September | October 2012
EXPERT TOPIC - SHRIMP
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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
Welcome to Expert Topic, a new feature for International Aquafeed. Each issue will
take an in-depth look at a particular species and how it's feed is managed.
28 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
Vietnamese and his team, the causative agent of EMS
remains unknown. The EMS research
team at the University of Arizona is
Stakeholders putting strong effort to determine the
cause of this disease based on different
discuss early To find an answer to the common
EMS threat, shrimp stakeholders should
group their effort to tackle the issue.
mortality Research will be carried out to get
more knowledge on the disease and try
to identify the responsible microorgan-
shrimp disease ism and/or possible toxicants in the
environment that may be associated
with this disease. The further step of
EMS research to be carried out by the
by Adrien Louyer, Technical Arizona team is to find viable solutions
Supervisor Aquaculture, Olmix, to prevent or reduce the risk of EMS in
n August 6, 2012, Olmix To fully achieve program objectives,
was the sponsor of a dinner quick and strong financial support is
for Shrimp Vietnamese needed.
Stakeholders to discuss the The following companies were
newly emerging disease early mortality in present at the dinner CP, Minh Phu Sea
shrimp (EMS) or more descriptively, the food, Proconco, Sunjin vina feed, Huy
Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Syndrome Director of the OIE reference Laboratory of Thuan, Skretting and Evialis. I would like to
(AHPNS). The disease is significant to China Aquaculture Pathology at the University of thank Dr Lightner and Mr. Loc Tran to have
and Southeast Asian shrimp farming coun- Arizona. His current research area is on EMS joined our dinner and helped me to write
tries including Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, disease. the article.
and Thailand. In Vietnam alone, EMS caused The dinner was an opportunity for
direct losses of over $250 million in 2011. Vietnamese feed millers and research insti-
tutes to have an open discussion with Dr. More InforMatIon:
Prof. Donald V. Lightner, from University Lightner on EMS disease. On the side of this To help fund the EMS project
of Arizona, was invited as a key speaker. He discussion, shrimp sensitivity to mycotoxins Dr. Donald V. Lightner
is a prominent expert of aquaculture pathol- was presented including a presentation of email@example.com
ogy, especially in penaeid shrimp diseases. He MTX+, the Olmix answer based on activated Mr. Loc Tran
has been involved in penaeid shrimp diseases clay with seaweeds to deal with it.
for over 40 years and currently being the After extensive research from Dr Lightner
September-october 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 29
of shrimp in
farming all feed pellets interact with shrimp moving sources and a carbon source into biofloc protein
system with around in the tank.
requires a lot of oxygen and results in a build-up
of bioflocs because of poor conversion of those
biofloc proteins into shrimp biomass. Then bio-
bioflocs Shrimp are filter feeders and are able to
benefit from bioflocs in the water.
In a shrimp farming system with bioflocs,
flocs have to removed from the system.
Another strategy is to use a normal protein feed,
which corresponds with the protein requirement of
several strategies are possible. Utilization of a low shrimp. When using a feed with a protein content of
by Eric De Muylder, CreveTec, belgium
protein feed and addition of a carbon source 30 percent, the carbon: nitrogen ratio is around 10.
results in very low levels of ammonia, because With a feed conversion of 1,5, around 35 percent
eed management in extensive and they are assimilated by the bioflocs and converted of proteins are converted into shrimp biomass and
semi-intensive shrimp farming into proteins. Typically, these systems have a 20 ù of the Carbon. This means that the faeces
systems is not optimal to obtain carbon: nitrogen ratio of over 20. However, of shrimp, fed with a diet containing 38 percent
the best results. Feeding frequency the conversion of ammonia and other nitrogen proteins, will result in a carbon: ration of 10.
is limited to four or six times per day. The
feed is spread over the whole pond which
is labor-intensive. There is an important
period between feeding and actual con-
sumption by the shrimp, which results in
leaching of important nutrients and feed
quality loss. This is caused by the low
density of shrimp in the ponds and the
shrimp can only find the fed by chemical
attraction, which take time.
The feeding affects the water quality
parameters in the ponds. An oxygen drop is
observed after feeding. A continuous feeding
will result in a more continuous water quality
and less stress for the shrimp. Often shrimp
are not fed at night to avoid low oxygen,
which results in important loss of potential C100: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at normal feeding gift
growth. C80: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (80 %)
C60: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (60 %)
In intensive farming, the natural produc- Water quality for C100, C80 and C60 was maintained by continuously changing
tion of the tank is represented by bioflocs. water which was filtered with a protein skimmer and biofilter
These bioflocs directly interfere with the C60: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (60 %) and
water quality. Intensive farming also allows bioflocs are added to maintain water quality
the mechanization of feeding without extra C80: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (80 %) and
bioflocs are added to maintain water quality
labor. Feed consumption is facilitated because
30 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
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The excess ammonia will then be converted
into nitrite and nitrate by nitrifying bacteria present
in the bioflocs. But these nitrates will accumulate
into the culture tanks and reduces the possibility
to re-use this water for future production cycles.
This nitrification also decreases the pH, which
makes it necessary to adjust pH regularly. To
solve this problem, a new system was developed
with two additions: a meiofauna-protecting sub-
strate to favor the conversion of bacterial biofloc
into digestible meiofauna and a central bioreactor
with the possibility of denitrification. The denitrifi-
cation can use the carbon present in the shrimp
faeces as energy source to remove nitrate and
produce alkalinity. This way, the nitrate level can
Influence of biofloc
presence on growth
The positive influence of biofloc presence
in the water column has been shown. A trial
was set up to evaluate if bioflocs could replace
some of the feeds.
The results show that C100 was the opti-
mal feeding gift. C80 showed a slight reduced
growth while C60 had a reduced growth.
However, the best results were clearly
obtained in the presence of bioflocs. There
was no difference at 60 or 80 percent feeding.
This means that the presence of bioflocs can
reduce the feeding gift by 40 percent and still
result in better growth.
A growth trial with vannamei and mono-
don confirmed that a fast growth could be
obtained in an intensive system.
Based on these results a pilot scale farm
was installed in Italy. This system is based on
the following principles:
• There is no exchange of water but removal
of a limited quantity of bioflocs is necessary
• Water is recuperated for the next cycle
• Control of biofloc density for optimal
growth and optimal nutrient composition
• Efficient aeration
• Continuous, automatic feeding
• Phase growing for optimal utilization of
culture water volume
• Possibility for partial harvesting
The combination of shrimp farming and
bioflocs makes it possible to grow shrimp in
an indoor farm, without water exchange. Even
though this farming system is more intensive,
it doesn't not have the disadvantages that
could be expected. On the contrary, intensive
farming enables more efficient feeding, keep-
ing the optimal temperature and oxygen level.
The presence of bioflocs can replace the
natural production based on an algal system
that is found in open ponds.
A growth trial with vannamei and monodon confirmed that a fast growth
could be obtained in an intensive system.
32 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
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ET-221A.indd 1 1/20/12 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 33
September-October 20121:57 PM
to natural of fresh and frozen marine organisms usually
results in high reproductive performances for
both domesticated and wild caught brood-
food? stock shrimp.
However, this practice is far from ideal,
exposing the cultured animals to several major
used them differently resulting in high fluc-
tuation in FCRs and performances between
farmers, regions and countries culturing the
- Maturation diets for shrimp issues - same species.
Biosecurity: Fresh and frozen food organ- Water quality: In many cases high water
isms can, potentially, become transferring vec- flow is needed following feeding of fresh/
by Dr Sagiv Kolkovski & tor for different pathogens and diseases. This frozen food organisms. In many cases daily
Judith Kolkovski, ND is more so when crustaceans are been used (or even few times during the day) siphon-
(Coman et al., 2006). Although, recognised ing is essential to keep good water quality
for their contribution to the maturation proc- and tank hygiene. This is obviously labour-
n recent years, shrimp culture has ess through supplementing maturation hor- intensive task that might also affect the
become one of the most important mones and other nutrients, the importation brood animals.
aquaculture industries in the world. of crustaceans such as Artemia was banned in Domestication: It is commonly accepted
Current production levels reach over several countries in an attempt to reduce the that wild broodstock shrimp needs fresh/fro-
three million tonnes per year, corresponding risk of disease transfer. zen food organisms. For example, Conan et
to a market volume of over US$10 billion Similarly, in many countries the use of al., 2006 raised the hypotheseis whether the
(FAO 2008). shrimp heads or shrimp meal in maturation removal of crustacean component from the
diets was banned.. It is not known if non-crus- maturation diet for domesticated P. monodon
However, even with this expansion in the tacean organisms can transmit shrimp viruses broodstock has contributed to the brood-
production there are some unknowns. such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) stock low performances.
One of the problems with shrimp (and and yellow head virus (YHV) or others but Considering the cost of broodstock (espe-
other crustacean) culture is broodstock diets due to their origin, post harvest methods and cially ‘SPF’), these are serious risks and in
and nutrition. storage, they are all prone to become a vector many cases resulting in high mortality and/
Currently, most, if not all, hatcheries for other pathogens. or reduced productivity, leading to significant
around the world use fresh or frozen, unproc- Nutritional profile: Due to the fact that financial loss.
essed marine organisms as food items. These fresh/frozen food organisms are been caught Until now, shrimp broodstock fed matura-
include squid, various molluscs (mussels, oys- in the wild, their nutritional profile varied. tion-formulated diet, pelleted or extruded did
ters or clams), marine polychates, crustaceans Season, location, life cycle, pre and post not match the performances of animals fed on
such as shrimp (Peixoto et al., 2004; Preston harvesting methods can and will affect their fresh/frozen food (Wouters et al., 2002. Braga
et al., 2004, Coman et al., 2006) and Artemia nutritional profile. This inconsistency in the et al., 2010). Formulated diets tend to break
biomass (Anh et al., 2008, Gandy et al., 2007). quality and nutritional profile makes it hard down due to the unique feeding behaviour
These feeds are usually topped up with nutri- to standardise protocols even within the of the animals, resulting in polluted water
tional additives such as vitamins, minerals and same company. Different countries and even and very high FCR. Moreover, palatability and
fatty acids (Hoa et al., 2009). regions within a country will have different ingestion rates are usually low. Even using the
Maturation diets based on the combination access to fresh/frozen food organisms and will same food organisms as dry meals in formu-
table 1: Comparison between traditional (control) fresh/frozen food and formulated semi-moist diet
treatment Days %Mort/day avg. Sr/day total spawns egg/Female Female % Hatch total nauplii
Control 124 0.09 3.34% 602 179,364 154,364 86 92,860,000
nutraFeed 124 0.05 4.74 849 186,266 160,188 86 136,000,000
Difference 44.4% 29.5% 29.1% 3.7% 3.7% 0% 46.5%
34 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
lated diets didn’t result in similar performances
as when fresh/frozen organisms were given.
Recently, a new maturation diet
(NutraFeed®) for crustaceans that can
completely replace the use of fresh/frozen
feed was developed. The diet is semi-moist
(around 30-35% moist) and manufactured
as short pellets at any length and diameter
needed. The diet is stable in the water for
24 hours and will not break down when the The diet was also used with domesti-
shrimp is holding and chewing it. cated P. monodon broodstock in Australia
NutraFeed® diets are based solely on dry with remarkable results. This is a significant
meals without any fresh or frozen products. achievement since it is known that P. mono-
They are certified as pathogen free (all ingre- don are particularly picky with their diet and
dients pass Gamma radiation) with a shelf life feeding them solely on formulated diet used
of six months (refrigerated) or 12 months to be challenging, not to mention, achieving
(frozen). To boost the hormonal cycle, herbal similar or better performances.
extracts (NutraGreen® products) are incor- Currently the diet is been used in sev-
porated into the diets. These are 100 percent eral commercial hatcheries in Thailand, India Hoa, N. D., Wouters, R., Wille, R., Thanh, V., Dong,
natural additives aimed at improving brood- and Malaysia and the company is up-scaling the T. K., Hao, N. V., and Sorgeloos, P. 2009. A fresh-
stock performance including; enhancing egg production. food maturation diet with an adequate HUFA
and larvae quality, sperm mortality, vitellogen- composition for broodstock nutrition studies in
esis, as well as immune system and digestive References black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius,
system support. 1798). Aquaculture, 297, 116-121.
Anh, N.T. N., Hoa, N.V.,Van Stappen, G., and Sorgeloos,
Initially these natural herbal additives were P 2008. Effect of different supplemental feeds on
. Peixoto, S., Coman, G.J., Arnold, S.J., Crocos, P.J.,
developed as natural hormonal replacements proximate composition and Artemia biomass Preston, N.P., 2005. Histological examination of
for woman during IVF treatments and during production in salt ponds. Aquaculture, 286, 217-225. final oocyte maturation and atresia in wild and
menopause period. domesticated Penaeus monodon broodstock.
Braga, A. L., Nakayama, C. L., Martins, J. G., Colares, Aquac. Res. 36, 666–673.
E. P., and Wasielesky, W. Jr. 2010. Spermatophore
Large experiment quality of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus Preston, N.P., Crocos, P.J., Keys, S.J, Coman, G.J.,
To compare the performances of the paulensis (Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata) Koenig, R., 2004. Comparative growth of selected
maturation diet against traditional fresh/frozen broodstock fed with different maturation diets. and non-selected Kuruma shrimp Penaeus
food organism, a large experiment was con- Aquaculture, 307, 44-48. (Marsupenaeus) japonicus in commercial farm
ducted independently by one of the biggest ponds. Aquaculture 231, 73–82.
Coman, G. J., Arnold, S. J., Callaghan, T. R., and Preston,
shrimp producers in the world. The results
N. P. 2006. Effect of two maturation diet combinations
(see Table 1) showed significant performance on reproductive performance of domesticated
improvements when the broodstock fed on Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture, 263, 75-83.
NutraFeed® semi-moist diet. About the authors
Coman, G.J., Arnold, S.J., Peixoto, S., Coman, F.E.,
Moreover, using the semi-moist diet also Dr Sagiv Kolkovski is the Principal
Crocos, P.J., Preston, N.P., 2006. Reproductive
proved to be cost effective compared to scientist, marine aquaculture, at the
performance of reciprocally crossed wild-caught
traditional diets. Two hundred white shrimp Department of Fisheries, western
and tank reared Penaeus monodon broodstock.
L. vannamei were fed control diet (squid, Aquaculture 252, 372–384. Australia. He is also the R&D director at
polychates and nutritional booster) or Nutrakol Pty Ltd. Judith Kolkovski, ND
NutraFeed® SM diet. The broodstock were Gandy, R. L., Samocha, T. M., Masser, M. P., Fox, J. M., is a nutritionist and herbalist and the
Ali, S. A. M., Gatlin III, D. M., and Speed, M. 2007.
kept in identical tanks and under the same general manager of Nutrakol Pty Ltd.
The effect of unilateral eyestalk ablation and diet
environmental conditions. Growth, mortali- Nutrakol Pty Ltd is specialized in devel-
on the reproductive performance of wild-caught
ties, spawning events, fecundity, hatching rates Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Ives, 1891) using a closed
oping and manufacturing nutritional and
and number of nauplii were determined over recirculating maturation system. Aquac. Res. 38, natural health solutions for aquaculture.
124 days. 580–587.
Better Performance Ko
Nutrattract - natural feed attractant
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Nutrafeed - Crustacean semi-moist maturation diet
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September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 35
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