Reasons for Immigration by lZKSKZ

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									                                                         Lesson Plan

  Unit: Immigration and Cities                                Designer: Kari Patterson


  Lesson __1__ of __1____               Topic: Reasons for Immigration            Teaching Date: October 11th, 2011

  Subject/ Course: US History 1867                                                Time Frame: 45 minutes
                                        Grade Level: 7th
  to Present

Context: This lesson is designed for a class of 7th grade students on an A/B alternating 90-minute block schedule (they
alternate one day of social studies and one day of science). The students have a range of abilities, from slightly above to
slightly below grade level reading levels, but they are neither designated as the “accelerated” or “inclusion” blocks. This
particular class has two or three students who might try and dominate the conversation and several girls, especially,
who are very shy and usually won’t volunteer to participate in discussions.
Since this lesson is designed to begin/ be the introduction to the unit on immigration and the growth of cities, students
theoretically would need no background knowledge to help them succeed in this lesson; however, student learning
would be enhanced by some knowledge of immigration (what it is, who might immigrate) and the social conditions in
the United States at the end of the 1800s.
This lesson will primarily teach students reasons that immigrants came to the US, what push and pull factors are, and
how to classify reasons under those umbrellas. Also, students are exposed to different immigrant groups and given the
chance to imagine they were immigrants.
To help the students acquire the desired content, the strategies selected to teach this lesson are designed to help
students engage with the content in a variety of ways, help students activate their prior knowledge and chunk the
content into manageable (and more easily remembered) pieces.



                    General Objectives                                           Materials and Resources
         Students will understand 4 reasons for                      Copies of Immigrant stories handout (modified
          immigration to America in the late 1800s                     from History Alive! textbook vignettes)
         Students will understand push and pull                      Copies of Exit Ticket
          factors, and be able to classify reasons for                Inspiration slides (Push/ Pull Factors Diagram;
          immigration as push or pull                                  one Immigration Story per slide)
         Students will think about history from a                    Computer/ Projector and interactive pen/
          different perspective by writing as an                       Document camera
          immigrant to America                                        Downloaded Youtube video (Ellis Island)
                       SOL Objectives                                              Outcome Objectives
         USII4.b: explaining the reasons for the                     By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
          increase in immigration, growth of cities, new              - identify 4 reasons for immigration, as
          inventions, and challenges arising from this                 demonstrated by correctly completing all
          expansion                                                    sections of Immigrant stories worksheet
         USII1.d: interpret ideas and events from                    -classify reasons for immigration as push or pull
          different historical perspectives                            factors by completing all parts of Push/Pull
                                                                       Diagram and correctly identifying reason(s) for
                                                                       immigration in Exit Ticket
                                                                      -explain reason(s) for immigration through
                                                                       successful completion of Exit Ticket
*My CT does not assign homework other than “study for quiz” (she gives a quiz each class) so I modified this section
                                                                                            Projected Time Breakdown:
                                                                                                              Intro- 2 mins
                                                                                     Brainstorming/ discussion- 10 mins
                                                                                                Guided readings- 15 mins
                                                                                                       Push-pull- 10 mins
                                                                                                        SOL notes- 5 mins
                                                                                               Writing/ Exit ticket- 5 mins
Instructional Procedures:

Hook/ Opener: Open with video clip on hardships of coming to America/ Ellis Island (1 min)
     Have students quickly respond to:
       -What did you notice in this video? (Hardships, suicide rather than going home, going into debt)
     Framing question for students to think about:
       -If it was so difficult, why would people leave their homes to immigrate here?

Brainstorming on term "immigration" (Modified LINK activity)
      -Individual brainstorming (2 minutes)
        Prompt: Anything you think of or associate with the term “immigration”—write in Interactive Notebooks
                *Remind students that brainstorming can be anything that you think of, and that we’re not going to
                comment on or make fun of anyone’s words—but we can ask questions about them.
      -Whole-group sharing- each student shares one word (no repeats!)—reminders about no comments/ laughing if
      necessary—write all responses on board surrounding the word “Immigration”
                -Short discussion of terms that come up (begin by asking a student “I’m wondering why you chose ____
              as your word, can you explain it a bit more for me?” Encourage other students to do the same.
              (“STUDENT, what are you wondering about?” Have student whose word they mention give a brief
              explanation—add additional information if needed to fill in background knowledge/ validate students’
              words in context).
      -Have students write 1-2 sentences underneath brainstorming list on what learned from the discussion/ about
      immigration

Immigration Stories: guided readings + worksheet
     -Read each example; fill in worksheet as whole-group
       Start by having students read/ reading aloud immigration story- have students identify what group example
     immigrants belong to/ where they are from (ex- Italy/ Italian).
       Ask students

Intro push-pull factors
      -Sort reasons into push-pull
      -Draw Immigration diagram (in interactive notebook)

SOL notes (4B- reasons for immigration)
       -Copy four reasons for immigration into SOL notes packet

Writing Matrix- exit ticket (Modified RAFT activity)
      -One paragraph (2-3 sentences) explaining who you are and why you are immigrating to America, note push and
      pull factors
        -Students will complete a short writing activity in the first person (I, we, my). They may choose any immigrant
      group, and may create a new ‘persona’ (they don’t have to be the people from the examples) or use their own
      names. They may choose just one reason or more than one reason for immigration, and may use one of the
      suggested formats (letter, diary entry) or choose any other that they would like.
        -In addition, students need to identify whether their reason(s) for immigration fall under push or pull factors
        -The more detail they give, the better!
      -Show students example:
                  Dear Diary,
                           Tomorrow we leave for America! I’m very excited to go, and I know that Father and Mother are
                           hoping that we will be able to find better work than his current job here in Italy. We’ve heard
                           that in America, the streets are paved with gold!
                  -Marianne Giacomo
      Economic Opportunities--> Pull factor
       -This isn’t for a grade, but I’ll collect them, make comments, and return them to them next class.



Differentiation/ UDL Elements: Students were able to engage with the content of this lesson in a variety of ways, the
content was represented by a variety of means, and students were given a few options to demonstrate their knowledge.
To present the material in a wide range of methods/ styles, all of the most important information was presented both
orally (discussion) and visually (on the Promethean board) throughout the lesson to better reach students with different
learning styles and preferences. (For instance, students question each other on major immigration issues that came up
during the brainstorming section, and then see many similar ideas written on the Promethean board through the Guided
Reading activity). Having the students engage with the information in a variety of ways, such as reading, writing and
speaking (through discussion of the guided reading stories, for instance) also helps provide for a variety of students’
needs. (UDL: Representation)
This lesson also incorporates different ways for students to acquire the content, through activating students’ prior
knowledge (brainstorming) and chunking information to enable students to better remember it. (Such as the push-pull
diagram, which incorporates all of the reasons for immigration that we discussed into one concept web—thus making it
easier to incorporate into existing schema). (UDL: Engagement)
To engage students affectively, the beginning YouTube video (Hook) presents a rather grim picture of many immigrants’
experiences (suicide, selling everything they owned, poor conditions on ships, etc). This narrative, combined with period
footage, is intended to draw students in from the beginning of the lesson and make them wonder why people would
face such hardships to immigrate. While students aren’t given different a choice of completely different products to
create to demonstrate their knowledge, they are given the opportunity to choose within the RAFT writing activity, as
they can choose who to be, where they come from, why they are immigrating, and even what format to use. This can
also engage the students affectively, as they can assume the persona of an immigrant, at least nominally, and discuss
some of the hopes and fears that they might face. (UDL: Engagement/ Expression)



Accommodations/ Modifications: There were no students in this course with IEPs/ 504s, but several accommodations:
directions read aloud/ clarified, guided reading sections read aloud, providing guided note sheets/ graphic organizers for
note-taking, etc, either were or easily could be incorporated into the lesson.



                                                     Assessment
 Formative                                                Summative
     Use brainstorming activity to assess prior              Exit Ticket- Modified RAFT activity (Writing Matrix):
        knowledge and misconceptions about                      Students write a few sentences describing which
        immigration/ immigrants                                 immigrant group they belong to/ where they come
     Assess student responses to Immigration Stories           from and why they are coming to the US. They will
        worksheet—finding relevant key words/ phrases           identify whether their reason(s) is/are push or pull
        (using context clues when necessary);                   factors.
        identifying appropriate reasons for immigration
          from each story




Rationale/ Instructional Fit to Content:
Instructional Activities:
         Hook (YouTube Video)- (View Images)
                 This video went a long way towards engaging students in the rest of the lesson, as it was a concise
                 outline of many of the hardships faced by immigrants as they came to America. (Many students reacted
                 strongly to the fact that many immigrants, rather than face deportation home, chose to commit suicide
                 at Ellis Island). While the students may also have reacted to the teacher showing a few photographs
                 while telling them basically the same information—which could easily be done as a ‘Plan B alternative’—
                 I believe that the combination of grainy, black-and-white footage of actual immigrants combined with
                 the clear, concise and evocative narration made this particular video a much more powerful “hook” than
                 I could have presented myself. (And many students referred back to the video throughout the lesson!).
         LINK (Learn, Inquire, Note, Know) (Brainstorming)- (Discuss)
                 I felt that activating students’ prior knowledge and addressing any potential misconceptions would be
                 crucial with a topic as potentially volatile as immigration. The LINK strategy allows for students to do
                 both simultaneously by letting students share anything they associate with the topic (activating any
                 prior knowledge that they may have). This can serve as an ‘anchor’ of sorts to which they can attach any
                 new schema that they will develop as a result of the lesson. This activity could just as easily have been
                 done on the whiteboard—and would be if the technology failed—but for practical and logistical reasons I
                 felt that using the technology here was a better choice. The way this classroom is set up, the
                 Promethean board sits between two white boards at the front of the room, but because the
                 Promethean board does not sit flush against the wall, it is often difficult for students sitting on the outer
                 edges of the room to see what is written on the white board diagonal from them. To make sure that all
                 students can see the board, the Promethean board, which is dead-center, is the best place to write
                 things.
         Guided Reading (Immigration Stories)- (Read Text)
                 Guided reading is a great way for students to engage with this content, especially as an alternative to
                 lecture/ notes. Besides introducing the students to the content through a less heavily-expository series
                 of texts than the regular textbook, it also provides an opportunity for explicit practice of close-reading,
                 interpretive, and other active reading skills (such as using context clues). By having the paragraphs
                 displayed on the interactive whiteboard one at a time, all the students were able to see the information
                 more easily, and not just because it was in the center of the room. It can be difficult for many students
                 to follow along if you say ‘and now fill in the third column of your sheet’; it can be much more helpful for
                 students, especially students with learning or attention difficulties, to try and process what you’re
                 saying, find where you’re pointing on your tiny copy, and then complete their own. Being able to fill in as
                 you go quickly and efficiently (without having to use an overhead projector, if available, or drawing the
                 chart on the whiteboard to fill in—both of which are good options for when you don’t have the
                 technology available) is a real asset to many students. Additionally, though, it assists in more than just
                 helping students fill in the correct answers: this interactive whiteboard allows me to model much more
                 efficiently the kinds of good reading strategies that are being used. For instance, I could circle or
                 underline key words and phrases that students notice, or point out particularly tricky vocabulary words
                 that need to employ context clues to decipher. At the end of each passage, we won’t just have “talked
       through” what we’d gleaned, you will be able to look at the board and see it clearly and distinctly. (I
       noticed that many students were marking their own passages up as well—a great reading habit to get
       into!)
Concept Web/ Diagram (Push-Pull Diagram)- (Develop a Knowledge Web)
       Once the students had learned several isolated concepts (economic opportunities, religious freedom,
       etc) I wanted them to be able to fit the information into a larger framework or schema. This would not
       only make it easier to remember the information (by chunking it into a manageable unit) but also helps
       clarify the relationship between the individual ideas. A concept web/ diagram/ graphic organizer is an
       excellent way of achieving both goals, and concept mapping software is a great way to quickly and
       neatly accomplish that. I have tried to draw or seen concept maps drawn on paper, overheads, and
       whiteboards (again, all viable options for fickle technology days) before, and always seem to find myself
       running out of space and having to either erase, draw in amoeba-like bubbles, or squeeze information
       into far too small of an area. Unfortunately, I’ve also seen students, especially students with learning
       disabilities, struggle trying to get the information down for themselves. Because the bubbles are
       uniformly shaped/ sized and can be moved around as needed—without distorting or rendering them
       illegible—they are much more student-friendly and reduce much of the unnecessary stress that I’ve
       seen accompany concept maps in the past. This was a very basic concept map, but I wanted students to
       focus on being able to categorize the information they’d just learned, not worry about how much space
       they needed where. (To help with this, I had blank bubbles ready to go for this map, so they could see
       the entire outline before we even began).
SOL Notes- (Take Notes)
       My CT has a packet of “essential knowledge/ questions” directly from the SOL curriculum framework
       that students write in all year, and is very insistent that the students copy the notes, using SOL terms/
       language, for each unit. The document camera was a way for me to let the students copy down the
       information as they needed to have it written down (exact wording, what goes where, and so on) that I
       could have done on the whiteboard, again (a good non-technology option) or told them verbally (a not-
       so-efficient option) as quickly as possible so that we could move on to the next activity. In this instance,
       technology was all about expediency.
RAFT activity (Writing Matrix)- (Create a Diary)
       Since these students are almost never asked to write anything but notes, especially creatively, I wanted
       to provide them with an opportunity to practice this skill. Besides being able to engage with the content
       in a different way (writing, instead of just listening or reading) this particular strategy also allows
       students some choice, which for middle school students in particular is a very important way to engage
       students and give them a sense of control over their own learning. Since students, as I said, are not
       often asked to write, I felt that it was important for me to model my expectations of good writing—and
       to help clarify the assignment through an example—for them to see. I could have passed out or
       projected typed copies of my writing, or written it on the board, (all good plan B’s) but I felt as though
       using the document camera, which allowed me to show them my handwritten example, was a better
       choice. Typed passages, by their nature, can seem very impersonal, especially to students who never see
       much else, especially from their teachers, and I feel like teachers write so much on whiteboards so often
       that it, also, takes on a bit of impersonality, even though it’s the teacher’s ‘handwriting.’ Students rarely,
       if ever, get to see their teacher’s everyday handwriting for more than “A,” “Name?” or “Good Job” at
       the top of their papers. We talked in Content Reading about writing with your students so that they can
       see you in the writing process as well, and I felt that having my regular handwriting projected, through
       the document camera, as the model for the RAFT writing exercise made it more personal and a better
                model: it wasn’t just “an example,” it becomes “my example,” and may help students connect better to
                the writing process.

Results and Reflections:
        I think that this lesson went extremely well. The students were engaged and participating during the entire time,
        and transitioned well from one activity to another. They seemed to grasp the concepts well—only a few
        students on their Exit tickets switched Push and Pull factors, and several did so because they used a slightly
        different wording (eg, religious freedom as opposed to religious oppression). There was no complaining or eye-
        rolling when they were assigned the Exit ticket writing, either, which I think indicates that while they probably all
        weren’t enthralled with it, it was different and interesting enough for them to willingly tackle. A few students
        got very creative with their Exit ticket stories, too, which I think was a great opportunity for them to be creative.
        I believe the most successful part of the lesson, at least from a standpoint of student interest, was the LINK
        brainstorming activity. These students aren’t often asked what they think about something, and so quite a few
        students had to be significantly encouraged to write down more than one thing. I also had one student who was
        hesitant to write “Mexicans” because he didn’t want to offend anyone, but when I told him that if it was
        something he thought of with immigration to put it down, he seemed pleased that I’d validated his thoughts.
        (He chose that as his word to share, and another student actually questioned him about it, so we got to discuss
        Mexican immigration as an issue that many people are talking about today). Another student chose “bear” as
        her word, which I questioned her about to start; she said that she saw “migration” in “immigration” and thought
        of bears. I really liked that this format allowed me to talk about her response in a positive way (looking at parts
        of words to try and help figure them out) even though it had absolutely nothing to do with the topic.
        One thing I quickly modified during the lesson, while working on the guided readings sections, was how I was
        prompting the students. For the first example, I was just asking the students “why do you think this person is
        immigrating?” but I quickly realized that it would be more effective to start by asking students what they noticed
        in the paragraph, and then having them build those observations into a reason(s). I was proud of myself for
        making this shift quickly and, apparently, invisibly, as my CT said she didn’t even notice the change!
        Because my CT is very standards-focused, I could only include 4 reasons for immigration (since that’s what the
        SOL requires they know) but I would have enjoyed having the students discuss a few more. Also, because I had
        to end the lesson with the SOL notes, I was tied in to using SOL vocabulary throughout the lesson (e.g., always
        using “economic opportunities”); even though some of the students began using the terminology by the end of
        the lesson, I feel like some of them may have learned a little more authentically if we hadn’t been “married” to
        certain phrases and terms.

        Technology: This lesson doesn’t use technology in any earth-shattering way, but the use of small technologies
        throughout the lesson helped engage students, keep them focused, and let them better build their knowledge
        and engage with the content. To begin with, this lesson used a short (1 min) video clip downloaded from
        YouTube. Next, I used the Promethean board to write students’ brainstorming ideas. After that, we read the
        immigrant stories (guided readings) and marked on/ filled in the charts, again using the Promethean board and
        ActiveInspire software. Concept mapping software, used again on the interactive whiteboard helped students
        see the relationships between the concepts we’d been discussing, and the document camera helped students fill
        in their “essential questions” for their SOL notes packet. Finally, the document camera again helped students by
        letting me model the RAFT writing assignment for them quickly and efficiently.
        From a pedagogical standpoint, this lesson was designed to do two main things: help students develop
        appropriate schema for the content and develop reading and writing skills. For the former, the technology used
        was an excellent way to keep the lesson momentum moving smoothly—in each activity and between them, as
        well. By having everything centrally controlled through one computer/ Promethean hookup, I can get students
        interested and thinking with a quick video, and then immediately switch over to digging up what they’re thinking
        about/ what they know—or think they know—about immigration (brainstorming) and so on. There is no erasing
        the board to prepare for the next activity, since it is all in one place and only requires a few clicks to keep the
        momentum going. (Also, as discussed earlier, concept mapping—to ‘chunk,’ or integrate learned information
        into a whole—can work with so many fewer snags on the computer). Obviously, avoiding down time helps
        students and can be a great boon of technology, but students especially benefitted from the uses of technology
        to improve their reading and writing. This is particularly true of the modeling that could occur during the Guided
        Reading and RAFT writing activities. Because of the far more interactive and personal way the students could
        engage with the reading and writing example, I feel that this lesson was made far more effective through the
        use of the Promethean board and document camera.
        In this lesson, the uses of technology were far more focused on serving pedagogical aims than content-related
        ones. There was obviously a strong focus on the content (reasons for immigration) throughout the lesson, but
        technology played a supporting role here. Technology obviously helped students engage in the content from the
        very beginning of the lesson (the video Hook) and, in addition to its pedagogical purposes ‘pulled double duty’ to
        help students understand the Push-Pull factors content. However, I think it is a bit difficult to pull out how
        technology assisted with pedagogy and content separately, because they were all so interconnected. Through
        the use of the interactive whiteboard, students were able to dig more deeply into the guided readings than they
        might otherwise have—a goal of the reading pedagogy—but through interacting more closely with the readings,
        they also were able to better grasp the ideas in the selections, particularly the reasons these people were
        immigrating to the US—a stronger understanding of the content. In cases like this, the content, technology and
        pedagogy don’t just ‘fit’ together, they complement each other in such a way that student learning is inherently
        improved.



Attachments:
Immigration Stories Worksheet, Push/Pull Factors Diagram, Exit Ticket, Example of possible student project (online
created ‘Immigrant Story Scrapbook Page’ as an alternative assignment to Exit Ticket—separate file)

Immigration Stories


Example                                                           Immigrant         Reason or Reasons for Immigration
                                                                  group/ from
                                                                  where?

Pascal D'Angelo and his father came to America to escape
poverty. His father, a farmer, struggled to eke out a living on
worn-out, eroded Italian land where crops often failed.

Along with many other Mexicans, Pablo Mares fled across the
border into America to escape the violence in their homeland.
Soldiers had been attacking villages to try and control
peasants like Pablo.

Lee Chew left his poor Chinese village after he met some
Chinese immigrants who had come back to China with money
they had made in America. Lee felt that it would be hard work
to earn his fortune, but he was looking forward to the
adventure that he might find there, too!
Martha O'Flanagan came to America to escape the harsh
potato famine in Ireland. When no potatoes would grow for
several years, farmers had no crops to sell and many people
didn't have enough to eat. Martha joined many Irish families
who came to America to seek better fortunes-- and to find
some relief from many anti-Catholic laws that were imposed
on them by the Protestant land-owning class.

Maryusha Antonovksy and her family left Russia to escape the
harsh rules the Russian government imposed on her and other
Jewish families. Jews could only live in certain areas, and
couldn't own land. Some of her neighbors had also been the
victims of pogroms, systematic attacks against Jews, and Mary
hoped to find the freedom to practice her religion without
fear in America.




 Exit Ticket

 Writing Matrix- Choose one item from each column and write a short paragraph (2-3 sentences can be fine) explaining
 who you are and why you are immigrating to America. You may choose to include more than one reason. Also, make
 note of whether your reason is a push or pull factor.

 Immigrant          Reason                     Suggested Formats

 Irish              Economic Opportunities     Letter

 Italian            Adventure                  Diary

 Jewish/ Russian    Religious Oppression

 Chinese            Oppressive Government

 Mexican

								
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