Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua: enhancing digestion in a different manner

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					                     September | October 2012
 Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua: enhancing
      digestion in a different manner

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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua:
enhancing digestion in a different manner
by Waldo G. Nuez-Ortín (DVM, MSc) and Jorge Zarate Domínguez (Eng), Norel S.A, Spain

          he	 digestive	 system	 of	 fish	 and	            In	both	industrialised	and	developing	coun-              regarding	 bacterial	 resistance	 or	 undesired	
          shrimp	 is	 sensitive	 and	 responsive	      tries,	 nutrition	 plays	 a	 critical	 role	 in	 the	 sus-   residues	in	the	edible	product.	
          to	 a	 number	 of	 stressing	 factors	       tained	development	of	aquaculture,	thus	par-                     It	is	more	and	more	common	by	nutrition-
          that	frequently	occur	and	are	cause	         ticular	emphasis	is	being	placed	on	nutritional	             ists	 to	 include	 NGPs	 as	 organic	 acid	 salts	 or	
of	 disease	 and	 poor	 performance.	 In	 order	       strategies	and	their	effect	on	health,	perform-              probiotics	in	the	aquafeed	formula.	In	the	aim	
to	lessen	the	negative	impacts	of	those	and	           ance,	 and	 environmental	 integrity.	 While	 a	             of	 optimising	 health	 and	 growth,	 both	 are	
achieve	 sustainable,	 safe,	 and	 cost-efficient	     first	 nutritional	 approach	 is	 the	 increasingly	         characterized	 by	 the	 resultant	 enhancement	
aquaculture	 production,	 nutritionists	 must	         accessible	 information	 on	 nutrient	 require-              of	nutrient	utilization,	which	is	in	turn	achieved	
focus	 not	 only	 on	 nutritional	 specifications	     ments	 as	 well	 as	 on	 the	 more	 effective	 use	          by	different	mechanisms	of	action.	
but	 also	 on	 promoting	 digestive	 health.	 In	      of	 alternative	 and	 available	 ingredients,	 a	
such	 task,	 probiotics	 and	 organic	 acid	 salts	    second	 approach	 is	 supplementation	 with	                 Gustor Aqua- an organic acid salt
have	aroused	as	natural	solutions	that	result	         natural	growth	promoters	(NGPs).	NGPs	not	                       Gustor	 Aqua	 contains	 sodium	 butyrate,	
in	improved	health	status,	nutrient	utilization,	      only	 provide	 benefits	 in	 terms	 of	 health	 and	         which	 has	 been	 proposed	 as	 candidate	
and	consequently	performance.	                         performance	 but	 also	 do	 not	 bear	 any	 risk	            replacement	 for	 antibiotics.	 Although	 the	
                                                                                                                    consistency	 of	 the	 effects	 on	 performance	
                                                                                                                    achieved	 by	 antibiotics	 is	 difficult	 to	 emulate,	
table 1: effect of dietary supplementation of GUStor aqua on performance parameters of                              sodium	butyrate	provides	antimicrobial	activ-
catfish (P. hypohthalmus)
                                                                                                                    ity	besides	other	key	benefits	that	go	beyond	
                        Initial weight (g)   Weight gain (g)    SGr (% day)           FCr            Per
                                                                                                                    of	 those	 provided	 by	 antibiotics,	 such	 as	
                                                                                                                    enhanced	 development	 of	 intestinal	 epithe-
              Control        6.90a              37.56a              3.34a            1.65a          1.34a           lium	 and	 intestinal	 barrier	 integrity	 as	 well	 as	
     GUStor aqua             6.75a              50.68b              4.32b            1.32b          1.81b           anti-inflammatory	properties.	
                                                                                                                        Once	 in	 the	 gastrointestinal	 tract,	 sodium	
Gustor Aqua dosed at 0.5 kg/ton feed
                                                                                                                    butyrate	 dissociates	 into	 butyric,	 which	 is	
Means with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P<0.05) SGR:                      strongly	 lipophilic	 and	 capable	 to	 diffuse	
Specific growth rate / FCR: Feed conversion ratio / PER: Protein efficiency ratio
                                                                                                                    across	 the	 membrane	 of	 gram	 negative	 bac-
                                                                                                                    teria	 (Gálfi	 and	 Bokori	 1990),	 leading	 to	 a	
table 2: effect of dietary supplementation of GUStor aqua (protected) on digestibility and
performance parameters of shrimp (P. monodon)
                                                                                                                    disruption	of	the	metabolic	processes	and	the	
                                                                Weigh gain
                                                                                                                    consequent	 bacterial	 death.	 The	 subsequent	
                     DMd (%)         CPd (%)        ed (%)                 Survival (%)              FCr            reduction	in	the	butyric	acid	intolerant	micro-
                                                                                                                    organisms	contributes	to	a	diminished	risk	of	
          Control       64.90a        85.20a        78.10a         13.67             90              3.43           subclinical	infections	and	nutrient	demand	by	
 GUStor aqua      72.46a       89.11b               83.26b          4.01             93              3.29           the	 gut-associated	 immune	 system,	 resulting	
Gustor Aqua dosed at 1 kg/ton feed                                                                                  in	 enhanced	 health	 status,	 less	 nutrient	 com-
                                                                                                                    petition,	and	consequently	better	efficiency	in	
Means with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P<0.05)
                                                                                                                    terms	of	nutrient	utilisation.
DMd: Dry matter digestibility / CPd: Crude protein digestibility / Ed: energy digestibility / FCR:                      The	stimulatory	effect	of	butyrate	on	intes-
Feed conversion ratio
                                                                                                                    tinal	epithelium	development	has	been	dem-
Coefficients of digestibility were determined by the use of chromic oxide as an inert marker                        onstrated	in	both	in vivo and	in vitro	conditions,	

                                                  14 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

elucidating	 greater	 epithelial	 cell	 proliferation	 of	commercial	feed.	This	solution	is	attrib-       in	 weight	 gain	 (+35%),	 specific	 growth	 rate	
with	 the	 administration	 of	 sodium	 butyrate	 uted	 to	 the	 anti-inflammatory	 properties	            (SGR)	 (+30%),	 feed	 conversion	 ratio	 (FCR)	
when	 compared	 to	 other	 salts	 as	 sodium	 of	sodium	butyrate,	whose	mode	of	action	                   (-16%)	 and	 protein	 efficiency	 ratio	 (PER)	
acetate	 and	 sodium	 propionate	 (Sakata	 and	 is	 by	 modification	 of	 transcription	 factors	         (+35%)	 relative	 to	 the	 non-supplemented	
Tamata	1978a,	1979;	Sakata	1987).	                       (NF-kB)	 that	 control	 the	 expression	 of	     diet.	 In	 a	 second	 experiment	 with	 shrimp	
     In	 a	 study	 conducted	 in	 broilers,	 dietary	 inflammatory	 response	 genes	 (Hamer	 et           (Penaeus monodon),	a	diet	was	supplemented	
supplementation	 of	 0.05%	 sodium	 butyrate	 al.	2008,	Le	Gall	et al.	2009).	The	result	is	              with	1	kg	of	Gustor	Aqua/ton	of	feed	and	fed	
(92%)	 significantly	 increased	 the	 length	 a	 healthy	 absorptive	 surface	 area	 ensuring	            during	two	months.	As	shown	in	Table	2,	the	
(+35.5%)	 and	 width	 (+	 55.7%)	 of	                                                                                supplementation	of	sodium	butyrate	
villi	 at	 21	 and	 42	 days,	 respectively	                                                                         significantly	 enhanced	 digestibility	 of	
(Mallo	 et al.	 2011).	 As	 a	 result	 of	                                                                           dry	 matter	 (DMd)	 (+12%),	 crude	
improved	villi	development,	absorp-                                                                                  protein	 (CPd)	 (+5%)	 and	 energy	
tive	 surface	 area	 is	 enlarged,	 lead-                                                                            (Ed)	 (+7%),	 leading	 to	 numerical	
ing	 to	 better	 feed	 utilisation	 and	                                                                             improvements	 in	 weight	 gain,	 sur-
enhanced	 animal	 health	 status	 and	                                                                               vival	and	FCR.	In	both	experiments,	
performance.	                                                                                                        the	 observed	 positive	 results	 can	
     Gustor	 Aqua	 has	 also	 gained	                                                                                be	 attributed	 to	 the	 abovemen-
interest	 due	 to	 increasing	 use	 of	                                                                              tioned	 modes	 of	 action	 described	
plant-based	 diets.	 Several	 investiga-                                                                             for	sodium	butyrate.
tions	 have	 reported	 soya-induced	
enteritis	 in	 salmonids	 (Baeverfjord	                                                                             Ecobiol Aqua- a probiotic
and	 Krogdahl	 1996;	 Knudsen	 et	 al.	               Figure 1. Biomass of L. vannamei after Ecobiol                      Ecobiol	 Aqua	 contains	 spores	 of	
2008;	 Krogdahl	 et	 al.	 2003)	 and	                 Aqua supplementation                                            Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.	This	sporu-
common	 carp	 (Urán	 et	 al.	 2008).	                                                                                 lated	form	gathers	the	essential	and	
This	 observation	 has	 led	 special-                                                                                 favourable	properties	for	a	potential	
ists	 to	 not	 include	 more	 than	 5-15	 percent	 optimal	 absorption	 of	 important	 nutrients	         probiont	 listed	 by	 several	 authors	 (Farzanfar,	
of	 soya	 in	 salmon	 diets	 in	 order	 to	 prevent	 as	water,	minerals	or	fatty	acids.	                  2006;	 Gómez	 and	 Balcazar,	 2008;	 Merrifield	
enteritis.	                                                In	 a	 experiment	 conducted	 with	 catfish	   et al.	 2010;	 Vine	 et al.	 2006).	 Among	 them;	
     When	coping	with	this	situation,	sodium	 (Pangasius hypohthalmus),	 a	 diet	 was	 supple-            viability	 under	 normal	 storage	 conditions,	
butyrate	 arises	 as	 a	 tool	 to	 prevent	 the	 mented	with	0.5	Kg	Gustor	Aqua/ton	of	feed	              acceptable	 survival	 under	 processing	 condi-
development	of	soya-induced	enteritis	and	 and	 fed	 twice	 daily	 during	 56	 days.	 Results	            tions,	 being	 non-pathogenic	 and	 resistant	 to	
allow	 for	 a	 more	 convenient	 formulation	 (Table	 1)	 showed	 significant	 improvements	              bile	 salts	 and	 low	 pH,	 fast	 growth	 at	 host	

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                                               September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 15

                                                                         gens	affecting	both	cold	and	       treatment	 with	 an	 average	 weight	 of	 6	 g	
                                                                         warm	water	aquatic	species	         were	 selected	 and	 fasted	 for	 12	 hours.	
                                                                         such	as	Aeromonas hydrophi-         Hepatopancreas	 were	 excised	 and	 the	
                                                                         la,	 Aeromonas salmonicida,	        activity	 of	 lipase,	 protease,	 and	 amylase	
                                                                         Yersinia ruckeri	 and	 Vibrio
                                                                         parahameolyticus	 (Nuez-
                                                                         Ortín	2011).	This	inhibitory	
                                                                         activity	 promotes	 optimal	
                                                                         gut	 flora	 balance,	 which	 in	        "Nutritionists must pay special
                                                                         turn	 results	 in	 less	 nutri-
                                                                         ent	 competition,	 enhanced	                focus not only to nutritional
                                                                         disease	resistance,	healthier	                   specifications but also to
                                                                         absorptive	 surface	 area,	
                                                                         and	 consequently	 better	                maximise nutrient utilisation"
                                                                         nutrient	utilization.
                                                                             It	 is	 also	 known	 that	
                                                                         probiotic	 bacteria	 can	
                                                                         release	 extracellular	
                                                                         enzymes	 that	 help	 in	 the	       was	 analysed	 according	 to	 Hernández	
                                                                         digestion	 process.	 This	          (1993),	 Versaw	 and	 Coupett	 (1989)	 and	
                                                                         ability	 was	 investigated	 in	     Vega-Villsante	 et al.	 (1999),	 respectively.	
                                                                         a	 recent	 study,	 in	 which	       Results	(Figure	2)	showed	increased	enzy-
                                                                         a	 total	 of	 96	 shrimp	           matic	activity	in	hepatopancreas	after	feed	
                                                                         (Litopenaeus vannamei)	             intake,	 suggesting	 enhanced	 digestibility	
                                                                         with	 an	 average	 weight	          and	 consequently	 better	 final	 biomass.	
                                                                         of	 0.85	 g	 were	 placed	 in	      Secretion	of	amylases,	cellulases	and	xyla-
                                                                         12	 aquariums	 and	 fed	 to	        nases	 has	 also	 been	 reported	 for	 Bacillus
                                                                         satiety	 with	 two	 different	      amyloliquefaciens	(Cortyl,	2010).
                                                                         treatments	 (6	 replicates/
                                                                         treatment);	 1)	 unaltered	         Conclusion
                                                                         commercial	 shrimp	 feed	              Nutritionists	 must	 pay	 special	 focus	
                                                                         (35%	 CP),	 and	 2)	 com-           not	 only	 to	 nutritional	 specifications	 but	
         Figure 2. Lipase (a), protease (b), and amylase
         (c) activity in hepatopancreas of L. vannamei
                                                                         mercial	shrimp	containing	          also	 to	 maximise	 nutrient	 utilisation.	 It	 is	
                                                                         Ecobiol	 Aqua	 at	 2	 kg/           therefore	 that	 supplementation	 with	 NGPs	
                                                                         ton	 feed.	 Final	 biomass	         such	 as	 organic	 acid	 salts	 or	 probiotics	 has	
rearing	 temperature,	 antagonistic	 properties	 was	 calculated	 as	 the	 sum	 of	 the	 indi-               aroused	as	a	natural	alternative	to	develop	
against	 key	 pathogens,	 and	 capacity	 to	 pro- vidual	 weights	 of	 animals	 allocated	 in	               a	successful	nutritional	program.	By	different	
duce	extracellular	enzymes	that	improve	feed	 each	treatment.	As	shown	in	Figure	1,	the	                     modes	 of	 action,	 supplementation	 of	 both	
utilisation.	                                         difference	 in	 final	 biomass	 was	 numeri-           Gustor	Aqua	and	Ecobiol	Aqua	will	lead	to	
    It	 is	 the	 combination	 of	 different	 modes	 cally	 higher	 until	 day	 40,	 however,	 this	          the	 enhanced	 gut	 efficiency	 to	 digest	 feed.	
of	 action	 what	 leads	 to	 host	 benefit	 when	 difference	 became	 significant	 after	 day	               Factors	such	as	targeted	species,	methodol-
Ecobiol	 aqua	 is	 supplemented.	 B. amylolique- 50.	 As	 the	 experiment	 was	 conducted	                   ogy	 for	 use,	 or	 processing	 conditions,	 will	
faciens	 is	 capable	 to	 secrete	 lactic	 acid	 and	 in	 controlled	 conditions	 with	 absence	 of	         determine	 the	 inclusion	 of	 one	 or	 the	
barnase.	While	the	former	will	reduce	patho- pathogens,	 the	 most	 likely	 explanation	                     other,	or	their	combination,	in	the	aquafeed	
genic	 bacteria	 and	 will	 be	 used	 by	 beneficial	 for	this	improvement	can	be	found	in	the	              formula.		                                       ■
bacteria	 such	 as	 Lactobacillus	 as	 substrate	 to	 extracellular	 enzyme	 secretion	 capacity	
grow,	the	later	is	a	potent	bacteriocine.	As	a	 of	 the	 vegetative	 form	 of	 Bacillus amy-
result,	the	antimicrobial	properties	of	Ecobiol	 loliquefaciens.	 In	 order	 to	 investigate	 on	
Aqua	have	been	demonstrated	against	patho- this	 assumption,	 a	 total	 of	 6	 shrimp	 per	                  Available	upon	request

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                                                16 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
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Description: The digestive system of fish and shrimp is sensitive and responsive to a number of stressing factors that frequently occur and are cause of disease and poor performance. In order to lessen the negative impacts of those and achieve sustainable, safe, and cost-efficient aquaculture production, nutritionists must focus not only on nutritional specifications but also on promoting digestive health. In such task, probiotics and organic acid salts have aroused as natural solutions that result in improved health status, nutrient utilization, and consequently performance.