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The digestive system of fish and shrimp is sensitive and responsive to a number of stressing factors that frequently occur and are cause of disease and poor performance. In order to lessen the negative impacts of those and achieve sustainable, safe, and cost-efficient aquaculture production, nutritionists must focus not only on nutritional specifications but also on promoting digestive health. In such task, probiotics and organic acid salts have aroused as natural solutions that result in improved health status, nutrient utilization, and consequently performance.
September | October 2012 Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua: enhancing digestion in a different manner International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry FEATURE Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua: enhancing digestion in a different manner by Waldo G. Nuez-Ortín (DVM, MSc) and Jorge Zarate Domínguez (Eng), Norel S.A, Spain T he digestive system of fish and In both industrialised and developing coun- regarding bacterial resistance or undesired shrimp is sensitive and responsive tries, nutrition plays a critical role in the sus- residues in the edible product. to a number of stressing factors tained development of aquaculture, thus par- It is more and more common by nutrition- that frequently occur and are cause ticular emphasis is being placed on nutritional ists to include NGPs as organic acid salts or of disease and poor performance. In order strategies and their effect on health, perform- probiotics in the aquafeed formula. In the aim to lessen the negative impacts of those and ance, and environmental integrity. While a of optimising health and growth, both are achieve sustainable, safe, and cost-efficient first nutritional approach is the increasingly characterized by the resultant enhancement aquaculture production, nutritionists must accessible information on nutrient require- of nutrient utilization, which is in turn achieved focus not only on nutritional specifications ments as well as on the more effective use by different mechanisms of action. but also on promoting digestive health. In of alternative and available ingredients, a such task, probiotics and organic acid salts second approach is supplementation with Gustor Aqua- an organic acid salt have aroused as natural solutions that result natural growth promoters (NGPs). NGPs not Gustor Aqua contains sodium butyrate, in improved health status, nutrient utilization, only provide benefits in terms of health and which has been proposed as candidate and consequently performance. performance but also do not bear any risk replacement for antibiotics. Although the consistency of the effects on performance achieved by antibiotics is difficult to emulate, table 1: effect of dietary supplementation of GUStor aqua on performance parameters of sodium butyrate provides antimicrobial activ- catfish (P. hypohthalmus) ity besides other key benefits that go beyond Initial weight (g) Weight gain (g) SGr (% day) FCr Per of those provided by antibiotics, such as enhanced development of intestinal epithe- Control 6.90a 37.56a 3.34a 1.65a 1.34a lium and intestinal barrier integrity as well as GUStor aqua 6.75a 50.68b 4.32b 1.32b 1.81b anti-inflammatory properties. Once in the gastrointestinal tract, sodium Gustor Aqua dosed at 0.5 kg/ton feed butyrate dissociates into butyric, which is Means with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P<0.05) SGR: strongly lipophilic and capable to diffuse Specific growth rate / FCR: Feed conversion ratio / PER: Protein efficiency ratio across the membrane of gram negative bac- teria (Gálfi and Bokori 1990), leading to a table 2: effect of dietary supplementation of GUStor aqua (protected) on digestibility and performance parameters of shrimp (P. monodon) disruption of the metabolic processes and the Weigh gain consequent bacterial death. The subsequent DMd (%) CPd (%) ed (%) Survival (%) FCr reduction in the butyric acid intolerant micro- (g) organisms contributes to a diminished risk of Control 64.90a 85.20a 78.10a 13.67 90 3.43 subclinical infections and nutrient demand by GUStor aqua 72.46a 89.11b 83.26b 4.01 93 3.29 the gut-associated immune system, resulting Gustor Aqua dosed at 1 kg/ton feed in enhanced health status, less nutrient com- petition, and consequently better efficiency in Means with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P<0.05) terms of nutrient utilisation. DMd: Dry matter digestibility / CPd: Crude protein digestibility / Ed: energy digestibility / FCR: The stimulatory effect of butyrate on intes- Feed conversion ratio tinal epithelium development has been dem- Coefficients of digestibility were determined by the use of chromic oxide as an inert marker onstrated in both in vivo and in vitro conditions, 14 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012 FEATURE elucidating greater epithelial cell proliferation of commercial feed. This solution is attrib- in weight gain (+35%), specific growth rate with the administration of sodium butyrate uted to the anti-inflammatory properties (SGR) (+30%), feed conversion ratio (FCR) when compared to other salts as sodium of sodium butyrate, whose mode of action (-16%) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) acetate and sodium propionate (Sakata and is by modification of transcription factors (+35%) relative to the non-supplemented Tamata 1978a, 1979; Sakata 1987). (NF-kB) that control the expression of diet. In a second experiment with shrimp In a study conducted in broilers, dietary inflammatory response genes (Hamer et (Penaeus monodon), a diet was supplemented supplementation of 0.05% sodium butyrate al. 2008, Le Gall et al. 2009). The result is with 1 kg of Gustor Aqua/ton of feed and fed (92%) significantly increased the length a healthy absorptive surface area ensuring during two months. As shown in Table 2, the (+35.5%) and width (+ 55.7%) of supplementation of sodium butyrate villi at 21 and 42 days, respectively significantly enhanced digestibility of (Mallo et al. 2011). As a result of dry matter (DMd) (+12%), crude improved villi development, absorp- protein (CPd) (+5%) and energy tive surface area is enlarged, lead- (Ed) (+7%), leading to numerical ing to better feed utilisation and improvements in weight gain, sur- enhanced animal health status and vival and FCR. In both experiments, performance. the observed positive results can Gustor Aqua has also gained be attributed to the abovemen- interest due to increasing use of tioned modes of action described plant-based diets. Several investiga- for sodium butyrate. tions have reported soya-induced enteritis in salmonids (Baeverfjord Ecobiol Aqua- a probiotic and Krogdahl 1996; Knudsen et al. Figure 1. Biomass of L. vannamei after Ecobiol Ecobiol Aqua contains spores of 2008; Krogdahl et al. 2003) and Aqua supplementation Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. This sporu- common carp (Urán et al. 2008). lated form gathers the essential and This observation has led special- favourable properties for a potential ists to not include more than 5-15 percent optimal absorption of important nutrients probiont listed by several authors (Farzanfar, of soya in salmon diets in order to prevent as water, minerals or fatty acids. 2006; Gómez and Balcazar, 2008; Merrifield enteritis. In a experiment conducted with catfish et al. 2010; Vine et al. 2006). Among them; When coping with this situation, sodium (Pangasius hypohthalmus), a diet was supple- viability under normal storage conditions, butyrate arises as a tool to prevent the mented with 0.5 Kg Gustor Aqua/ton of feed acceptable survival under processing condi- development of soya-induced enteritis and and fed twice daily during 56 days. Results tions, being non-pathogenic and resistant to allow for a more convenient formulation (Table 1) showed significant improvements bile salts and low pH, fast growth at host RESOLVING THE BOTTLENECKS IN AQUAFEED through innovation and expertise smart aqua additives for sustainable and cost-efﬁcient aquafeed AQUAGEST® AQUASTIM® Digestibility enhancers Immune-modulators AQUABITE® SANACORE® Attractants and palatability enhancers Natural growth promoters APEX® AQUA NUTRI-BIND AQUA Bio-active herbal extract Low inclusion binders www.nutriad.com NAD0031_AD_Aqua_190x132_W2.indd 1 17-02-12 09:59 September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 15 FEATURE gens affecting both cold and treatment with an average weight of 6 g warm water aquatic species were selected and fasted for 12 hours. such as Aeromonas hydrophi- Hepatopancreas were excised and the la, Aeromonas salmonicida, activity of lipase, protease, and amylase Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio parahameolyticus (Nuez- Ortín 2011). This inhibitory activity promotes optimal gut flora balance, which in "Nutritionists must pay special turn results in less nutri- ent competition, enhanced focus not only to nutritional disease resistance, healthier specifications but also to absorptive surface area, and consequently better maximise nutrient utilisation" nutrient utilization. It is also known that probiotic bacteria can release extracellular enzymes that help in the was analysed according to Hernández digestion process. This (1993), Versaw and Coupett (1989) and ability was investigated in Vega-Villsante et al. (1999), respectively. a recent study, in which Results (Figure 2) showed increased enzy- a total of 96 shrimp matic activity in hepatopancreas after feed (Litopenaeus vannamei) intake, suggesting enhanced digestibility with an average weight and consequently better final biomass. of 0.85 g were placed in Secretion of amylases, cellulases and xyla- 12 aquariums and fed to nases has also been reported for Bacillus satiety with two different amyloliquefaciens (Cortyl, 2010). treatments (6 replicates/ treatment); 1) unaltered Conclusion commercial shrimp feed Nutritionists must pay special focus (35% CP), and 2) com- not only to nutritional specifications but Figure 2. Lipase (a), protease (b), and amylase (c) activity in hepatopancreas of L. vannamei mercial shrimp containing also to maximise nutrient utilisation. It is Ecobiol Aqua at 2 kg/ therefore that supplementation with NGPs ton feed. Final biomass such as organic acid salts or probiotics has rearing temperature, antagonistic properties was calculated as the sum of the indi- aroused as a natural alternative to develop against key pathogens, and capacity to pro- vidual weights of animals allocated in a successful nutritional program. By different duce extracellular enzymes that improve feed each treatment. As shown in Figure 1, the modes of action, supplementation of both utilisation. difference in final biomass was numeri- Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua will lead to It is the combination of different modes cally higher until day 40, however, this the enhanced gut efficiency to digest feed. of action what leads to host benefit when difference became significant after day Factors such as targeted species, methodol- Ecobiol aqua is supplemented. B. amylolique- 50. As the experiment was conducted ogy for use, or processing conditions, will faciens is capable to secrete lactic acid and in controlled conditions with absence of determine the inclusion of one or the barnase. While the former will reduce patho- pathogens, the most likely explanation other, or their combination, in the aquafeed genic bacteria and will be used by beneficial for this improvement can be found in the formula. ■ bacteria such as Lactobacillus as substrate to extracellular enzyme secretion capacity grow, the later is a potent bacteriocine. As a of the vegetative form of Bacillus amy- References result, the antimicrobial properties of Ecobiol loliquefaciens. In order to investigate on Aqua have been demonstrated against patho- this assumption, a total of 6 shrimp per Available upon request Extruder OEE for the Production of Fish Feed AMANDUS KAHL GmbH & Co. KG, Dieselstrasse 5-9, D-21465 Reinbek / Hamburg, Phone: +49 40 727 71 0, Fax: +49 40 727 71 100 firstname.lastname@example.org, www.akahl.de 16 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012 This igital e-print s art f he eptember ctober 012 dition f nternational d r i p o t S |O 2 e o I LINKS Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. 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"Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua: enhancing digestion in a different manner"