. Census Bureau                    8%


                     Transportation,                                                                                     Mann Township Aerial Photo
                    Communication &                               Manufacturing
                      Public Utilities                                26%
                           8%                                                      TRANSPORTATION TRENDS AND ISSUES

                                  Retail Trade          Wholesale Trade                 There are almost 70 miles of roadway throughout Mann Township.
                                     16%                      2%                         Of these, just over 44 miles are the responsibility of the Township.
                                                                                        Most residents are generally satisfied with the current level of
        An important trend that is emerging within the Township and                     maintenance of the Township’s roads. In fact, some have expressed
         surrounding communities is that the agricultural and forestry                   concerns that if the roads were improved too much, excessive
         industries are relying more and more on purchasing supplies and                 speeding would become a problem, or that it may increase
         selling their products outside of the area. The associated                      development pressures.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                               11
                                                                                                           Chapter 2 Trends and Issues

      The PENNDOT sponsored “Agility Program” has enabled the            ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL TRENDS AND ISSUES
       Township to exchange services, thus providing substantial cost
       savings for more expensive paving and other services.                     Mann Township is classified as a Second Class Township and
                                                                                  currently has a three member Board of Supervisors, as well as a
                                                                                  planning commission.

LAND USE TRENDS AND ISSUES                                                       The Township has joined with Monroe and Southampton Townships
                                                                                  to create a Joint Advisory Board to the Mann, Monroe, and
      Just over 8,100 acres of the Township are included in either the           Southampton Boards of Supervisors in an effort to address problems
       Buchanan State Forest or Pennsylvania Game Lands. The Western              of mutual concern.
       Pennsylvania Conservancy owns another 300 acres.
                                                                                 Tax revenues accounted for approximately 25 percent of all
      Just over 83 percent of the Township is covered by forest – both           revenues in the Township in 2001.
       private and state-owned.
                                                                                 Road maintenance is the largest expenditure – almost 67 percent
                                                                                  over the past three years.

                          Mann Township
              Summary of Land Use/Cover Distributions                                           Mann Township Expenditures
                  Source: Bedford C ounty Planning C ommission, 2002                                  1999, 2000, 2001
                                                                                                     Source: Tow nship Audit Report

                            Other                     Agriculture,               $160,000
                             3%                        Meadow,
                                                       Grazing                   $140,000
                                                         14%                     $120,000                                             Miscellaneous
                                                                                                                                      Debt Service
                                                                                                                                      Culture & Recreation
                                                                                  $60,000                                             Sanitation
                                                                                                                                      Public Safety
                                 83%                                              $40,000
                                                                                                                                      General Government

                                                                                             1999        2000            2001

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                                  12
Mann Township Comprehensive Plan
                      -   Community Values                        - The Community Survey                         - Community Goals
                      -   Key Person Interviews                   - The Focus Group Workshops

                                                  Chapter 3 – Mann Township Tomorrow – Values, Visions, and Goals

                                                                           COMMUNITY VALUES

                                                                           Residents of Mann Township have chosen to live there for a variety of
                                                                           reasons. Many were born and raised in the area, while the sense of
                                                  Historic Barn            community and the beauty of the natural environment have drawn others. As
                                                                           part of the planning process, residents were asked to contribute to the
                                                                           understanding of community values by identifying the area’s assets and the
                                                                           issues it currently faces. This was accomplished by way of Key Person
                                                                           Interviews in January 2003, a community survey during the later winter of
                                                                           2003, and a series of three Focus Group Workshops in April, May, and June

                                                                           The results of the interviews and survey helped to focus the planning process
                                                                           and ultimately defined some central themes for the plan. The intent was that
                                                                           these ideas would evolve into a community-wide vision, statements of
                                                                           common goals and objectives, and finally, strategies to deal with pressing
                                                                           issues, as well as to preserve and enhance the quality of life in Mann

                                                                           KEY PERSON INTERVIEWS

                                                                           Key Person Interviews were conducted in a workshop setting in January,
                                                                           2003. Six separate sessions were held over two days with the following
                                                                           stakeholder groups:

                                                                                  Business Owners
                                                                                  Farmers and Loggers
                                                                                  Supervisors
                                                                                  “Transplants”
                                                                                  Parents, Students, Teachers
                                                                                  “Natives”

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                       13
                                                                                                  Chapter 3 – Values, Visions, and Goals

The sessions were well attended and each group was asked about the              The results of the survey were compiled for each individual Township, as well
strengths and weaknesses of the community. They were also asked what            as for all three together. Residents were asked to express their degree of
they believed to be the top three challenges facing the community. The top      agreement with a series of questions that dealt with a range of issues and
three challenges as seen by each group are listed below.                        priorities. A copy of the survey with the results from Mann Township, along
                                                                                with a series of charts that compares the results with Southampton and
       Business Owners Group - Maintain the rural lifestyle; Financing the     Monroe Townships can be found in Appendix B. A general summary of
        operation of new sewage treatment systems; Maintain markets for         those results follows.
        agricultural and forest products
                                                                                       Almost 90 percent of respondents believe the quality of life in Mann
       Farmers & Loggers Group - Control taxes, esp. property tax;                     Township is very good.
        Sewer management; Control land development
                                                                                       A majority of respondents (55-60 percent) are very satisfied with the
       Supervisors Group – Need for money to provide services; Sewage                  Township government in regard to citizen input, building permits,
        functions and enforcement; Unmanaged land development                           codes and inspections, and also planning and zoning regulations.
       Transplants Group - Directing growth/smart growth; Water quality &             More than 80 percent of respondents agreed to some extent that the
        quantity protection; Interest young people and encourage                        following were major problems in the Township:
        entrepreneurs to make their own jobs
                                                                                               Illegal trash dumping
       Parents, Students, Teachers Group – Creating jobs that would
        keep young people in the area; supporting advanced programs for                        High unemployment
        students with special needs; making school available for community
                                                                                               High property taxes
                                                                                       Preserving the character of the community and agricultural land, as
       Natives Group – Managing Development; Maintaining Rural
                                                                                        well as promoting farming should be given the highest priority
        Character; Protect natural resources
                                                                                        according to almost 100 percent of respondents.
                                                                                       Over 70 percent of Mann Township respondents believe that
                                                                                        employment opportunities are not adequate within the community;
                                                                                        almost 60 percent also feel that police service is not adequate.
THE COMMUNITY SURVEY                                                                   However, the majority of residents believe that fire and ambulance
As part of the joint planning process, a public survey of the three Townships           service, public utilities, public education facilities, public library
was undertaken. A random sample using the Systematic Sampling Method                    services, and highway and road maintenance are adequate.
was used to select participants. The sample of 15 percent of each Township             Family farms should be encouraged in Mann Township according to
was selected. To ensure local resident participation, 85 percent of the                 100 percent of respondents.
sample were local residents and 15 percent were non-local landowners.
Altogether, a total of 311 surveys were sent, with 140 returned, or 45                 Over 80 percent of respondents support actions that protect
percent. In Mann Township, a total of 86 surveys were distributed and 37                agricultural land from development and that protect property values,
were returned – a response rate of 43 percent.                                          as well as reasonable land use regulations.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                               14
                                                                                        Chapter 3 – Values, Visions, and Goals

       The following types of development should not be encouraged in
        Mann Township according to over 70 percent of respondents:
                                                                               Action Plan Definitions
               Concentrated Animal Farming Operations (CAFOs)
               Large Lot Subdivisions                                         Goals are general statements of desirable future
                                                                               community conditions. When read as a list, goals
               High density subdivisions                                      comprehensively describe the desired character of the
                                                                               community. Each goal in the Action Plan is further
       Most respondents agree that there are adequate recreational
                                                                               expanded beneath the goal statement.
        facilities in the Township.
       Public sewer and water should be available at a reasonable cost,       Objectives are measurable statements of direction to be
        where feasible according to 55 to 60 percent of respondents.           taken toward accomplishing a goal. An objective may
                                                                               highlight a specific area of need, e.g., housing for seniors
                                                                               or traffic safety in residential neighborhoods.

THE FOCUS GROUP WORKSHOPS - THE VISION STATEMENT                               Policies describe the intent of the objective, (who, how,
                                                                               and why) in greater detail.
With an understanding of how residents view current community life in Mann
Township, a vision for an improved community could be defined based on         Action Strategies are the specific recommended tasks
the comments about the area’s assets and issues. The vision has identified     that are designed to assist the community in making
assets as resources and policies to be preserved and enhanced, and             progress toward its goals.
transformed issues and conditions of concern into conditions of community
benefit. Based on the results of residents’ input, a series of Vision          Methods, Tools, and References provide techniques,
Statements were drafted and presented during the first of three Focus Group    publications, and other resources that the community can
Workshops attended by residents of all three townships. As part of the first   use to accomplish each task.
workshop, participants were asked to validate or adjust the Vision
Statements. The results were then combined into an area-wide Vision            Partners and Funding Sources provide community,
Statement that was then used to develop a series of goals and objectives.      technical, and financial support for recommended tasks.
The following is the final Vision Statement for the Mann, Monroe, and          Partners can assist in programming improvements and/or
Southampton Township area:                                                     in application for similar or complementary grants to fund
                                                                               components of a task. They can also sponsor fundraising,
       A community where residents enjoy a high quality of life               educational events, or programs associated with a task or
                                                                               assist in publicity or public education.
       A community that values and protects its rural heritage
       A community where the abundance of natural resources is protected      A list of acronyms used in the Action Plans can be found
        from degradation                                                       in Appendix C.
       A community that plans for sustainable growth and development
       A community that ensures the health and safety of its residents.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                   15
                                                                                                 Chapter 3 – Values, Visions, and Goals

                                                                                Goals and Objectives: Housing
With an understanding of a more desirable community condition, a list of           Goal: Maintain a high quality of life for all residents
goals, objectives, and strategies was prepared that would enable Mann
Township to achieve its vision. Each item from the Vision Statements has           Objective:
been categorized by its relationship to a municipal planning element and              Continue to encourage safe, affordable housing for the region’s
written as a goal – a broad directive for enhancement or improvement.                  residents
Objectives were then written to support each goal, describing various means
by which to achieve progress. Finally, a number of strategies were
developed and are accompanied by relevant tools, partners, and funding          Goals and Objectives: Community Facilities and Services
resources in the various action plans (see Chapter 5). This categorization
and development process involved the Joint Comprehensive Plan Steering             Goal: Provide accessible community services and facilities that meet
Committee and the residents who participated in the Focus Group                    residents’ needs
Workshops.                                                                         Objectives:
                                                                                      Maintain/improve adequate fire, police, and other emergency
Goals and Objectives: Future Land Use
                                                                                      Continue support for varied educational & health care opportunities
   Goal: Preserve the rural character of the Township and surrounding
   communities                                                                        Promote a diversity of cultural and recreational opportunities
      Preserve most productive agricultural lands                              Goals & Objectives: Plan of Cooperation & Partnership
      Preserve/promote family farming                                          Goal: Continue inter-municipal cooperation to achieve common goals
      Encourage use of sustainable agricultural methods
                                                                                      Reduce cost of providing services
      Develop reasonable land use regulations
                                                                                      Improve delivery of services
                                                                                      Continue planning for future demographic and land use changes
   Goal: Preserve and protect the area’s natural resources
                                                                                Goals and Objectives: Natural and Cultural Resources
      Manage woodlands to allow for sustainable timbering and wildlife
       habitat                                                                     Goal: Preserve and protect the area’s natural resources

      Protect prime agricultural soils, steep slopes and riparian wood lands      Objectives:
       from development                                                               Clean-up and protect the area’s streams and rivers

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                             16
                                                                                       Chapter 3 – Values, Visions, and Goals

      Manage woodlands to allow for sustainable timbering and wildlife
      Protect prime agricultural soils from development                  Cornfield in Mann Township
      Encourage use of sustainable agricultural methods

Goals and Objectives: Economic Development
   Goal: Maintain a high quality of life for all residents
      Promote a diversity of economic activities
      Preserve/promote family farming
      Enhance retention and expansion of existing businesses

Goals and Objectives: Transportation
   Goal: Provide accessible community services and facilities that meet
   residents’ needs
      Maintain/improve all roads and bridges
      Provide services at the most reasonable cost

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                              17
 Mann Township Comprehensive Plan
                         - Introduction                                    - The Joint Advisory Board
                         - Results of the Focus Groups                     - The Advisory Committees
                         - A Vision of the Future

                                             Chapter 4 – A Plan for the Future – The Plan of Cooperation and Partnership

                                                                                   Develop a list of possible ways for the three Townships to cooperate
                                                                                    together for their mutual benefit.
                                                                                   Revise the “Cooperation List” to develop a proposal to be presented
                                                                                    to the three Boards of Township Supervisors for consideration.

                                                                             The following community members participated in the workshops:
                                                                                                Mann Township
                                                                                                   Dick Talbert
                                                                                                   Mary Stanley
                                                                                                   Joleen Jones
                                                                                                   Denise Jay
                                                                                                   Roy Clingerman
                                                                                                   Tolif Hunt
                                                                                                   Tanya Hunt
                                                                                                   Delores O’Rourke
                              Silver Mills Bridge – Low Water                Southampton Township                   Monroe Township
                                                                             Karen Cregger                          Bryon Mearkle
                                                                             Regina Williams                        Annabelle Barkman
INTRODUCTION                                                                 Earl Miller                            Craig Kern
                                                                             Ralph Molovich                         Seri Kern
The following Plan of Cooperation and Partnership was developed from the
                                                                             Christine Gruitt                       Linette O’Neal
efforts of the three Focus Group Workshops held jointly by Mann, Monroe,
and Southampton Townships. The Focus Groups met for 2-hour sessions on       Donald Gruitt                          Tom O’Neal
April 30, 2003, May 28, 2003, and June 11, 2003. The goals of the group      Doug Cessna                            Thelma Blankley
were to:                                                                                                            George Blankley
      Develop a set of specific goals and objectives for the plan.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                       18
                                                                                Chapter 4 – Plan of Cooperation and Partnership


The following list is a general summary of some of the ideas that came out of
the discussions of the focus groups.

       Farmer’s market
       Pamphlet advertising local products and where they can be
        purchased                                                                                  Mann Township Bulky Waste Day
       Shared Building Inspector, Sewage Enforcement Officer, and
       Communication - Joint Newsletter, Community Events, Public
        Information, Maintain Bulk Postal Rate, Joint Website (advertisement
        for web site)
       Promote recycling (explore partnership with Maryland)
       Form Co-ops: Small business, farm, timber
       Subdivision & Land Development Ordinances
       Liaison between Townships and school district – curriculum issues,
        program concerns, and facilities issues, etc.
       Emergency Services
       Community Picnic
       Retrieve/Revive/Preserve Historical Landmarks
       Establish Bulky Waste Collection Day for Monroe Township –
        Combine resources with Southampton and Mann Townships to save
        money, encourage recycling, and illegal dump clean-up

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                   19
                                                                                  Chapter 4 – Plan of Cooperation and Partnership

SOUTHAMPTON TOWNSHIPS                                                           TOWNSHIPS

A vision of the future was developed as a result of the analysis of existing       Objectives:
conditions, and citizens' input from of all three Townships obtained from              Preserve the most productive agricultural lands
community forums, key person interviews, and a public survey. The Vision of
the Future and the Goals and Objectives reflect the direction that future              Preserve/promote family farming
action should take on behalf of the three Townships. The Boards of                     Encourage use of sustainable agricultural methods
Supervisors of the three Townships agree to support that effort through the
following plan.                                                                        Develop reasonable land use regulations

                                                                                GOAL: PRESERVE AND PROTECT THE AREA’S NATURAL
The Cooperative Planning Region is…                                             RESOURCES
       A community where residents enjoy a high quality of life                   Objectives:
       A community that values and protects its rural heritage                        Clean-up and protect the area’s streams and rivers
       A community where the abundance of natural resources is protected              Manage woodlands to allow for sustainable timbering and wildlife
        from degradation                                                                habitat
       A community that plans for sustainable growth and development                  Protect prime agricultural soils from development
       A community that ensures the health and safety of its residents
                                                                                GOAL: CONTINUE INTER-MUNICIPAL COOPERATION TO ACHIEVE
                                                                                COMMON GOALS
  Objectives:                                                                      Objectives:

       Promote a diversity of economic activities                                     Reduce cost of providing services
                                                                                       Improve delivery of services
       Promote a diversity of cultural and recreational opportunities
                                                                                       Continue planning for future demographic and building and non-
GOAL: PROVIDE ACCESSIBLE COMMUNITY SERVICES AND                                         agricultural land use changes
                                                                                       Main the area's "good" Air Quality Index rating
                                                                                To support the Vision of the Future and the Goals and Objectives for the
       Maintain/improve adequate fire, police, and other emergency             three Townships, the Boards of Supervisors for Mann, Monroe, and
        services                                                                Southampton Townships agree to continue to work together on a number of
                                                                                projects, and plan to continue that cooperation and support of each other to
       Continue support for varied educational & health care opportunities
                                                                                the best interest of the citizens of the three Townships.
       Maintain and improve the stability of all roads and bridges belonging
        to the townships
Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                            20
                                                                                Chapter 4 – Plan of Cooperation and Partnership

As the Bedford County Association of Municipalities prepares to implement
the Building Code Legislation (Act 45), all three Township chairmen have
been involved in the process of creating this new association. Keeping in
mind the concerns of their constituents and the requirements of the
legislation, they have worked with other Townships in the county to develop
an Intermunicipal Agency that will provide reliable and speedy inspections in
the most cost effective manner. They have been very diligent in keeping the
citizens of the Townships informed of the status of these regulations through
Township community forums and Township newsletters.

The three Townships will also continue to work together in purchase
agreements whenever possible. Each Board of Supervisors is aware of
opportunities for sharing expenses through purchase agreements, grant
applications, etc. This process will continue with the Township supervisors
being willing to explore all opportunities when available and appropriate.

The following are some of the expected areas of shared expenses and a
consistency between the three Townships:

       The Townships, where possible, will establish similar Subdivision
        and Land Development Ordinances, with a shared administrator of
        these ordinances. Currently, Mann and Monroe have a similar             Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships
        Subdivision and Land Development Ordinance, and will explore the        Planning for the Future
        possibility of a shared administrator of these ordinances.

       The Townships, where possible, will use the same Sewage
        Enforcement Officer (SEO) and Engineer. This may provide
        residents with similar and consistent interpretation of the DEP
        standards and regulation for sewage management, storm water
        management, and other building, subdivision, and development

       The Townships agree to maintain the Postal Service Bulk Mailing
        Rate to provide the least expensive delivery of all Township
        newsletters, and Joint Comprehensive Plan newsletters. This bulk
        mailing rate may also be used by all service organizations that the
        Steering Committee deems appropriate to be for the public good.
Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                21
                                                                                Chapter 4 – Plan of Cooperation and Partnership

JOINT ADVISORY BOARD TO THE MANN, MONROE, AND                                       Look at locator methods currently available at each responding fire
SOUTHAMPTON TOWNSHIPS' BOARDS OF SUPERVISORS:                                        and emergency company
                                                                                    Explore support for out-of-state fire and emergency companies
Members of the Joint Advisory Board will be appointed by the Township               Examine Fireman’s Relief Fund
Supervisors from each Township, having equal representation from each
                                                                              Community Awareness and Spirit Committee
To facilitate and coordinate on other areas of cooperation, the three
Townships will enter into an agreement to form and maintain an Advisory             Organize a yearly Tri-Township picnic with entertainment, games,
Board on concerns related to areas of cooperation. Some examples of                  prizes, contests, etc. (Could also be a fund raiser for appropriate
mutual concern addressed by the Advisory Board could include the following:          local groups: 4-H, Little League, Community parks, etc.)
                                                                                    Organize and promote local historical committees that would:
      Emergency Services Issues Committee
                                                                                         o   Continue documenting histories of Townships
      Community Spirit and Awareness Committee
                                                                                         o   Document older homes not included in the 1972 survey
      Education Liaison Committee.
                                                                                         o   Form cemetery committees to provide upkeep and records
      Communication Committee                                                               for local histories
      Economic Diversity Committee                                                      o   Organize and apply for 501C Status for abandoned churches
      Environmental Management Issues Committee                                             and historic sites
Each of these areas of concern would be staffed by at least one member                   o   Explore grants for “Oral Histories” and other Historical
from each Township that had an interest or expertise in that area. This                      pursuits
Advisory Board would meet twice a year to accomplish its work, update the                o   Other concerns to be identified
full membership of the progress made by individual committees, and prepare
a report that would be presented at a yearly public meeting to the Board of
Supervisors of Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships.                       Education Committee (Liaison to Everett Area School District)
                                                                                    Develop a method of interchange between school system and the
THE ADVISORY COMMITTEES NEEDED AND AREAS OF CONCERN TO                               committee
                                                                                    Make suggestions for curriculum focus to include areas of interest to
Emergency Services Issues Committee                                                  local students
      Study the fire and rescue service provided to each township                       o   Social Studies: Township histories; municipal government;
                                                                                             planning issues, ordinances, etc.
      Examine current records of fire response (what fire company
       answered what calls)                                                              o   Science: Focus on agriculture and forestry
      Explore various ways of funding fire and rescue services                          o   Environment - Stream monitoring, clean-up, etc.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                             22
                                                                                  Chapter 4 – Plan of Cooperation and Partnership

      Keep committee and area informed of changes in facilities,
       programming, etc.

    Monitor economic/tax issues relative to Educational Services for
     Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships
Communication Committee
      Write a Joint Newsletter, including:
           o   Community Events
           o   Public Information
      Develop a Joint Website for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton
       Townships with:
           o   Sections covering each Township
           o   Links to appropriate governmental organizations –
               Department of Community and Economic Development
               (DCED); Invent PA; Communities in PA; PA Cleanways;
               Department of Environmental Protection, (DEP); Growing                                        Grouseland Tours, Mann Township
               Greener; Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, (WPC);
               American Planning Association, (APA); Pennsylvania
               Planning Association, (PPA/APA); PENNDOT District 9.0;
                                                                                Economic Diversity Committee
                                                                                      Create Co-ops: small businesses, farms, timber
           o   Links or Briefs to appropriate recreational organizations:
               Mid-State Trails, Key Stone Trails, etc.                               Create Farmer’s Market
           o   Links or Briefs for appropriate local organizations: Local 4-H         Create economic incentives for new businesses
               clubs, Little League, etc.
                                                                                      Create Pamphlet advertising local products (also use web site)
           o   Links for Township histories
                                                                                      Work with Woodland Owners of the Southern Allegheny Association
           o   Links to Community Resources: Everett Free Library, Everett             and the Forest Stewardship Program to encourage sustainable
               Area School District; Health and Social Services in the area;           timbering practices
               Child services; Senior services; etc.
                                                                                      Work with Pennsylvania Sustainable Agriculture Association (PSAA)
           o   Other links to be determined
                                                                                      Encourage the use of Best Management Practices in Forest &
                                                                                      Create tourism opportunities
Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                             23
                                                                               Chapter 4 – Plan of Cooperation and Partnership

Environmental Management Issues Committee
      Send representative to PA Cleanways
      Coordinate Bulky Waste Day
      Explore ways of management to ensure continued availability and
       expansion of recycling
      Explore development of a Recycling Partnership with Maryland
      Work with PA Cleanways to clean up dump sites
      Recruit volunteers from Townships to participate in clean-up projects
      Pursue grants to continue clean-up and management of the
       environment in the three Townships
      Encourage and promote the work of the Ridge and Valley Stream
      Encourage and promote Best Management Practices in Forest and
      Encourage and promote consistent enforcement of all ordinances
       effecting the environment, such as but not limited to: clean water;      Mussel Habitat in Mann Township
       storm water management; soil erosion; dust; etc.


                                    Township      Mann

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                               24
 Mann Township Comprehensive Plan
                  - Introduction                                    - Action Plans                                 - Implementation Schedule

                                                                        Chapter 5 – Action Planning and Implementation Strategies

                                                                                     In these Action Plans, policy statements and action strategies for the
INTRODUCTION                                                                         municipalities to implement, as well as other resources to assist in making
                                                                                     the recommended changes, follow the goals and objectives for each planning
In order for Mann Township to achieve the vision that it desires for its
residents, a number of policy changes must occur. These changes are
outlined in the following action plans. Each action plan corresponds to
specific municipal planning activities (e.g. land use, transportation, housing,      Land Use Action Plan and Future Land Use Map
etc.). These action plans provide a detailed approach for achieving the
community vision. However, even the most stalwart municipality would                 The Land Use Action Plan and Future Land Use Map work together to
struggle if each item was pursued at the same time. Therefore, instead of            protect the rural character of Mann Township. They recognize the need to
attempting to pursue so many tasks simultaneously, the most significant              conserve valuable natural resources, while still allowing for new
goals were selected for inclusion in the implementation schedule–those that          development. In addition, they also take into consideration the growth that is
are believed to embody the greatest potential for community enhancement or           occurring to the south of the Township in Maryland, and the likelihood of
improvement. This schedule will provide the Township Supervisors and the             increased development pressures.
Joint Advisory Board with immediate guidance and direction for Mann                  1. Conservation
Township and its citizens.
                                                                                     Intent: Preserve floodplains and other significant natural features
The Action Plans answer the question “How can we change what we do
                                                                                     Application: Discourage new development within these areas by way of
today in order to become the community we want to be?” They build on the
                                                                                     strict design standards and other requirements.
goals and objectives developed earlier in the planning process and identify
and recommend policies for decision-making, as well as specific tasks for
making change. There are seven Action Plans that address a particular
                                                                                     2. Recreation
component of land use planning. These include:
                                                                                     Intent: Provide recreational areas
    A Land Use Action Plan
                                                                                     Application: Provide for active and passive recreation activities at a variety
    A Housing Action Plan
                                                                                     of facilities.
    A Community Facilities and Services Action Plan
    An Economic Action Plan
                                                                                     3. Rural
    A Transportation Action Plan
                                                                                     Intent: Protect rural character while allowing limited development.
    A Public Utilities Action Plan
    A Natural and Cultural Resources Action Plan                                     Application: Permit residential development, while also allowing for
                                                                                     development of home-based businesses.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                                  25
                                                                                                        Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

                                                                                  The Recreation Action Plan complements both the Economic Development
                                                                                  and Natural Resources Action Plans by encouraging the development of
4. Expected Areas of Development                                                  recreational facilities that are designed to take advantage of the area’s
Intent: Accommodate higher density commercial and residential                     natural beauty and wildlife. These facilities will then help to attract more
development.                                                                      visitors to the area, i.e., customers for new, service-based businesses.

Application: Permit integrated commercial, office, and other uses adjacent
to residential uses.


The following pages provide the detailed action plans for each of the
planning elements, beginning with the Land Use Action Plan. For each plan,
the goals are outlined and then followed by specific objectives,
recommended regional action strategies, a collection of appropriate methods,
tools, and references, and by potential partners and funding sources. Some
additional information, including results from the Public Opinion Survey and
other appropriate sources, has been included to help foster understanding
about some of the recommendations and potential funding sources.
Interrelationship of Plan Components
Each of the planning components – Land Use, Housing, Economic
Development, Transportation, Community Facilities and Services, Public
Utilities, Natural and Cultural Resources, and Recreation – has been
developed with consideration of the interrelationships among them. In other
words, strategies recommended for one set of goals and objectives have
been developed with an understanding of how they may support the
strategies recommended in another action plan.

For example, the Land Use Action Plan will clearly impact other regional
planning efforts. Land use decisions imply access, utilities service, and
natural resource protection at a minimum. Future Land Use directives
considered the availability of all of the supporting infrastructures, including   This Future Land Use Map is for illustrative purposes, a full-size map can be
the traditional “gray” infrastructure - transportation, sewer, and water, and     found in Appendix D – Geographic Information Systems Mapping.
also the green infrastructure - sensitive natural resources.
Recommendations to focus new development in areas that are most likely to
experience growth pressures will take advantage of the existing and
proposed transportation infrastructure, while protecting valuable woodland
and other native habitats.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                                 26
                                                                                                Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

Land Use Action Plan for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships                                        Design Guidance Manual

Goal:               Preserve the rural character of the planning area                                   The Municipalities Planning Code gives
                                                                                                        local jurisdictions the authority to designate
                                                                                                        where uses can develop and how
Objective:          Preserve the most productive agricultural land                                      development of the land can occur;
                                                                                                        however, it does not give authority to
Regional Action Strategies                                                                              specify what development should look like.
                                                                                                        Without this authority, many municipalities
             Encourage the purchase of conservation easements and the continued use of Agricultural     feel their hands are tied when new
             Security Areas.                                                                            development contributes little or even
                                                                                                        detracts from the visual character and
           Enact regulations that include design standards that are both complementary and also         functional qualities of the community.
           protect the natural resources of the area                                                    Across the nation, municipalities are
Methods, Tools & References                                                                             applying new tools to guide development to
                                                                                                        benefit their communities. Illustrated
             Develop, adopt, and enforce a joint subdivision and land development ordinance             ordinances and design manuals have been
                                                                                                        used to display the visual aspects of local
             Provide landowners with information about available land preservation options and their    character in architecture, site design,
             benefits                                                                                   landscaping, bicycle and pedestrian
                                                                                                        facilities, and highway and streetscape
Partners                                                                                                design.
             Municipal officials; local businesses and landowners; Bedford County Conservation          A Design Guidance Manual could be used
             District; Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR); PA Department of        in regional municipalities to present
             Agriculture; Penn State Cooperative Extension Service; Bedford County Planning             preferred design ideas for architectural
             Commission                                                                                 styles, patterns, and details, conservation
                                                                                                        subdivisions, stormwater Best Management
                                                                                                        Practices (BMPs), and donated recreational
Funding Sources                                                                                         lands. Such guidance could be applied
                                                                                                        across the municipality or to specific zoning
                                                                                                        districts, use corridors, or neighborhoods.
             Department of Community and Economic Development (DCED); Bedford County
             Conservation District; Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR);            While the Manual would not require
             Department of Environmnetal Protection (DEP); Conservation Reserve Enhancement             developers to follow the guidelines, it would
             Program (CREP)                                                                             provide a visual description of what is most
                                                                                                        desirable for the community and offer ideas
                                                                                                        for enhancing submitted development

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                       27
                                                                                               Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

Housing Action Plan for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships

             Continue to encourage affordable, safe housing for the region's

             Provide efficient access to permits and inspections for all new                            Enforcing local codes to improve the quality of
Objective:                                                                                               housing should be given the highest priority
             construction in the townships
                                                                                                                  during the next five years.
Regional Action Strategies

             Implement the new Building Code Legislation                                       80.0%

                                                                                               60.0%                                                      Agree
Methods, Tools, & References
                                                                                               40.0%                                                      Disagree

             Continue to participate in the Bedford County Association of Municipalities for   20.0%
             the purpose of enforcing the statewide Building Code.                              0.0%
                                                                                                           Mann Twp      Monroe Twp   Southampton Twp
             Continue to inform citizens of the status and content of these and other new
             regulations as applicable

Partners                                                                                                  Public Opinion Survey Results

             Local developers; Bedford County Housing Authority; Local Municipalities;                Over 60 percent of respondents
             local banks/financial institutions; Pennsylvania Housing Finance Agency                believe that enforcing local codes to
             (; Builder's Organizations                                               improve housing quality needs to be a
                                                                                                          priority in the Township
Funding Sources

             Same as partners

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                             28
                                                                                         Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

Community Facilities Action Plan for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton
                                                                                                   Preserving historic areas should be given the
                   Provide accessible community services & facilities that meet
Goal                                                                                                 highest priority during the next five years.
                   residents' needs
Objective 1        Promote a diversity of cultural activities

Regional Action Strategies                                                                60.0%                                                     Agree

                                                                                          40.0%                                                     Disagree
                   Create a joint community awareness and spirit committee
                   Create a joint communications committee
                                                                                                      Mann Twp      Monroe Twp   Southampton Twp
                   Create a joint history committee to promote and preserve the area's
Methods, Tools, & References

                   Develop a joint website
                                                                                                          Public Opinion Survey
                   Organize a community newsletter to announce local cultural events                             Results
                   and other items of interest within the region.
                                                                                                         Well over 80 percent of
                                                                                                         respondents in all three
                   Municipalities; Pennsylvania State Historical And Museum                                  of the townships
                   Commission; Pennsylvania Council on the Arts; Pennsylvania                             agreed that preserving
                   Humanities Council; DCED; Bedford County Development                                    historic areas should
                   Association; local churches, 4-H clubs, Little League, Girl/Boy                        be a high priority over
                   Scouts, Fire Hall, Schools; Everett Free Library                                         the next five years
Funding Sources

                   Same as partners

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                        29
                                                                                              Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

Objective 2 Continued support for varied educational and healthcare opportunities

Regional Action Strategies
                                                                                                     Public education facilities are adequate within the
           Organize an education committee to act as liaison between the townships and                                  township.
           the Everett Area School district

           Promote programs related to job and skills training (vo-tech)                      80.0%

                                                                                              60.0%                                                     Agree
           Continue to monitor needs of community in regard to access to health care
           facilities                                                                         40.0%

           Encourage the use of the Everett Free Library for cultural programs, job/skills
           training (adults); parenting and child care programs’ etc.                                     Mann Twp      Monroe Twp   Southampton Twp

           Encourage the use of the Bedford County Bookmobile
           Promote use of the Senior Center
          Facilitate transportation for seniors
Methods, Tools, & References

           Regular review of local school's curriculum
                                                                                                      Public library services are adequate within the
           Community newsletter                                                                                         community.

           Impromptu discussions, interviews with residents                                  80.0%
           Include information about library programs in newsletters and link web site to
           the library and the Everett Area School District                                  40.0%
Partners                                                                                     30.0%
           Municipalities; Everett Area School District; local businesses; Bedford County     0.0%
           Technical Center; Allegany College, CART, Everett Free Library                               Mann Twp       Monroe Twp    Southampton Twp

Funding Sources
         Same as partners

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                                30
                                                                                       Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

                                                                                               Police protection is adequate within the

Objective 3 Maintain/improve adequate fire, police, and rescue                         60.0%
Regional Action Strategies                                                                                                                  Disagree
           Continue/increase support for existing services
           Monitor opportunities for improvements and identify gaps in services
                                                                                               Mann Twp     Monroe Twp   Southampton Twp

Methods, Tools, & References
           Establish a joint committee to explore funding for local and out-of-state
           fire/rescue teams and to monitor existing services
Partners                                                                                  Public Opinion Survey results show that
                                                                                            almost 60 percent of the respondents
           Municipalities; community volunteers; Chaneysville Fire Co., Bedford Co.       from Mann Township do not believe that
           Emergency Services, Bedford Co. Fireman's Association, Everett Fire Co.,          police protection is adequate in the
           Flintstone Volunteer Fire Co., Orleans Fire Co.                                               community.
           DCED; Bedford County; local municipalities & businesses

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                31
                                                                                Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

                                                                                         Illegal trash dumping is a major problem in the

Objective 4 Maintain/improve adequate municipal services
Regional Action Strategies                                                      60.0%                                                      Agree
           Continue working to eliminate illegal dumping                        40.0%

Methods, Tools, & References                                                     0.0%
                                                                                            Mann Twp      Monroe Twp   Southampton Twp
           Establish an Environmental Management Committee

           Encourage use of legal dump sites
           Explore ways to improve administration of recycling services
           Municipalities; DEP; Landowners; DCNR; Bedford County Conservation
           District; Volunteer Initiative Project

Funding Sources                                                                           Public Opinion Survey Results
          Same as partners
                                                                                         The vast majority of respondents
                                                                                           - over 80 percent – agreed to
                                                                                           some extent that illegal trash
                                                                                           dumping is a major problem.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                 32
                                                                                       Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

Private/Public Utilities Action Plan for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton
Townships                                                                                          Public utilities are adequate within the
                Provide adequate public utilities to ensure the health and safety of
Goal:                                                                                  100.0%

Objective:      Provide for delivery of utility services                               60.0%                                                   Agree

                                                                                       40.0%                                                   Disagree
Regional Action Strategies

                Review and update Municipal Act 537 plans as appropriate                0.0%
                                                                                                  Mann Twp      Monroe Twp   Southampton Twp
                Contract to share Sewage Enforcement Officer where appropriate
                Provide for delivery of sewage services where appropriate in
                accordance with Municipal Act 537 plan
                Provide for delivery of electrical services where appropriate
                                                                                                 Public Opinion Survey Results
                Provide for delivery of water services where appropriate
                                                                                                 Most respondents to the public
Methods, Tools, & References
                                                                                                opinion survey believe that public
                Schedule review of Act 537 plans                                                 utilities are adequate within the

                Municipalities; Department of Environmental Protection (DEP);
                developers; Bedford County Planning Commission; Bedford County
                Conservation District

Funding Sources

                PENNVEST; Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
                (DCNR); Bedford Rural Electric Cooperation, Allegheny Power Co.

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                    33
                                                                                                     Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

Recreation Action Plan for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships

Goal:        Maintain a high quality of life for all residents

Objective:   Provide a diversity of recreational opportunities

Regional Action Strategies

             Continue to utilize existing facilities to their fullest - Buchanan State Forest; State Game Lands; local
             elementary schools; local community parks and ball fields; and other community buildings and
             Use community newsletter to inform citizens of facilities and events

Methods, Tools, & References

             Publish and distribute, through the Joint Communications Committee, fliers and brochures that
             publicize local recreational events and attractions to residents and visitors.
             Refer to: "Community Recreation and Parks: A Handbook for Pennsylvania Municipalities"
             Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, DCNR; Bureau of Recreation and
             Regularly monitor the status of existing facilities and identify potential gaps/needs

            Municipalities; Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR); Bedford County
            Planning Commission; Everett Area School District; Local Fire Department; Community Churches,
            Local 4H Clubs, Girl/Boy Scouts of America, Little League, Soccer Leagues
Funding Sources

             Community Conservation Partnerships Grant Program (DCNR); Department of Community and
             Economic Development (DCED); Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), Growing Greener

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                         34
                                                                                              Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

Natural Resources Action Plan for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships
Goal:             Preserve and protect the region's natural resources

                  Clean-up and protect the region's streams and rivers - especially sensitive areas and high quality
Objective 1:

Regional Action Strategies

                  Encourage citizen involvement in the protection of the streams and rivers
                  Enforce existing regulations governing stormwater management, soil erosion, etc.
                  Continue to support the work of local watershed groups

                  Become a partner in the Chesapeake Bay watershed programs for managing land and water resources

Methods, Tools, & References

                  Establish an Environmental Management Committee
                  Form a sub-committee to procure funding for clean up projects and to keep the general public informed
                  Coordinate a regional, annual "Stream Clean Up" day
                  Refer to and use "A Conservation Catalog for Pennsylvania" joint publication of USDA, PA DEP, and
                  Review existing regulations to ensure adequacy and applicability
                  Municipalities; Department of Environmental Protection (DEP); Landowners; Department of
                  Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR); Bedford County Conservation District; Ridge and Valley
                  Streamkeepers; Western Pennsylvania Conservancy; Chesapeake Bay Foundation; Pennsylvania
                  Organization for Watersheds and Rivers (POWR); PA Fish and Wildlife; Towncreek Watershed
                  Committee; PA Cleanways
Funding Sources
                  Same as partners

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                  35
                                                                                      Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

                                                                                                Residents’ Guide to Community
                                                                                                   Resource Conservation
Objective 2 Manage woodlands to allow for sustainable timbering and wildlife
habitat                                                                                     Conservation is everyone’s business.
                                                                                            While many of a community’s natural
Regional Action Strategies                                                                  resources are renewable, such renewal
                                                                                            may take years or centuries once the
             Promote the use of sustainable timbering methods                               damage has been done. Local
                                                                                            governments typically do not have the
           Promote the area's natural diversity as a valuable resource - ecotourism         budget, staff, or time to protect the vast
           opportunity (e. g. bird watching, etc)                                           number and variety of resources.
Methods, Tools, & References                                                                Private interests, whether individual or
                                                                                            corporate, can assist in resource
             Sponsor workshop for local landowners and businesses to provide                protection, if they know how.
             information about Best Management Practices and their benefits
                                                                                            A guide to conservation that focuses
Partners                                                                                    specifically on lands within the
                                                                                            Township, or perhaps within a
             Municipalities; DEP; Landowners; DCNR; PA Game Commission; Logging             watershed, could provide interested
             Companies; Bedford County Conservation District; Woodland Owners of            parties with the knowledge needed to
             Southern Alleghenies Association; Trout Unlimited; Pennsylvania Forest         apply conservation techniques to their
             Stewardship Program; Farm Co-op Program, CREP; Partners for Wildlife           properties. Such a guide could be
                                                                                            designed as a one page fact sheet, a tri-
             Program; Chesapeake Bay Foundation; Volunteer Initiative Project
                                                                                            fold pamphlet, or a multi-page brochure
                                                                                            and produced in hardcopy and/or as a
Funding Sources
                                                                                            free download from the Township’s
             NRCS Forestry Incentives Program, US Forest Service Stewardship                website.
             Incentives Program; DCNR; Penn State Cooperative Extension                     Alternatively, a new page could be
                                                                                            added to the Township’s website, listing
                                                                                            existing websites with conservation
                                                                                            technique and application information.
                                                                                            Links might include:

                                                                                            The Heritage Conservancy

                                                                                            The Natural Lands Trust

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                       36
                                                                                              Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

Economic Development Action Plan for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships

Goal:            Maintain a high quality of life for all residents

Objective 1:     Promote a diversity of economic activities

Regional Action Strategies

                 Establish an Economic Diversity Committee

                 Establish a working relationship with Allegany County, MD to develop marketing outlets
                 along I-68

                 Identify specific hurdles to new business start-ups that promote sustainable economic
                 development, and provide assistance with required permits and licenses for local
                 entrepreneurs and start-up businesses
                 Develop an image/theme for the community that will encourage businesses that are
                 consistent and congruent with the area's rural way of life

                 Establish compatible local business integration for added economic productivity

                 Identify talents and interests of students, as well as needs of employers
                 Promote local agricultural, forestry, and other products

Methods, Tools, & References

                 Organize an Economic Development/Diversity Committee to coordinate efforts
                 Sponsor annual career day, and invite existing businesses and students to communicate
                 needs and interests of both

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                  37
                                                                                                  Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

                 Take advantage of free listing on PA's official website for Travel and Tourism
                 Prepare a pamphlet designed to advertise locally produced goods

Economic Development Action Plan for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships (cont’d.)
                Local businesses; SARC&D; Bedford County Visitor's Bureau; Bedford County Chamber of
                Commerce; Everett Area School District; Municipalities; Students; Southern Alleghenies
                Workforce Investment Board and Youth Council; Bedford County Economic Development
                Office; Penn State Cooperative Extension; and other agricultural associations
Funding Sources

                 Same as partners

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                      38
                                                                                                      Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

Objective 2 Preserve/promote family farming
                                                                                                                 Preserving agricultural land and promoting farming
Regional Action Strategies                                                                                       should be given the highest priority during the next
                                                                                                                                     five years.
              Establish an Economic Diversity Committee

              Facilitate innovation in farm ownership and management in order to preserve               100.0%
              agriculture, e.g. co-ops                                                                  60.0%
            Educate young people about farming, particularly new methods and marketing                  20.0%
Methods, Tools, & References                                                                             0.0%
                                                                                                                     Mann Twp       Monroe Twp   Southampton Twp
              Facilitate the creation of a local farmer's market - including produce, flowers, also
              crafts and baked goods; Facilitate the creation of flea markets (see "Starting and
              Strengthening Farmer's Markets In PA" published by Center for Rural PA)
              Sponsor an annual workshop/presentation focused on the techniques and benefits
              of sustainable agriculture
                                                                                                                        Public Opinion Survey Results
              Protect most productive land from development by way of conservation easements,
              and other Agricultural Preservation techniques                                                                Almost 100 percent of
                                                                                                                           respondents from Mann
              Sponsor an educational seminar focused on small business start-up and
                                                                                                                      Township agreed that preserving
                                                                                                                       agricultural land and promoting
                                                                                                                        farming should be given high
              Penn State Cooperative Extension; Center for Rural PA; PA Dept. of                                        priority over the next 5 years.
              Agriculture; U.S. Department of Agriculture; Bedford County Conservation
              District; Everett Area School District; Small Business Administration;
              Pennsylvania Sustainable Agriculture Association; Future Farmers of America
              (FFA); Bedford Farm Bureau

Funding Sources

            Bureau of Farmland Preservation; Bedford Co. Conservation District; Dept. of
            Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR); Dept. of Environmental
            Protection (DEP); SARC&D; Ag. Dept. of local banks; farm insurance agencies
Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                                        39
                                                                                            Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

Transportation Action Plan for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships

Goal:             Maintain/improve all roads and bridges
                                                                                                      Highway and road maintenance is adequate
                                                                                                               within the community.
Objective: Use available resources to maintain and improve roads & bridges that are the       80.0%
responsibility of the Townships                                                               70.0%
Regional Action Strategies                                                                    40.0%
                  Continue to participate in PENNDOT's Agility program                        20.0%
                  Continue working together to take advantage of opportunities to share        0.0%
                  maintenance expenses and bid letting                                                 Mann Twp     Monroe Twp   Southampton Twp

Methods, Tools, & References

                  PENNDOT Agility program
                  Work with Bedford County Planning Office and the Southern Alleghenies
                  Planning and Development Commission to have recommended projects                             The results of the
                  incorporated into the Statewide Transportation Improvement Program                        Public Opinion Survey
Partners                                                                                                        show that half of
                                                                                                             respondents believe
                  Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PENNDOT); Municipalities;                      that road maintenance
                  Bedford County Planning Office; Southern Alleghenies Planning and                           in the community is
                  Development Commission (SAP&DC); Bedford County Commissioners;                                   adequate.
                  Local Senator and Representative; Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC)
Funding Sources

                  Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PENNDOT); United States
                  Department of Transportation (USDOT); Bedford County Commissioners;
                  Local Senator and Representative; Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC)

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                        40
                                                                                                         Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies


An Implementation Schedule has been prepared to assist the Township in prioritizing the various tasks listed in the Action Plans. Not all tasks are programmed
here, only those with the greatest potential for community improvement. The schedule is laid out in two-year increments through 2013 and has been categorized
as follows:

            Intermunicipal Cooperation                                                          Recreation

            Land Use and Development                                                            Community Facilities and Services

            Housing                                                                             Natural Resource Protection

            Economic Development                                                                Transportation Improvements/Plan

           Implementation Schedule for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships Action Strategies
                                                           2004/2005    2006/2007      2008/2009                 2010/2011       2012/2013
           Intermunicipal Cooperation

           Adopt the proposed Plan of Cooperation & Partnership

            Establish a Communication Committee

            Establish a Community Awareness and Spirit Committee

            Establish an Economic Diversity Committee

            Establish an Environmental Management Issues Committee

            Establish an Emergency Services Issues Committee

            Establish an Education Liaison Committee
           Land Use/Development
           Develop, adopt, and enforce joint subdivision and land
           development ordinances
           Facilitate the purchase of conservation easements and the
           continued use of Agricultural Security Areas
           Implement new Building Permits/Codes Legislation

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                                                               41
                                                                                          Chapter 5 – Planning and Strategies

        Implementation Schedule for Mann, Monroe, and Southampton Townships Action Strategies
                                                        2004/2005    2006/2007      2008/2009   2010/2011   2012/2013
        Economic Development

        Sponsor Annual Career Day for students and businesses

        Utilize PA's official Website for Travel and Tourism to promote
        recreational and other opportunities in the community
        Promote local agriculture, forestry, and other products by
        facilitating the creation and operation of a local farmer's market
        Use community newsletter to inform citizens of facilities and
        Community Facilities and Services

        Create a joint Community Awareness & Spirit Committee
        Organize an education committee to act as liaison between the
        townships and the Everett Area School District
        Update Municipal Act 537 Plans

        Contract to share Sewage Enforcement Officer

        Continue/increase support for existing emergency services
        Natural Resource Protection
        Encourage citizen involvement in the protection of streams &
        Provide continued support for local watershed groups
        Promote the use of sustainable timbering and other Best
        Management Practices
        Transportation Improvements/Planning

        Continue to participate in PENNDOT's Agility program
        Continue working together to take advantage of cost sharing
        when appropriate

Mann Township Comprehensive Plan, June 2004                                                                              42

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