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									                     September | October 2012
                       EXPERT TOPIC - SHRIMP

 International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.
 All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,
 the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of
 information published.
 ©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form
 or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

                                                                            EXPERT TOPIC

               Welcome to Expert Topic, a new feature for International Aquafeed. Each issue will
                     take an in-depth look at a particular species and how it's feed is managed.

                 28 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
                                                                                                                              EXPERT T●PIC

                                                         2                                                          1

 Vietnamese                                                                                            and his team, the causative agent of EMS
                                                                                                       remains unknown. The EMS research
                                                                                                       team at the University of Arizona is

Stakeholders                                                                                           putting strong effort to determine the
                                                                                                       cause of this disease based on different

discuss early                                                                                              To find an answer to the common
                                                                                                       EMS threat, shrimp stakeholders should
                                                                                                       group their effort to tackle the issue.

mortality                                                                                              Research will be carried out to get
                                                                                                       more knowledge on the disease and try
                                                                                                        to identify the responsible microorgan-

shrimp disease                                                                                          ism and/or possible toxicants in the
                                                                                                        environment that may be associated
                                                                                                        with this disease. The further step of
                                                                                                        EMS research to be carried out by the
by Adrien Louyer, Technical                                                                             Arizona team is to find viable solutions
Supervisor Aquaculture, Olmix,                                                                          to prevent or reduce the risk of EMS in

                                                                                                        shrimp farming.
              n August 6, 2012, Olmix                                                                       To fully achieve program objectives,
              was the sponsor of a dinner                                                               quick and strong financial support is
              for     Shrimp Vietnamese                                                                 needed.
              Stakeholders to discuss the                                                                   The following companies were
newly emerging disease early mortality in                                                               present at the dinner CP, Minh Phu Sea
shrimp (EMS) or more descriptively, the                                                                 food, Proconco, Sunjin vina feed, Huy
Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Syndrome         Director of the OIE reference Laboratory of     Thuan, Skretting and Evialis. I would like to
(AHPNS). The disease is significant to China     Aquaculture Pathology at the University of      thank Dr Lightner and Mr. Loc Tran to have
and Southeast Asian shrimp farming coun-         Arizona. His current research area is on EMS    joined our dinner and helped me to write
tries including Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia,    disease.                                        the article.
and Thailand. In Vietnam alone, EMS caused           The dinner was an opportunity for
direct losses of over $250 million in 2011.      Vietnamese feed millers and research insti-
                                                 tutes to have an open discussion with Dr.          More InforMatIon:
    Prof. Donald V. Lightner, from University    Lightner on EMS disease. On the side of this       To help fund the EMS project
of Arizona, was invited as a key speaker. He     discussion, shrimp sensitivity to mycotoxins       Dr. Donald V. Lightner
is a prominent expert of aquaculture pathol-     was presented including a presentation of
ogy, especially in penaeid shrimp diseases. He   MTX+, the Olmix answer based on activated          Mr. Loc Tran
has been involved in penaeid shrimp diseases     clay with seaweeds to deal with it.
for over 40 years and currently being the            After extensive research from Dr Lightner

                                            September-october 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 29

of shrimp in
an indoor
farming                                                all	 feed	 pellets	 interact	 with	 shrimp	 moving	      sources	and	a	carbon	source	into	biofloc	protein	

system with                                            around	in	the	tank.

                                                                                                                requires	a	lot	of	oxygen	and	results	in	a	build-up	
                                                                                                                of	bioflocs	because	of	poor	conversion	of	those	
                                                                                                                biofloc	 proteins	 into	 shrimp	 biomass.	 Then	 bio-

bioflocs                                                   Shrimp	 are	 filter	 feeders	 and	 are	 able	 to	
                                                       benefit	from	bioflocs	in	the	water.
                                                           In	 a	 shrimp	 farming	 system	 with	 bioflocs,	
                                                                                                                flocs	have	to	removed	from	the	system.	
                                                                                                                    Another	strategy	is	to	use	a	normal	protein	feed,	
                                                                                                                which	corresponds	with	the	protein	requirement	of	
                                                       several	strategies	are	possible.	Utilization	of	a	low	   shrimp.	When	using	a	feed	with	a	protein	content	of	
    by Eric De Muylder, CreveTec, belgium
                                                       protein	 feed	 and	 addition	 of	 a	 carbon	 source	     30	percent,	the	carbon:	nitrogen	ratio	is	around	10.	

                                                       results	 in	 very	 low	 levels	 of	 ammonia,	 because	   With	a	feed	conversion	of	1,5,	around	35	percent	
          eed	 management	 in	 extensive	 and	         they	are	assimilated	by	the	bioflocs	and	converted	      of	proteins	are	converted	into	shrimp	biomass	and	
          semi-intensive	 shrimp	 farming	             into	 proteins.	 Typically,	 these	 systems	 have	 a	    20	 ù	 of	 the	 Carbon.	 This	 means	 that	 the	 faeces	
          systems	 is	 not	 optimal	 to	 obtain	       carbon:	 nitrogen	 ratio	 of	 over	 20.	 However,	       of	 shrimp,	 fed	 with	 a	 diet	 containing	 38	 percent	
          the	best	results.	Feeding	frequency	         the	 conversion	 of	 ammonia	 and	 other	 nitrogen	      proteins,	will	result	in	a	carbon:	ration	of	10.	
is	limited	to	four	or	six	times	per	day.	The	
feed	is	 spread	 over	 the	whole	 pond	 which	
is	 labor-intensive.	 There	 is	 an	 important	
period	 between	 feeding	 and	 actual	 con-
sumption	 by	 the	 shrimp,	 which	 results	 in	
leaching	 of	 important	 nutrients	 and	 feed	
quality	 loss.	 This	 is	 caused	 by	 the	 low	
density	 of	 shrimp	 in	 the	 ponds	 and	 the	
shrimp	 can	 only	 find	 the	 fed	 by	 chemical	
attraction,	which	take	time.

    The	 feeding	 affects	 the	 water	 quality	
parameters	in	the	ponds.	An	oxygen	drop	is	
observed	after	feeding.	A	continuous	feeding	
will	result	in	a	more	continuous	water	quality	
and	 less	 stress	 for	 the	 shrimp.	 Often	 shrimp	
are	 not	 fed	 at	 night	 to	 avoid	 low	 oxygen,	
which	 results	 in	 important	 loss	 of	 potential	           C100: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at normal feeding gift
growth.                                                       C80: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (80 %)
                                                              C60: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (60 %)
    In	 intensive	 farming,	 the	 natural	 produc-            Water quality for C100, C80 and C60 was maintained by continuously changing
tion	 of	 the	 tank	 is	 represented	 by	 bioflocs.	          water which was filtered with a protein skimmer and biofilter
These	 bioflocs	 directly	 interfere	 with	 the	              C60: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (60 %) and
water	 quality.	 Intensive	 farming	 also	 allows	            bioflocs are added to maintain water quality
the	 mechanization	 of	 feeding	 without	 extra	              C80: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (80 %) and
                                                              bioflocs are added to maintain water quality
labor.	Feed	consumption	is	facilitated	because	

                                                30 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
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                                                                                           The	excess	ammonia	will	then	be	converted	
                                                                                       into	nitrite	and	nitrate	by	nitrifying	bacteria	present	
                                                                                       in	the	bioflocs.	But	these	nitrates	will	accumulate	
                                                                                       into	the	culture	tanks	and	reduces	the	possibility	
                                                                                       to	re-use	this	water	for	future	production	cycles.	
                                                                                       This	 nitrification	 also	 decreases	 the	 pH,	 which	
                                                                                       makes	 it	 necessary	 to	 adjust	 pH	 regularly.	 To	
                                                                                       solve	this	problem,	a	new	system	was	developed	
                                                                                       with	two	additions:	a	meiofauna-protecting	sub-
                                                                                       strate	to	favor	the	conversion	of	bacterial	biofloc	
                                                                                       into	digestible	meiofauna	and	a	central	bioreactor	
                                                                                       with	the	possibility	of	denitrification.	The	denitrifi-
                                                                                       cation	can	use	the	carbon	present	in	the	shrimp	
                                                                                       faeces	 as	 energy	 source	 to	 remove	 nitrate	 and	
                                                                                       produce	alkalinity.		This	way,	the	nitrate	level	can	
                                                                                       be	controlled.

                                                                                       Influence of biofloc
                                                                                       presence on growth
                                                                                           The	positive	influence	of	biofloc	presence	
                                                                                       in	the	water	column	has	been	shown.	A	trial	
                                                                                       was	set	up	to	evaluate	if	bioflocs	could	replace	
                                                                                       some	of	the	feeds.
                                                                                           The	results	show	that	C100	was	the	opti-
                                                                                       mal	feeding	gift.	C80	showed	a	slight	reduced	
                                                                                       growth	while	C60	had	a	reduced	growth.
                                                                                           However,	 the	 best	 results	 were	 clearly	
                                                                                       obtained	 in	 the	 presence	 of	 bioflocs.	 There	
                                                                                       was	no	difference	at	60	or	80	percent	feeding.	
                                                                                       This	means	that	the	presence	of	bioflocs	can	
                                                                                       reduce	the	feeding	gift	by	40	percent	and	still	
                                                                                       result	in	better	growth.
                                                                                           A	 growth	 trial	 with	 vannamei	 and	 mono-
                                                                                       don	 confirmed	 that	 a	 fast	 growth	 could	 be	
                                                                                       obtained	in	an	intensive	system.
                                                                                           Based	 on	 these	 results	 a	 pilot	 scale	 farm	
                                                                                       was	installed	in	Italy.	This	system	is	based	on	
                                                                                       the	following	principles:
                                                                                         •	 There	is	no	exchange	of	water	but	removal	
                                                                                            of	a	limited	quantity	of	bioflocs	is	necessary
                                                                                         •	 Water	is	recuperated	for	the	next	cycle
                                                                                         •	 Control	 of	 biofloc	 density	 for	 optimal	
                                                                                            growth	and	optimal	nutrient	composition
                                                                                         •	 Efficient	aeration
                                                                                         •	 Continuous,	automatic	feeding
                                                                                         •	 Phase	 growing	 for	 optimal	 utilization	 of	
                                                                                            culture	water	volume
                                                                                         •	 Possibility	for	partial	harvesting

                                                                                           The	 combination	 of	 shrimp	 farming	 and	
                                                                                       bioflocs	 makes	 it	 possible	 to	 grow	 shrimp	 in	
                                                                                       an	indoor	farm,	without	water	exchange.	Even	
                                                                                       though	this	farming	system	is	more	intensive,	
                                                                                       it	 doesn't	 not	 have	 the	 disadvantages	 that	
                                                                                       could	be	expected.	On	the	contrary,	intensive	
                                                                                       farming	enables	more	efficient	feeding,	keep-
                                                                                       ing	the	optimal	temperature	and	oxygen	level.	
                                                                                       The	 presence	 of	 bioflocs	 can	 replace	 the	
                                                                                       natural	 production	 based	 on	 an	 algal	 system	
                                                                                       that	is	found	in	open	ponds.

                                                                                       More inforMation:
  A growth trial with vannamei and monodon confirmed that a fast growth
  could be obtained in an intensive system.

                                    32 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
                                                                                                                                                                 EXPERT	T●PIC

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 InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 13
       ET-221A.indd 1                                                                             1/20/12 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 33
                                                                                   September-October 20121:57 PM

to natural                                          of	 fresh	 and	 frozen	 marine	 organisms	 usually	
                                                    results	in	high	reproductive	performances	for	
                                                    both	 domesticated	 and	 wild	 caught	 brood-

food?                                               stock	shrimp.	
                                                        However,	 this	 practice	 is	 far	 from	 ideal,	
                                                    exposing	the	cultured	animals	to	several	major	
                                                                                                            used	 them	 differently	 resulting	 in	 high	 fluc-
                                                                                                            tuation	 in	 FCRs	 and	 performances	 between	
                                                                                                            farmers,	 regions	 and	 countries	 culturing	 the	
- Maturation diets for shrimp                       issues	-                                                same	species.
                                                        Biosecurity:	 Fresh	 and	 frozen	 food	 organ-           Water	quality:	In	many	cases	high	water	
                                                    isms	can,	potentially,	become	transferring	vec-         flow	 is	 needed	 following	 feeding	 of	 fresh/
                     by Dr Sagiv Kolkovski &        tor	for	different	pathogens	and	diseases.	This	         frozen	 food	 organisms.	 In	 many	 cases	 daily	
                        Judith Kolkovski, ND        is	 more	 so	 when	 crustaceans	 are	 been	 used	       (or	even	few	times	during	the	day)	siphon-
                                                    (Coman	 et	 al.,	 2006).	 Although,	 recognised	        ing	 is	 essential	 to	 keep	 good	 water	 quality	

                                                    for	their	contribution	to	the	maturation	proc-          and	 tank	 hygiene.	 This	 is	 obviously	 labour-
     n	 recent	 years,	 shrimp	 culture	 has	       ess	 through	 supplementing	 maturation	 hor-           intensive	 task	 that	 might	 also	 affect	 the	
     become	 one	 of	 the	 most	 important	         mones	 and	 other	 nutrients,	 the	 importation	        brood	animals.
     aquaculture	 industries	 in	 the	 world.	      of	crustaceans	such	as	Artemia	was	banned	in	                Domestication:	 It	 is	 commonly	 accepted	
     Current	 production	 levels	 reach	 over	      several	countries	in	an	attempt	to	reduce	the	          that	wild	broodstock	shrimp	needs	fresh/fro-
three	million	tonnes	per	year,	corresponding	       risk	of	disease	transfer.	                              zen	 food	 organisms.	 For	 example,	 Conan	 et	
to	 a	 market	 volume	 of	 over	 US$10	 billion	        Similarly,	 in	 many	 countries	 the	 use	 of	      al.,	 2006	 raised	 the	 hypotheseis	 whether	 the	
(FAO	2008).	                                        shrimp	 heads	 or	 shrimp	 meal	 in	 maturation	        removal	 of	 crustacean	 component	 from	 the	
                                                    diets	was	banned..	It	is	not	known	if	non-crus-         maturation	diet	for	domesticated	P.	monodon	
    However,	even	with	this	expansion	in	the	       tacean	organisms	can	transmit	shrimp	viruses	           broodstock	 has	 contributed	 to	 the	 brood-
production	there	are	some	unknowns.	                such	 as	 white	 spot	 syndrome	 virus	 (WSSV)	         stock	low	performances.
    One	 of	 the	 problems	 with	 shrimp	 (and	     and	 yellow	 head	 virus	 (YHV)	 or	 others	 but	            Considering	the	cost	of	broodstock	(espe-
other	crustacean)	culture	is	broodstock	diets	      due	to	their	origin,	post	harvest	methods	and	          cially	 ‘SPF’),	 these	 are	 serious	 risks	 and	 in	
and	nutrition.	                                     storage,	they	are	all	prone	to	become	a	vector	         many	 cases	 resulting	 in	 high	 mortality	 and/
    Currently,	 most,	 if	 not	 all,	 hatcheries	   for	other	pathogens.                                    or	reduced	productivity,	leading	to	significant	
around	the	world	use	fresh	or	frozen,	unproc-           Nutritional	 profile:	 Due	 to	 the	 fact	 that	    financial	loss.	
essed	marine	organisms	as	food	items.	These	        fresh/frozen	food	organisms	are	been	caught	                 Until	now,	shrimp	broodstock	fed	matura-
include	squid,	various	molluscs	(mussels,	oys-      in	 the	 wild,	 their	 nutritional	 profile	 varied.	   tion-formulated	diet,	pelleted	or	extruded	did	
ters	or	clams),	marine	polychates,	crustaceans	     Season,	 location,	 life	 cycle,	 pre	 and	 post	       not	match	the	performances	of	animals	fed	on	
such	as	shrimp	(Peixoto	et	al.,	2004;	Preston	      harvesting	 methods	 can	 and	 will	 affect	 their	     fresh/frozen	food	(Wouters	et	al.,	2002.	Braga	
et	al.,	2004,	Coman	et	al.,	2006)	and	Artemia	      nutritional	 profile.	 This	 inconsistency	 in	 the	    et	al.,	2010).	Formulated	diets	tend	to	break	
biomass	(Anh	et	al.,	2008,	Gandy	et	al.,	2007).	    quality	 and	 nutritional	 profile	 makes	 it	 hard	    down	 due	 to	 the	 unique	 feeding	 behaviour	
These	feeds	are	usually	topped	up	with	nutri-       to	 standardise	 protocols	 even	 within	 the	          of	 the	 animals,	 resulting	 in	 polluted	 water	
tional	additives	such	as	vitamins,	minerals	and	    same	company.	Different	countries	and	even	             and	very	high	FCR.	Moreover,	palatability	and	
fatty	acids	(Hoa	et	al.,	2009).	                    regions	 within	 a	 country	 will	 have	 different	     ingestion	rates	are	usually	low.	Even	using	the	
    Maturation	diets	based	on	the	combination	      access	to	fresh/frozen	food	organisms	and	will	         same	food	organisms	as	dry	meals	in	formu-

 table 1: Comparison between traditional (control) fresh/frozen food and formulated semi-moist diet
      treatment         Days        %Mort/day       avg. Sr/day total spawns egg/Female                     Female            % Hatch         total nauplii

         Control        124             0.09             3.34%              602            179,364           154,364              86           92,860,000
      nutraFeed         124             0.05              4.74              849            186,266           160,188              86           136,000,000
      Difference                        44.4%            29.5%            29.1%              3.7%              3.7%               0%              46.5%

                                               34 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
                                                                                                                                                              EXPERT T●PIC

 lated diets didn’t result in similar performances
 as when fresh/frozen organisms were given.
     Recently, a new maturation diet
 (NutraFeed®) for crustaceans that can
 completely replace the use of fresh/frozen
 feed was developed. The diet is semi-moist
 (around 30-35% moist) and manufactured
 as short pellets at any length and diameter
 needed. The diet is stable in the water for
 24 hours and will not break down when the                       The diet was also used with domesti-
 shrimp is holding and chewing it.                           cated P. monodon broodstock in Australia
     NutraFeed® diets are based solely on dry                with remarkable results. This is a significant
 meals without any fresh or frozen products.                 achievement since it is known that P. mono-
 They are certified as pathogen free (all ingre-             don are particularly picky with their diet and
 dients pass Gamma radiation) with a shelf life              feeding them solely on formulated diet used
 of six months (refrigerated) or 12 months                   to be challenging, not to mention, achieving
 (frozen). To boost the hormonal cycle, herbal               similar or better performances.
 extracts (NutraGreen® products) are incor-                      Currently the diet is been used in sev-
 porated into the diets. These are 100 percent               eral commercial hatcheries in Thailand, India                 Hoa, N. D., Wouters, R., Wille, R., Thanh, V., Dong,
 natural additives aimed at improving brood-                 and Malaysia and the company is up-scaling the                T. K., Hao, N. V., and Sorgeloos, P. 2009. A fresh-
 stock performance including; enhancing egg                  production.                                                   food maturation diet with an adequate HUFA
 and larvae quality, sperm mortality, vitellogen-                                                                          composition for broodstock nutrition studies in
 esis, as well as immune system and digestive                References                                                    black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius,
 system support.                                                                                                           1798). Aquaculture, 297, 116-121.
                                                             Anh, N.T. N., Hoa, N.V.,Van Stappen, G., and Sorgeloos,
     Initially these natural herbal additives were           P 2008. Effect of different supplemental feeds on
                                                              .                                                             Peixoto, S., Coman, G.J., Arnold, S.J., Crocos, P.J.,
 developed as natural hormonal replacements                  proximate composition and Artemia biomass                     Preston, N.P., 2005. Histological examination of
 for woman during IVF treatments and during                  production in salt ponds. Aquaculture, 286, 217-225.          final oocyte maturation and atresia in wild and
 menopause period.                                                                                                         domesticated Penaeus monodon broodstock.
                                                             Braga, A. L., Nakayama, C. L., Martins, J. G., Colares,       Aquac. Res. 36, 666–673.
                                                             E. P., and Wasielesky, W. Jr. 2010. Spermatophore
 Large experiment                                            quality of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus                    Preston, N.P., Crocos, P.J., Keys, S.J, Coman, G.J.,
     To compare the performances of the                      paulensis (Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata)                        Koenig, R., 2004. Comparative growth of selected
 maturation diet against traditional fresh/frozen            broodstock fed with different maturation diets.               and non-selected Kuruma shrimp Penaeus
 food organism, a large experiment was con-                  Aquaculture, 307, 44-48.                                      (Marsupenaeus) japonicus in commercial farm
 ducted independently by one of the biggest                                                                                ponds. Aquaculture 231, 73–82.
                                                             Coman, G. J., Arnold, S. J., Callaghan, T. R., and Preston,
 shrimp producers in the world. The results
                                                             N. P. 2006. Effect of two maturation diet combinations
 (see Table 1) showed significant performance                on reproductive performance of domesticated
 improvements when the broodstock fed on                     Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture, 263, 75-83.
 NutraFeed® semi-moist diet.                                                                                                   About the authors
                                                             Coman, G.J., Arnold, S.J., Peixoto, S., Coman, F.E.,
     Moreover, using the semi-moist diet also                                                                                      Dr Sagiv Kolkovski is the Principal
                                                             Crocos, P.J., Preston, N.P., 2006. Reproductive
 proved to be cost effective compared to                                                                                       scientist, marine aquaculture, at the
                                                             performance of reciprocally crossed wild-caught
 traditional diets. Two hundred white shrimp                                                                                   Department of Fisheries, western
                                                             and tank reared Penaeus monodon broodstock.
 L. vannamei were fed control diet (squid,                   Aquaculture 252, 372–384.                                         Australia. He is also the R&D director at
 polychates and nutritional booster) or                                                                                        Nutrakol Pty Ltd. Judith Kolkovski, ND
 NutraFeed® SM diet. The broodstock were                     Gandy, R. L., Samocha, T. M., Masser, M. P., Fox, J. M.,          is a nutritionist and herbalist and the
                                                             Ali, S. A. M., Gatlin III, D. M., and Speed, M. 2007.
 kept in identical tanks and under the same                                                                                    general manager of Nutrakol Pty Ltd.
                                                             The effect of unilateral eyestalk ablation and diet
 environmental conditions. Growth, mortali-                                                                                    Nutrakol Pty Ltd is specialized in devel-
                                                             on the reproductive performance of wild-caught
 ties, spawning events, fecundity, hatching rates            Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Ives, 1891) using a closed
                                                                                                                               oping and manufacturing nutritional and
 and number of nauplii were determined over                  recirculating maturation system. Aquac. Res. 38,                  natural health solutions for aquaculture.
 124 days.                                                   580–587.

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     Better Fecundity                                                                                                                                                                     Th
                     Nutrafeed - Crustacean semi-moist maturation diet
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         ‘Tailor--made’ Nutrition and natural health solutions for broodstock and larvae

NutroKol_190x58mm.indd 1                                                                                                                                              01/10/2012 12:43
                                                         September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 35
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                                     The use of algae in fish feeds
                                        as alternatives to fishmeal

                               Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua:
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                                                – enhancing digestion in a different manner

                                                          Fishmeal & fish oil
                                                               – and its role in sustainable
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                                      Options and challenges of
                                  alternative protein and energy

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                                                              EXPERT TOPIC
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