# End Sem Exam04 Dec2009

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Faculty of Engineering

ENDSEMESTER EXAMINATION – December 2009

CP551 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
(2 hours)

1) Explain five (05) of the following concepts giving appropriate examples:
(i)     Symbiosis                                                                  [05 marks]
(ii)    Biomimicry                                                                 [05 marks]
(iii) Human development index                                                      [05 marks]
(iv) Industrial ecology                                                            [05 marks]
(v)     Life cycle analysis                                                        [05 marks]
(vi) Green revolution                                                              [05 marks]
(vii) Unsustainable energy generation                                              [05 marks]
(viii) Unsustainable agricultural practices                                        [05 marks]

2) (a) Describe    what you understand by ‘Whole System Design (WSD)’, giving examples
where appropriate.                                                 [15 marks]
(b) In a sustainable engineering design assignment, you arrived at the following cost
estimates for a conventional design solution as well as for a WSD solution:
Design assignment          Conventional Solution      WSD Solution
Capital Cost                    Rs. 14,610,000/=     Rs. 17,550,000/=
Annual Running Cost              Rs. 1,800,000/=         Rs.786,000/=
Show by carrying out appropriate calculations, why you would choose the WSD solution
and not the conventional design solution from the cost point of view of the design
assignment.                                                               [10 marks]

3) It is claimed in an ecological foot print analyses that if one travels by airplane  about 100
hours per year, then he/she uses up about 6 acres of land equivalent. In order to find out if it
were a reasonable estimate for United States (US) based on the associated CO2 emissions,
calculate the following using the data given below:
a) The biomass energy (in kJ) and weight (in kg) yields per acre of average US land in a
year.                                                                     [10 marks]
b) The amount of jet fuel used and the resulting carbon emissions from 100 hours of air
travel a year.                                                           [10 marks]
c) The amount of land equivalent required to sequester the carbon emissions from 100 hours
of air travel a year.                                                        [10 marks]
d) Land equivalent (in acres) required to produce methanol fuel that would substitute in
energy content for the jet fuel used.                                    [10 marks]
e) Comment on the use of biofuel such as methanol derived from biomass for air travel from
the ecological foot print point of view.                                   [10 marks]

Data:
-    1 acre = 4046.85 m2
-    Solar constant is 1353 W/m2
-    U.S. average solar incidence is 13.6% of solar constant
-    Conversion to high yield biomass energy crops is about 0.5% of solar incidence
-    Assume that biomass has a heating value of about 18,600 kJ/kg
-    Typical average speed of commercial air trip is 180 meters per sec
-    Typical energy use per passenger km for commercial aircraft is 2700 kJ/km
-    Assume jet fuel has a heating value of about 46,000 kJ/kg
-    Assume jet fuel has a density of about 16 kg/m3
-    Assume carbon makes 85% of the jet fuel by weight
-    Heating value of methanol fuel is about 1.58 x 104 MJ/m3
-    Production of methanol fuel from wood yields about 0.78 m3 per 1000 kg of dry
wood (assumed to be carbon)
-   Assume carbon makes about 50% of the biomass crop by weight

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