Fishmeal & fish oil and its role in sustainable aquaculture

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					                     September | October 2012
Fishmeal & fish oil and its role in sustainable
                aquaculture




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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
          FEATURE




Fishmeal & fish oil
and its role in sustainable
aquaculture
by Dr Andrew Jackson, Technical Director, IFFO, UK




T
            he	 annual	 global	 production	 of	            since	most	of	the	underlying	fisheries	are	now	         ents	–	the	so-called	fishmeal	trap.	It	is	certainly	
            fishmeal	 and	 fish	 oil	 is	 currently	       being	 well	 managed,	 using	 the	 precautionary	       true	 that	 during	 the	 1990s	 and	 early	 2000s	
            around	 five	 million	 tonnes	 of	 meal	       principle	with	tightly	set	and	monitored	quo-           as	aquaculture	grew,	it	used	more	and	more	
            and	 one	 million	 tonnes	 of	 oil	            tas.	Also	increasingly,	markets	are	being	found	        fishmeal,	mostly	by	taking	volumes	that	in	the	
(Figure	 1),	 except	 in	 years	 when	 the	 fishing	       for	at	least	a	proportion	of	the	catches	to	go	         past	had	gone	into	pig	and	poultry	feeds.	
in	the	South	Pacific	is	disrupted	by	the	warm	             for	direct	human	consumption.	                              However,	 since	 around	 2005	 aquaculture	
waters	of	an	El	Niňo,	most	recently	in	2010.	                  In	 addition	 there	 is	 concern	 that	 some	 of	   requiring	feed	has	continued	its	strong	annual	
Around	 22	 million	 tonnes	 of	 raw	 material	            the	mixed	tropical	trawl	fisheries	are	not	being	       growth	 of	 around	 seven	 percent	 but	 the	
is	 used,	 of	 which	 approximately	 75	 percent	          well	managed	and	that	catches	will	therefore	           volumes	of	fishmeal	used	in	aquaculture	have	
comes	from	whole	fish	and	25	percent	from	                 decrease	in	the	coming	years	as	these	become	           remained	steady	at	around	3.2	million	tonnes	
by-products	 of	 processing	 fish	 for	 human	             severely	depleted.	The	prospects	for	increas-           and	 those	 of	 fish	 oil	 have	 even	 reduced	
consumption	(IFFO	estimates).	                             ing	volumes	of	fisheries	by-products	do	how-            to	 around	 600,000	 tonnes.	 (Figure	 2).	 This	
                                                           ever	 look	 better	 as	 fishing	 becomes	 concen-       has	 led	 the	 FAO	 to	 state	 in	 their	 recently	
    The	 majority	 of	 the	 whole	 fish	 used	 are	        trated	at	fewer	landing	sites	and	aquacultural	         released	report	on	the	State	of	Fisheries	and	
small	pelagic	fish	such	as	anchovy,	menhaden,	             production	also	becomes	more	concentrated.	             Aquaculture	(FAO	2012):	“Although	the	dis-
sardines	and	sandeels	for	which	there	are	lim-             This	 will	 be	 further	 encouraged	 by	 the	 rising	   cussion	on	the	availability	and	use	of	aquafeed	
ited	markets	for	direct	human	consumption.	In	             price	of	fishmeal	and	stricter	laws	against	the	        ingredients	 often	 focuses	 on	 fishmeal	 and	
addition	to	the	estimated	11.5	million	tonnes	             dumping	of	waste	material.	So	on	balance	the	           fish-oil	 resource,	 considering	 the	 past	 trends	
of	 small	 pelagic	 fish	 used	 in	 fishmeal	 there	 is	   production	of	both	fishmeal	and	fish	oil	over	          and	 current	 predictions,	 the	 sustainability	 of	
also	an	estimated	five	million	tonnes	of	other	            the	 next	 few	 years	 is	 likely	 to	 remain	 about	   the	aquaculture	sector	will	probably	be	closely	
fish,	 the	 majority	 from	 mixed	 tropical	 trawl	        where	it	is	or	possibly	decrease	slightly,	which	       linked	with	the	sustained	supply	of	terrestrial	
fisheries	in	East	Asia.	                                   will	certainly	happen	in	El	Niño	years.                 animal	 and	 plant	 proteins,	 oils	 and	 carbohy-
                                                               The	 lack	 of	 growth	 in	 the	 production	 of	     drates	for	aquafeeds.”
Going forward                                              marine	ingredients	has	led	some	to	speculate	
   The	 prospects	 for	 increasing	 the	 produc-           that	the	growth	of	aquaculture	would	in	turn	           Becoming a strategic ingredient
tion	 of	 fishmeal	 and	 fish	 oil	 are	 very	 limited,	   be	limited	by	the	shortage	of	such	key	ingredi-            This	 growth	 in	 aquaculture	 production,	




      Figure 1. The Global Production of fishmeal and fish oil from                                Figure 2. The global production of fed aquaculture
      1964-2011 (IFFO data)                                                                        and the use in the associated diets of fishmeal and
                                                                                                   fish oil, millions of tonnes (FAO FishStat data and
                                                                                                   IFFO data and estimates)


                                                    18 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
                                                                                                                                                         FEATURE

                                                                      Aqua News               ties	 has	 risen	 steeply	 in	 hydrogenated	 margarines	 to	 being	 almost	
                                                                                                    Best-selling	authors	of	Megatrends	unveiled	as
                                                                                              recent	 years	 and	 it	 is	 exclusively	used	in	aquaculture.	Within	aqua-
         should	 be	 limited	 to	 two	 to	 three	 Vietnam.	Vietnam	is	the	third	largest	      important	 to	 compare	 culture	by	far	the	biggest	user	was	in	salmon	
         typewritten	 pages	 plus	 references.	 aquaculture-producing	 country	                     guest	speakers	at	the	World	Nutrition	Forum	
                                                                                              the	 price	 of	 fishmeal	 feed,	 indeed	 it	 reached	 the	 point,	 in	 around	



                                                                                                    I
ch	     A	 one-page	 CV	 of	 the	 candidate	 in	 the	 world.	 Our	 Novus	 Aqua	               with	the	alternatives.	         2002,	 when	 For um	 2012,	 the	 world’s	
                                                                                                          nternational	best-selling	author,	 over	 60	 percent	 of	BIOMIN	 has	       This	w
ed	     should	be	attached	to	the	proposal.	 Research	 Center	 is	 integrally	 con-               The	most	commonly	 fish	oil	production	was	being	fed	to	salmon.	 of	
                                                                                                          John	Naisbitt,	and	the	Director	 announced	 the	 attendance	                guest	
or	     Applicant	 must	 be	 enrolled	 in	 a	 nected	to	the	aqua	industry	and	will	                       of	 the	 to	 fish-
                                                                                              used	 alternative	Naisbitt	 China	 Institute	 Doris	 and	 John	 Naisbitt,	 authors	
                                                                                                                                  The	 reason	 for	 this	 very	 high	 usage	 in	      the	W
an	     University	MSc	or	PhD	program	at	 allow	the	intern	to	learn	about	and	                meal	is	that	of	soymeal.	 Naisbitt,	 will	 of	 international	 bestsellers	 such	
                                                                                                      in	 Tianjin,	 Doris	    salmon	feeds	was	that	salmon	were	found	to	               John
sts	    the	time	of	application.                    experience	 aquaculture	 in	Vietnam	      Figure	4	shows	that	over	 perform	 best	 on	 diets	 with	 in	 excess	 of	 30	
                                                                                                      deliver	their	guest	speech	on	Day	 as	Megatrends	and	Mind	Set.                  a	list	
ity,	     The	selection	of	the	Novus	intern	 through	interactions	with	the	Novus	             the	last	twenty	years	the	 percent	fat	and	at	the	time	fish	oil	was	one	of	
                                                                                                      One	 of	 the	 5th	World	 Nutrition	        Based	 on	 the	 research	 of	 the	   alread
on	     will	 be	 announced	 at	Aquaculture	 research	and	operations	teams.                   price	ratio	of	fishmeal	to	 the	 cheapest	 oils	 on	 the	China	 Institute,	 John	
                                                                                                      Forum	in	Singapore.                      Naisbitt	 market.	 In	 addition	       the	 W
or	     2013	in	Nashville,	TN.	A	digital	pho-         The	award	will	include:                           With	 increased	 it	 also	 gave	 and	 Doris	 Naisbitt	 are	 currently	
                                                                                              soymeal	 has	 less	 than	 three	 months	the	 finished	 salmon	 fillets	 a	 very	        includ
        tograph	of	the	intern	will	be	needed	         •	 Travel	 to	 and	 from	 Ho	 Chi	      significantly,	 which	 is	 high	level	of	long	chain	Omega-	3	fatty	acids,	
                                                                                                      until	 the	 doors	 open	 on	 one	 of	 working	 on	 an	 analysis	 of	 China’s	   Intern
 a-     for	the	announcement.                            Minh	City,	Vietnam	•	Lodging	in	             the	 of	 the	 fact	 specifically	EPA	and	DHA.	
                                                                                              indicative	 world’s	 most	 sought-after	 key	economic,	cultural	and	political	          (Mur
on	       Following	 the	 selection,	 the	 four-         a	university	student	dormitory	              events	 is	 being	
                                                                                              that	 fishmeal	 in	 the	 animal	 nutrition	 transformations	 and	 their	evi-
                                                                                                                                  During	 the	 last	 10	 years	 increasing	 impact	   Julian
he	     week	 internship	 will	 be	 scheduled	           in	Vietnam	 during	 the	 intern-                           critical	 dence	has	been	published	on	the	very	impor-
                                                                                              reduced	 in	 less	the	 World	 Nutrition	 on	 the	 global	 business	 landscape.	
                                                                                                      industr y,	                                                                     Egg	 C
        from	 June	 to	 August,	 2013.	The	              ship	 •	 $1,000	 to	 help	 with	     areas	 such	 as	 grower	 tant	role	these	two	fatty	acids	play	in	human	                 Gelde
by	     intern	 will	 work	 with	The	 Novus	             living	expenses	in	Vietnam           feeds,	 but	 remains	 in	 health.	EPA	has	been	shown	to	be	critical	in	                 Africa
an	     Aquaculture	 Research	 team	 on	 a	           Submit	 proposals	 by	 email	 to	       the	 more	 critical	 and	 the	 health	 of	 the	 cardiovascular	 system	 and	              The
                        Figure 3. The dietary inclusion of fishmeal (%) in
he	     current	project	being	carried	out	at	 Lorraine	Magney	at	Novus:	Lorraine.
                        aquaculture feeds over the period 1995-2010 (after
                                                                                              less	price-sensitive	areas	 DHA	in	the	proper	functioning	of	the	nervous	               by	 m
als	    the	Novus	Aqua	Research	Center	in	 magney@novusint.com
                        Tacon et al 2011 )                                                    of	 hatchery	 and	 brood- system,	most	notably	brain	function.	                         resen
                                       Professor Simon Davies                                 stock	 feeds.	 Fishmeal	 is	        This	growing	awareness	within	the	medical	          from	
                                                                                              therefore	becoming	less	 profession	 and	 the	 general	 public	 has	 led	 to	           the	flo
                 whilst	 not	 increasing	 the	 how	 busy	 the	 stand	 a	 commodity	 and	 more	 of	 a	 strategic	 many	governments	producing	recommended	
        formance,	 increasing	financial	returns.	 total	 amount	 of	 of	was	 for	 the	                                                                                                on	an
        Orego-Stim®	not	only	improves	the	 three	days	 of	 the	 show.	 	We	are	 in	 places	 where	 its	 unique	 daily	intakes	for	these	fatty	acids	and	compa-
                 fishmeal	 used,	 is	 coming	 through	 the	 partial	 ingredient	 used	                                                                                                Balan
he	              replacement	of	fishmeal	in	the	diets	of	almost	 nutritional	properties	can	give	the	best	results	 nies	 launching	 a	 large	 number	 of	 health	 sup-
        functioning	of	the	gut,	but	is	renowned	 sure	that	 Orego-Stim	is	going	to	                                                                                                   Produ
                 all	 species	 (Tacon	 et al	 2011,	 Figure	 3).	 This	 and	where	price	is	less	critical.	
        for	other	interesting	properties.           play	a	key	role	in	maximising	per-                                        plements,	 including	 pharmaceutical	 products,	          Pro
nt	              drive	 to	 replace	 fishmeal	 is	 being	 driven	 by	
          William	Stewart,	 Regional	 Sales	 formance	in	all	aspects	of	animal	                                               with	concentrated	EPA.                                  be	 re
ed	              the	rise	in	the	price	of	fishmeal	and	improving	 Fish ’ oil and its fatty acids
        Manager	 for	 Nor th	Africa,	 said:	 production	in	the	region.                                                            The	importance	placed	on	EPA	and	DHA	               Aqua
 of	             nutritional	Orego-Stim	but	 also	 by	 concern	
        ‘The	 launch	 of	      knowledge,	 in	                               As	has	been	well	documented,	during	the	         in	 the	 human	 diet	 has	 had	 a	 number	 of	          event
to	              about	 the	 a	 huge	 success	 More inforMation
        Algeria	 has	 been	 fluctuating	 supply	 due	 to	 El	 Niño,	 :period	1985-2005	fish	oil	usage	moved	from	 profound	effects	on	the	fish	oil	market.	Firstly	                     www
er-              etc.	 Of	 course	 the	 with	 sales@meriden-ah.com
        and	 we	 were	 overwhelmed	price	 of	 all	 commodi- being	 almost	 exclusively	 used	 to	 produce	 over	the	last	ten	years	a	significant	market	has	




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                                                                     September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 19
                                                                                                                                                      September-October 2012 | InternatI
          FEATURE




developed	for	the	sale	of	crude	fish	oil	for	its	         vegetable	 sources	 and	 this	 trend	 seems	               standard.	 However,	 whilst	 this	 has	 been	
refinement	and	inclusion	into	capsules	etc.	              likely	to	continue.                                        adopted	 by	 a	 growing	 number	 of	 fisheries	
    This	 has	 grown	 from	 almost	 nothing,	 to	             As	 salmon	 are	 poor	 converters	 of	 short-          which	can	be	eco-labelled	at	the	point	of	sale,	
the	 point	 where	 today	 around	 25	 percent	            chained	 omega-3	 fatty	 acids	 to	 long-chain	            there	are	currently	no	substantial	volumes	of	
of	 the	 world’s	 production	 of	 crude	 fish	 oil	 is	   fatty	acids	the	fatty	acid	profile	of	the	finished	        whole-fish	from	MSC	certified	fisheries	being	
sold	 to	 this	 market.	 This	 has	 occurred	 at	 a	      salmon	 fillet	 is	 very	 much	 a	 reflection	 of	 the	    made	available	to	fishmeal	plants.
time	 when	 the	 demand	 for	 salmon	 feed	 has	          fatty	acid	profile	in	the	feed.	The	result	is	that	             Back	 in	 2008	 IFFO	 became	 aware	 that	
gone	from	1.8	million	tonnes	to	nearly	three	             the	EPA	and	DHA	content	of	farmed	salmon	                  the	 fishmeal	 and	 fish	 oil	 industry	 needed	 an	
million	tonnes.	The	other	critical	factor	is	that	        is	 decreasing	 and	 the	 omega-6	 content	 is	            independently	 set,	 third-party	 audited	 stand-
to	obtain	fish	oil	of	the	right	quality	(freshness,	      increasing.	                                               ard,	 which	 could	 be	 used	 by	 a	 factory	 to	
lack	 of	 oxidation	 products	 and	 levels	 of	 EPA	          This	 trend	 seems	 set	 to	 continue	 in	 the	        demonstrate	the	responsible	sourcing	of	raw	
and	 DHA)	 the	 nutraceutical	 market	 pays	 a	           years	to	come.	It	seems	likely	that	the	salmon	            material	 and	 the	 responsible	 manufacture	 of	
premium	of	25-30	percent	over	that	for	feed	              market	 will	 differentiate	 into	 ‘high	 EPA	 and	        marine	 ingredients.	 IFFO	 convened	 a	 multi-
oil	 (current	 price	 for	 feed-grade	 fish	 oil	 is	     DHA’	 salmon	 demanding	 a	 price	 premium	                stakeholder	task	force	including	feed	produc-
approximately	$1,800/tonne).	                             and	regular	salmon,	which,	while	still	contain-            ers,	fish	farmers,	fish	processors,	retailers	and	
    In	 order	 to	 increase	 the	 production	 of	         ing	some	EPA	and	DHA	will	have	levels	well	                environmental	NGOs	who	over	the	next	18	
salmon	feed	in-line	with	the	market	(as	well	             below	that	found	in	wild	salmon.                           months	 complied	 the	 standard	 which	 was	
                                                                                                                     launched	late	2009.
                                                                                                                          The	 IFFO	 RS	 standard	 has	 been	 quickly	
                                                                                                                     adopted	 by	 the	 industry	 and	 the	 point	 has	
                                                                                                                     now	 been	 reached	 where	 over	 one	 third	 of	
                                                                                                                     the	 world	 production	 comes	 from	 certified	
                                                                                                                     factories.	 The	 standard	 requires	 that	 any	
                                                                                                                     whole	 fish	 must	 come	 from	 fisheries	 that	
                                                                                                                     are	managed	according	to	the	FAO	Code	of	
                                                                                                                     Conduct	for	Responsible	Fisheries.	The	stand-
                                                                                                                     ard	also	demands	that	the	factory	can	demon-
                                                                                                                     strate	 good	 manufacturing	 practice	 including	
                                                                                                                     full	traceability	from	intake	to	finished	product.
                                                                                                                          There	are	now	around	100	certified	facto-
      Figure 4. The ratio of the price of Peruvian fishmeal and Brazilian soymeal                                    ries	in	nine	different	countries	producing	IFFO	
      based on weekly prices for the period 1993-2012 and the calculated trend line                                  RS	 fishmeal	 and	 fish	 oil.	 Many	 of	 the	 world’s	
      (IFFO data)                                                                                                    major	 feed	 fisheries	 have	 been	 approved	 for	
                                                                                                                     use,	although	some	have	yet	to	produce	suf-
                                                                                                                     ficient	evidence	to	convince	the	auditors.	Full	
as	trying	to	minimise	any	price	effect)	feed	              Is it sustainable?                                        details	 of	 certified	 plants	 and	 approved	 raw	
producers	have	been	increasingly	substitut-                    One	 of	 the	 most	 often	 asked	 questions	          materials	can	be	found	on	the	IFFO	web	site,	
ing	fish	oil	with	vegetable	oil.	The	vegetable	           about	 fishmeal	 and	 fish	 oil	 is	 whether	 or	          www.iffo.net	.	
oil	 of	 choice	 is	 rapeseed	 (or	 canola)	 oil,	        not	the	practice	is	sustainable.	This	is	a	huge	                A	 continuing	 area	 of	 concern	 is	 Asia	
which,	 while	 not	 having	 any	 EPA	 or	 DHA,	           topic	for	discussion	and	one	that	is	not	easily	           where,	as	discussed	earlier,	there	are	consid-
does	at	least	have	short-chain	omega	3	fatty	             covered	 in	 the	 last	 section	 of	 a	 short	 article.	   erable	 volumes	 of	 fishmeal	 produced	 from	
acids	 and	 fewer	 omega-6	 fatty	 acids	 than	           To	 answer	 the	 question	 one	 has	 to	 go	 back	         trawled	 mixed	 species.	 IFFO	 is	 working	 with	
most	 other	 commonly	 available	 vegetable	              and	look	at	the	source	of	the	raw	material	and	            a	 number	 of	 different	 organisations	 includ-
oils	 such	 as	 soya	 oil.	 The	 point	 has	 now	         look	at	the	matter,	fishery	by	fishery.	The	most	          ing	 the	 FAO	 and	 the	 Sustainable	 Fisheries	
been	 reached	 where	 over	 50	 percent	 of	              widely	 accepted	 measure	 of	 sustainability	 for	        Partnership	to	investigate	how	to	bring	about	
the	 added	 oil	 in	 salmon	 diets	 comes	 from	          a	 fishery	 is	 the	 Marine	 Stewardship	 Council’s	       fisheries	improvement	in	this	critical	area.	Asia	

                                                   20 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
                                                                                                                                                  FEATURE

                                                         stages	 of	 the	 life-cycle	 when	 optimum	 per-
                                                         formance	is	required.	
               "Fishmeal and fish oil                         The	growing	importance	of	EPA	and	DHA	
                                                         in	 human	 health	 will	 ensure	 that	 there	 is	 a	
         production is expected to                       strong	 demand	 for	 fish	 oil,	 either	 for	 direct	
   remain around current levels,                         human	consumption	or	via	farmed	fish,	such	
                                                         as	salmon.	
        but this is unlikely to limit                         There	 is	 a	 growing	 need	 for	 fish	 feed	
                                                         producers	 and	 farmers	 to	 demonstrate	 that	
        the growth of aquaculture                        all	 the	 raw	 materials	 in	 their	 feeds	 are	 being	
     which will continue to have                         responsibly	 sourced.	 This	 is	 best	 achieved	 by	
                                                         using	 an	 internationally	 recognised	 certification	
      reducing inclusion levels of                       standard.	Increasing	volumes	of	certified	marine	
                                                         ingredients	 are	 now	 coming	 onto	 the	 market	
          marine ingredients in the                      which	 will	 allow	 fish	 farmers	 to	 demonstrate	
                                                                                                                              INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS

         diets of most farmed fish"                      their	commitment	to	responsible	aquaculture.                   With	circulation	of	the	printed	magazine	
                                                                                                                        to	key	industry	decision	makers	and	
                                                         References                                                     heavy	promotion	at	key	industry	events,	
                                                                                                                        working	alongside	our	online	distribution	
                                                         FAO	(2012).	The	state	of	the	world	fisheries	and	
is	 the	 region	 where	 aquaculture	 is	 growing	        aquaculture	2012.	Rome:	FAO.                                   strategies	-	International	Aquafeed	is	the	
fastest	and	the	need	for	responsibly	produced	                                                                          ideal	place	to	promote	your	products	
fishmeal	is	highest.                                     Tacon,	A.	G.	J.,	Hasan,	M.	R.,	and	Metian,	M.	(2011).	         aimed	at	the	global	aquaculture	industry.	
                                                         Demand	and	supply	of	feed	ingredients	for	farmed	
                                                                                                                        Call	the	team	today	to	hear	how	we	can	
                                                         fish	and	crustaceans	-Trends	and	prospects.	In:	
Conclusions                                              FAO	fisheries	technical	paper,	Vol.	564.	Rome:	FAO.	
                                                                                                                        help	you	achieve	your	marketing	goals
     Fishmeal	and	fish	oil	production	is	expect-
ed	 to	 remain	 around	 current	 levels,	 but	 this	
is	 unlikely	 to	 limit	 the	 growth	 of	 aquaculture	
which	will	continue	to	have	reducing	inclusion	
                                                             More inforMation:
levels	 of	 marine	 ingredients	 in	 the	 diets	 of	
                                                             Website: www.iffo.net
most	 farmed	 fish.	 Fishmeal	 will	 increasingly	
become	a	strategic	ingredient	used	at	critical	




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                                                   September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 21
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                     Vo l u m e 1 5 I s s u e 5 2 0 1 2
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                                     The use of algae in fish feeds
                                        as alternatives to fishmeal

                               Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua:
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                                                – enhancing digestion in a different manner




                                                          Fishmeal & fish oil
                                                               – and its role in sustainable
                                                                                aquaculture    •	   Contact	the	International	Aquafeed	Team
                                      Options and challenges of
                                  alternative protein and energy


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Description: The annual global production of fishmeal and fish oil is currently around five million tonnes of meal and one million tonnes of oil (Figure 1), except in years when the fishing in the South Pacific is disrupted by the warm waters of an El Niňo, most recently in 2010. Around 22 million tonnes of raw material is used, of which approximately 75 percent comes from whole fish and 25 percent from by-products of processing fish for human consumption (IFFO estimates).