Fishmeal & fish oil and its role in sustainable aquaculture
The annual global production of fishmeal and fish oil is currently around five million tonnes of meal and one million tonnes of oil (Figure 1), except in years when the fishing in the South Pacific is disrupted by the warm waters of an El Niňo, most recently in 2010. Around 22 million tonnes of raw material is used, of which approximately 75 percent comes from whole fish and 25 percent from by-products of processing fish for human consumption (IFFO estimates).
September | October 2012 Fishmeal & fish oil and its role in sustainable aquaculture International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry FEATURE Fishmeal & fish oil and its role in sustainable aquaculture by Dr Andrew Jackson, Technical Director, IFFO, UK T he annual global production of since most of the underlying fisheries are now ents – the so-called fishmeal trap. It is certainly fishmeal and fish oil is currently being well managed, using the precautionary true that during the 1990s and early 2000s around five million tonnes of meal principle with tightly set and monitored quo- as aquaculture grew, it used more and more and one million tonnes of oil tas. Also increasingly, markets are being found fishmeal, mostly by taking volumes that in the (Figure 1), except in years when the fishing for at least a proportion of the catches to go past had gone into pig and poultry feeds. in the South Pacific is disrupted by the warm for direct human consumption. However, since around 2005 aquaculture waters of an El Niňo, most recently in 2010. In addition there is concern that some of requiring feed has continued its strong annual Around 22 million tonnes of raw material the mixed tropical trawl fisheries are not being growth of around seven percent but the is used, of which approximately 75 percent well managed and that catches will therefore volumes of fishmeal used in aquaculture have comes from whole fish and 25 percent from decrease in the coming years as these become remained steady at around 3.2 million tonnes by-products of processing fish for human severely depleted. The prospects for increas- and those of fish oil have even reduced consumption (IFFO estimates). ing volumes of fisheries by-products do how- to around 600,000 tonnes. (Figure 2). This ever look better as fishing becomes concen- has led the FAO to state in their recently The majority of the whole fish used are trated at fewer landing sites and aquacultural released report on the State of Fisheries and small pelagic fish such as anchovy, menhaden, production also becomes more concentrated. Aquaculture (FAO 2012): “Although the dis- sardines and sandeels for which there are lim- This will be further encouraged by the rising cussion on the availability and use of aquafeed ited markets for direct human consumption. In price of fishmeal and stricter laws against the ingredients often focuses on fishmeal and addition to the estimated 11.5 million tonnes dumping of waste material. So on balance the fish-oil resource, considering the past trends of small pelagic fish used in fishmeal there is production of both fishmeal and fish oil over and current predictions, the sustainability of also an estimated five million tonnes of other the next few years is likely to remain about the aquaculture sector will probably be closely fish, the majority from mixed tropical trawl where it is or possibly decrease slightly, which linked with the sustained supply of terrestrial fisheries in East Asia. will certainly happen in El Niño years. animal and plant proteins, oils and carbohy- The lack of growth in the production of drates for aquafeeds.” Going forward marine ingredients has led some to speculate The prospects for increasing the produc- that the growth of aquaculture would in turn Becoming a strategic ingredient tion of fishmeal and fish oil are very limited, be limited by the shortage of such key ingredi- This growth in aquaculture production, Figure 1. The Global Production of fishmeal and fish oil from Figure 2. The global production of fed aquaculture 1964-2011 (IFFO data) and the use in the associated diets of fishmeal and fish oil, millions of tonnes (FAO FishStat data and IFFO data and estimates) 18 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012 FEATURE Aqua News ties has risen steeply in hydrogenated margarines to being almost Best-selling authors of Megatrends unveiled as recent years and it is exclusively used in aquaculture. Within aqua- should be limited to two to three Vietnam. Vietnam is the third largest important to compare culture by far the biggest user was in salmon typewritten pages plus references. aquaculture-producing country guest speakers at the World Nutrition Forum the price of fishmeal feed, indeed it reached the point, in around I ch A one-page CV of the candidate in the world. Our Novus Aqua with the alternatives. 2002, when For um 2012, the world’s nternational best-selling author, over 60 percent of BIOMIN has This w ed should be attached to the proposal. Research Center is integrally con- The most commonly fish oil production was being fed to salmon. of John Naisbitt, and the Director announced the attendance guest or Applicant must be enrolled in a nected to the aqua industry and will of the to fish- used alternative Naisbitt China Institute Doris and John Naisbitt, authors The reason for this very high usage in the W an University MSc or PhD program at allow the intern to learn about and meal is that of soymeal. Naisbitt, will of international bestsellers such in Tianjin, Doris salmon feeds was that salmon were found to John sts the time of application. experience aquaculture in Vietnam Figure 4 shows that over perform best on diets with in excess of 30 deliver their guest speech on Day as Megatrends and Mind Set. a list ity, The selection of the Novus intern through interactions with the Novus the last twenty years the percent fat and at the time fish oil was one of One of the 5th World Nutrition Based on the research of the alread on will be announced at Aquaculture research and operations teams. price ratio of fishmeal to the cheapest oils on the China Institute, John Forum in Singapore. Naisbitt market. In addition the W or 2013 in Nashville, TN. A digital pho- The award will include: With increased it also gave and Doris Naisbitt are currently soymeal has less than three months the finished salmon fillets a very includ tograph of the intern will be needed • Travel to and from Ho Chi significantly, which is high level of long chain Omega- 3 fatty acids, until the doors open on one of working on an analysis of China’s Intern a- for the announcement. Minh City, Vietnam • Lodging in the of the fact specifically EPA and DHA. indicative world’s most sought-after key economic, cultural and political (Mur on Following the selection, the four- a university student dormitory events is being that fishmeal in the animal nutrition transformations and their evi- During the last 10 years increasing impact Julian he week internship will be scheduled in Vietnam during the intern- critical dence has been published on the very impor- reduced in less the World Nutrition on the global business landscape. industr y, Egg C from June to August, 2013. The ship • $1,000 to help with areas such as grower tant role these two fatty acids play in human Gelde by intern will work with The Novus living expenses in Vietnam feeds, but remains in health. EPA has been shown to be critical in Africa an Aquaculture Research team on a Submit proposals by email to the more critical and the health of the cardiovascular system and The Figure 3. The dietary inclusion of fishmeal (%) in he current project being carried out at Lorraine Magney at Novus: Lorraine. aquaculture feeds over the period 1995-2010 (after less price-sensitive areas DHA in the proper functioning of the nervous by m als the Novus Aqua Research Center in email@example.com Tacon et al 2011 ) of hatchery and brood- system, most notably brain function. resen Professor Simon Davies stock feeds. Fishmeal is This growing awareness within the medical from therefore becoming less profession and the general public has led to the flo whilst not increasing the how busy the stand a commodity and more of a strategic many governments producing recommended formance, increasing financial returns. total amount of of was for the on an Orego-Stim® not only improves the three days of the show. We are in places where its unique daily intakes for these fatty acids and compa- fishmeal used, is coming through the partial ingredient used Balan he replacement of fishmeal in the diets of almost nutritional properties can give the best results nies launching a large number of health sup- functioning of the gut, but is renowned sure that Orego-Stim is going to Produ all species (Tacon et al 2011, Figure 3). This and where price is less critical. for other interesting properties. play a key role in maximising per- plements, including pharmaceutical products, Pro nt drive to replace fishmeal is being driven by William Stewart, Regional Sales formance in all aspects of animal with concentrated EPA. be re ed the rise in the price of fishmeal and improving Fish ’ oil and its fatty acids Manager for Nor th Africa, said: production in the region. The importance placed on EPA and DHA Aqua of nutritional Orego-Stim but also by concern ‘The launch of knowledge, in As has been well documented, during the in the human diet has had a number of event to about the a huge success More inforMation Algeria has been fluctuating supply due to El Niño, :period 1985-2005 fish oil usage moved from profound effects on the fish oil market. Firstly www er- etc. Of course the with firstname.lastname@example.org and we were overwhelmed price of all commodi- being almost exclusively used to produce over the last ten years a significant market has Providing proficient tools to achieve cost-effective and sustainable aquaculture practices SUbSCRIbE www.aquafeed.co.uk/subscribe.php ECOBIOL Aqua a highly effective single strain probiotic International Aquafeed is published six times a year, bringing you in-depth features, industry news, GUSTOR Aqua events, book reviews and more. a natural growth promoter As well as your personal copy delivered direct to your address, subscribers to International BIOMET Aqua Aquafeed also receive a free copy of the an organic mineral source International Aquafeed Directory worth UK£85. For more information please visit our website. For a complimentary trial issue, please contact the rl Natuna trition Circulation & Subscriptions Manager - Tuti Tan - u NOREL,S.A. • Jesús Aprendiz, 19, 1º A y B • 28007 Madrid (SPAIN) Email: email@example.com Tel. +34 91 501 40 41 • Fax +34 91 501 46 44 • www.norel.es September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 19 September-October 2012 | InternatI FEATURE developed for the sale of crude fish oil for its vegetable sources and this trend seems standard. However, whilst this has been refinement and inclusion into capsules etc. likely to continue. adopted by a growing number of fisheries This has grown from almost nothing, to As salmon are poor converters of short- which can be eco-labelled at the point of sale, the point where today around 25 percent chained omega-3 fatty acids to long-chain there are currently no substantial volumes of of the world’s production of crude fish oil is fatty acids the fatty acid profile of the finished whole-fish from MSC certified fisheries being sold to this market. This has occurred at a salmon fillet is very much a reflection of the made available to fishmeal plants. time when the demand for salmon feed has fatty acid profile in the feed. The result is that Back in 2008 IFFO became aware that gone from 1.8 million tonnes to nearly three the EPA and DHA content of farmed salmon the fishmeal and fish oil industry needed an million tonnes. The other critical factor is that is decreasing and the omega-6 content is independently set, third-party audited stand- to obtain fish oil of the right quality (freshness, increasing. ard, which could be used by a factory to lack of oxidation products and levels of EPA This trend seems set to continue in the demonstrate the responsible sourcing of raw and DHA) the nutraceutical market pays a years to come. It seems likely that the salmon material and the responsible manufacture of premium of 25-30 percent over that for feed market will differentiate into ‘high EPA and marine ingredients. IFFO convened a multi- oil (current price for feed-grade fish oil is DHA’ salmon demanding a price premium stakeholder task force including feed produc- approximately $1,800/tonne). and regular salmon, which, while still contain- ers, fish farmers, fish processors, retailers and In order to increase the production of ing some EPA and DHA will have levels well environmental NGOs who over the next 18 salmon feed in-line with the market (as well below that found in wild salmon. months complied the standard which was launched late 2009. The IFFO RS standard has been quickly adopted by the industry and the point has now been reached where over one third of the world production comes from certified factories. The standard requires that any whole fish must come from fisheries that are managed according to the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The stand- ard also demands that the factory can demon- strate good manufacturing practice including full traceability from intake to finished product. There are now around 100 certified facto- Figure 4. The ratio of the price of Peruvian fishmeal and Brazilian soymeal ries in nine different countries producing IFFO based on weekly prices for the period 1993-2012 and the calculated trend line RS fishmeal and fish oil. Many of the world’s (IFFO data) major feed fisheries have been approved for use, although some have yet to produce suf- ficient evidence to convince the auditors. Full as trying to minimise any price effect) feed Is it sustainable? details of certified plants and approved raw producers have been increasingly substitut- One of the most often asked questions materials can be found on the IFFO web site, ing fish oil with vegetable oil. The vegetable about fishmeal and fish oil is whether or www.iffo.net . oil of choice is rapeseed (or canola) oil, not the practice is sustainable. This is a huge A continuing area of concern is Asia which, while not having any EPA or DHA, topic for discussion and one that is not easily where, as discussed earlier, there are consid- does at least have short-chain omega 3 fatty covered in the last section of a short article. erable volumes of fishmeal produced from acids and fewer omega-6 fatty acids than To answer the question one has to go back trawled mixed species. IFFO is working with most other commonly available vegetable and look at the source of the raw material and a number of different organisations includ- oils such as soya oil. The point has now look at the matter, fishery by fishery. The most ing the FAO and the Sustainable Fisheries been reached where over 50 percent of widely accepted measure of sustainability for Partnership to investigate how to bring about the added oil in salmon diets comes from a fishery is the Marine Stewardship Council’s fisheries improvement in this critical area. Asia 20 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012 FEATURE stages of the life-cycle when optimum per- formance is required. "Fishmeal and fish oil The growing importance of EPA and DHA in human health will ensure that there is a production is expected to strong demand for fish oil, either for direct remain around current levels, human consumption or via farmed fish, such as salmon. but this is unlikely to limit There is a growing need for fish feed producers and farmers to demonstrate that the growth of aquaculture all the raw materials in their feeds are being which will continue to have responsibly sourced. This is best achieved by using an internationally recognised certification reducing inclusion levels of standard. Increasing volumes of certified marine ingredients are now coming onto the market marine ingredients in the which will allow fish farmers to demonstrate INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS diets of most farmed fish" their commitment to responsible aquaculture. With circulation of the printed magazine to key industry decision makers and References heavy promotion at key industry events, working alongside our online distribution FAO (2012). The state of the world fisheries and is the region where aquaculture is growing aquaculture 2012. Rome: FAO. strategies - International Aquafeed is the fastest and the need for responsibly produced ideal place to promote your products fishmeal is highest. Tacon, A. G. J., Hasan, M. R., and Metian, M. (2011). aimed at the global aquaculture industry. Demand and supply of feed ingredients for farmed Call the team today to hear how we can fish and crustaceans -Trends and prospects. In: Conclusions FAO fisheries technical paper, Vol. 564. Rome: FAO. help you achieve your marketing goals Fishmeal and fish oil production is expect- ed to remain around current levels, but this is unlikely to limit the growth of aquaculture which will continue to have reducing inclusion More inforMation: levels of marine ingredients in the diets of Website: www.iffo.net most farmed fish. Fishmeal will increasingly become a strategic ingredient used at critical THE BEST WAY TO PREDICT THE FUTURE IS TO CREATE IT. —Peter F. Drucker Why retire a workhorse that’s still doing the job? Simply put, your old dryer may be costing you a bundle. In fact, today’s Wenger dryer could save you enough in operating efficiency alone to cover the replacement of your old dryer. 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