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					    University of Bristol, Department of Music
                    MA in Music 2010-11




     Source Study, Paleography
           and Editorial Practices
                          (MUSIM0014)




    From Beethoven’s manuscript of the Pastoral Symphony




                             Semester 2
      Tuesday, 2:00 pm – 3:50 pm, Harley Room


                 Unit Director: Emma Hornby
Tutors: Stephen Banfield, David Allinson, Rachel Davies
                                           2



Aim

This unit will introduce students to different categories of musicological sources and
will discuss issues arising from these (including recent authenticity debates sur-
rounding the use of these materials in performance). It will acquaint students with
the nature of historical source materials for different repertoires and with the ways in
which these may inform an understanding of compositional processes. It will also in-
troduce typical problems involved in the preparation of critical editions to the highest
standards of modern scholarship. It is intended that this unit will stimulate an
awareness of the sensitivity required in handling primary and other musical source
materials and that it will help you to acquire a critically informed approach to musical
texts.




Objectives

By the end of this unit you should be able to:
   demonstrate an awareness of recent scholarship relating to authenticity;
   discuss different types of source materials for music;
   use and comment upon a range of modern scholarly editions;
   be aware of the possibilities of making interpretative judgements on autograph
    score material and sketches;
   comment critically upon existing interpretations of sketch material in the musico-
    logical literature;
   comment on issues relating to compositional process.




Teaching

Five staff-led seminars, plus supporting tutorials by separate arrangement with
course tutors, as appropriate.




Assessment

Assessment will be by portfolio submission of any two out of the five assignments
distributed by tutors during the course. Each exercise will be given equal weighting
(50% of the mark for the unit as a whole). Each tutor will set one exercise related to
                                            3



the subject of the seminar. The nature of the exercises will vary according to the
repertoire concerned, and might, for instance, consist of a straightforward editing
task, a critical assessment of an existing edition, a critical interpretation of and re-
port on palaeographical issues surrounding one or more specific primary sources, or
interpretation of issues raised in discussion of specific 'readings' introduced in class.
Supplementary tutorial guidance will be available in preparing the exercises chosen
for inclusion in the portfolio by arrangement with the relevant tutor.


The first assignment is due on Friday 16 March, the second on Friday 18 May
(in both cases at 12 noon). Please hand your submissions in at the graduate
school, with a completed cover-sheet attached. Because your submission might be a
handwritten editing assignment, this module will NOT be using Blackboard submis-
sions.




                                 Unit Outline


Week 1: Tuesday, 7th February
Editing early music (I) (David Allinson)


Aims
Editing is not a neutral process, and the scores which we make can never be free of
values and assumptions – not even editions which make special claims for their pu-
rity with terms like ‘authentic’ and Urtext. This class, which focuses on editions of
16th century music, begins with a sceptical look at the values embodied in editions –
from post-Romantic assumptions about the nature of ‘the work’ and the composer, to
historical and interpretative assumptions directed towards the users of editions –
performers and audiences. So editions can be flawed and contentious; yet without
them, none of the rest of our business as musicians and scholars (performing, his-
tory, criticism, analysis) would be possible.
         Having ‘problematised’ the business of editing, we will compare three editions
of the same Renaissance work, picking apart the editorial decisions in each score,
                                           4



noting that not all editions succeed in being both ‘practical’ and ‘scholarly’, and that
many reflect the priorities of the editor’s own time.
        Using specific examples, we will begin to explore the practical business of ed-
iting Renaissance music, looking at every decision an editor must make from collat-
ing sources to reducing note values; from transposition to reconstruction. Using ex-
amples, we will begin to look at issues including musica ficta and musica recta, and
re-texting, to show that editing is much more than mere transcription: it is a creative
process.
        To end the session, we will transcribe a short section of polyphony into mod-
ern notation.


Learning objectives
By the end of the class you should be able to discuss:
   the dilemmas faced by the editor of renaissance music
   the ways in which editions can embody aesthetic and historical values and atti-
    tudes
   the problems commonly thrown up by sources of early music
   the basics of transcription, and show an understanding of issues such as musica
    ficta


Bibliography (please explore some of this before the class, with Margaret
Bent, ‘Editing Early Music’ as a minimum) [and NB EH owns some of these
books, if you are having trouble getting hold of the library copies]


   John Caldwell, Editing Early Music, 2nd edn (Oxford, 1995).   [also on googlebooks.
    If the pages you want don’t show up, then close the browser and try again, and it’ll
    give you a different selection]
   Margaret Bent, ‘Some Criteria for Establishing Relationships between Sources of
    Late-Medieval Polyphony’, in Music in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. Iain
    Fenlon (Cambridge, 1981), 295-317.     ML172 MUS [also on googlebooks]
   Margaret Bent, ‘Editing Early Music: The Dilemma of Translation’, Early Music 22
    (1994), 373-92. JSTOR
   Margaret Bent, ‘The grammar of early music: prerequisites for analysis’, in Tonal
    Structures in Early Music, ed. Christle Collins Judd (New York: Garland, 1998).
    ML3811 TON and on EReserves (ordered 2/2/2012)
                                               5



   James Grier, The Critical Editing of Music, (Cambridge, 1996).        ML112 GRI



Assignment
The editor ‘is the curator of the music and no more …every scrap of information that
an early composer conveyed to his performer by means of the written notation …
must be treated as though it were gold; it is very precious, and far more valuable
than any editor’s opinion, however enlightened this may be.
— Thurston Dart, The interpretation of music, 15


Can editing ever be a neutral process?
Why might editorial interference be considered necessary or desirable?


If you want to tackle the assignment, please arrange a tutorial with David Allinson. The
tutorials will take place between 2-4pm on Tuesday 14 February — please contact David
well in advance to arrange a meeting.


Week 2: Tuesday, 14th February
NO CLASS – if you are attempting the assignment from week 1,
you should have a tutorial with David Allinson




Week 3: Tuesday 21 February: The Montpellier Codex Manuscript as Me-
dieval Music Source – Rachel Davies

Aims:
The beautifully illuminated Montpellier Codex manuscript was compiled in thirteenth-
century Paris and contains 345 Latin, Old French and bilingual motets for two, three and
four voices. This class will explore the background of the manuscript, the culture that
created it, and its contents: its musical repertoire, its lyrics and its illuminations. We will
consider how the vocabulary, handwriting, notation style and illumination images have
enabled modern scholars to discover the date and provenance of the manuscript. The
class will give students a hands-on approach to reading and interpreting the words and
music of the original manuscript.
                                            6




Learning outcomes - By the end of this class you should:

- have furthered your familiarity with the appearance, layout and contents of the Montpel-
lier Codex and similar manuscripts.
- have a grasp of what the physical properties of medieval music manuscripts can reveal
about their date, provenance, and the culture that created them.
- have basic experience of reading music and lyrics from original medieval manuscript
sources.



Before the class, have a look through:
-      The facsimile edition of the Montpellier Codex, ed. Rokseth, available in the Uni-
versity Library.
-
-      The colour images of the Montpellier Codex available at: http://manuscrits.biu-
montpel-
lier.fr/vignettem.php?GENRE%5B%5D=MP&ETG=OR&ETT=OR&ETM=OR&BASE
=manuf&LANG=EN
-

Assignment:
An optional assignment will be offered in class and a tutorial session arranged for stu-
dents wishing to tackle it. The tutorials will take place between 2-4pm on THURSDAY
1st March — please contact Rachel Davies on rachel.davies@ncl.ac.uk well in advance
to arrange a meeting.


Starter resources for assignment:
Everist, M., Polyphonic Music in Thirteenth-century France: Aspects of Sources and Dis-
tribution (New York: Garland, 1989) [available in the University Library]

Wolinski, M. E., ‘The Compilation of the Montpellier Codex’, Early Music History
(1992), pp.263 – 301 [available electronically on JSTOR]

The facsimile and edition of the Montpellier Codex, ed. Rokseth, available in the Univer-
sity Library.

-      Colour scanned images of the Montpellier Codex available at: http://manuscrits.biu-
montpel-
lier.fr/vignettem.php?GENRE%5B%5D=MP&ETG=OR&ETT=OR&ETM=OR&BASE
=manuf&LANG=EN
                                            7



Week 4: Tuesday, 28th February
NO CLASS – if you are attempting the assignment from week 3,
you should have a tutorial with Rachel Davies either in person
on Thursday 1 March, or via Skype or telephone (arrange with
her if you are unable to be in the department on 1 March)




Week 5: Tuesday, 6th March
Editing Popular Musical Theatre Works (Stephen Banfield)


Aims:
The director of the Kurt Weill Foundation has stated that he considers the Kurt Weill
Edition’s 2002 publication of the score and script of The Firebrand of Florence the
first ever critical edition of a Broadway musical. What does he mean by this and why
has the genre been so slow to produce such materials? The class will go beyond the
obvious answer to the second question (that musicals have hitherto not been
deemed worthy of serious treatment) to explore some of the problems and opportu-
nities of editing musical theatre works.


Learning Outcomes:
By the end of this class you should be able to
   grasp the nature of a critical edition and understand its nomenclature
   discuss the particular challenges associated with editing this repertoire
   apply modern critical editorial methods to particular cases of popular musical
    theatre works.


Recommended preliminary reading:
   Critical apparatus to The Firebrand of Florence (Kurt Weill Edition, Series 1, vol
    18, ed Joel Galand) and to In Dahomey (MUSA, vol 5, ed Tom Riis). Both scores
    are on short loan in ASSL.
                                           8



Assignment:
An optional editing assignment will be offered in class and a tutorial session arranged
for students wishing to tackle it. The tutorials will take place between 2-4pm on
Tuesday 13 March—please contact s.d.banfield@bris.ac.uk well in advance to ar-
range a meeting.




Week 6: Tuesday, 13th March: no class. If you are going to at-
tempt Stephen Banfield’s editing assignment for your first
coursework submission, you should arrange a tutorial with him
for sometime 2-4 pm on Tuesday 13 March.



Week 7: Editing early music (II) (David Allinson)


Aims
What should an editor do when faced with multiple sources of the same work? Or
worse, how should an editor proceed when a work is preserved incomplete? This ses-
sion looks at two essential, and highly skilled processes: collation and reconstruction.


We established in the first of these sessions that editing is almost never a neutral
process; nevertheless, a good editor tries to retain an objective ‘distance’ from his
material, transmitting it into the edition without undue alteration. However, when
sources contradict each other, choices must be made. We look at the ways in which
editors determine what to do in these circumstances.


Even more challenging is the situation in which a voice, or a section of a work, is
missing from a texture. If the music is to be performed again, a completed text is
required. We look at reconstruction, and the issues they raise.


In the last part of the class, we attempt practical exercises using 16th sources. In
particular, we attempt to reconstruct a section of polyphony which is lacking a voice.


Learning objectives
                                              9



By the end of the class you should be able to discuss:
   the editorial dilemmas created by multiple, competing sources
   the editorial issues raised when sources are incomplete
   how to reconstruct missing material, through practical exercises


Bibliography
   John Caldwell, Editing Early Music, 2nd edn (Oxford, 1995).
   Margaret Bent, ‘Some Criteria for Establishing Relationships between Sources of
    Late-Medieval Polyphony’, in Music in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. Iain
    Fenlon (Cambridge, 1981), 295-317.
   Margaret Bent, ‘Editing Early Music: The Dilemma of Translation’, Early Music 22
    (1994), 373-92.
   Margaret Bent, ‘The grammar of early music: prerequisites for analysis’, in Tonal
    Structures in Early Music, ed. Christle Collins Judd (New York: Garland, 1998).
   James Grier, The Critical Editing of Music, (Cambridge, 1996).
   P. Brett: ‘Text, context, and the early music editor’, Authenticity and early music:
    a symposium (Oxford & New York: O.U.P., 1988)             ML457 AUT [or borrow EH’s
    copy]
   R. Taruskin: ‘What — or where — is the original?’, Notes 46 (1989–90), 792–97
    [reprinted in Taruskin, Text and Act (New York: O.U.P., 1995), ch.5] ML457 TAR
    [or borrow EH’s copy]
   T. Dart,   The    interpretation   of   Music   (4th   edition, London, 1967), ch.2
    ML430.5 DAR
   B. Turner: ‘The Editor: diplomat or dictator?’, Companion to Medieval and Renais-
    sance Music (ed by Tess Knighton and David Fallows) (London: Dent, 1992)


Assignment
Essay: ‘Saint: A dead sinner revised and edited’ (Ambrose Bierce [an American
writer, journalist and editor]). IS it the role of the music editor to improve the mate-
rial at his/her disposal?


OR this editing project:
You are required to produce an edition which balances scholarly and practical priori-
ties, of a short polyphonic work. The edition should be supported by brief Editorial
and Critical Commentaries. [you will be provided with the materials in the class]
                                           10




Week 8: Tuesday, 24 April: No class. If you are going to at-
tempt one of David Allinson’s assignments for your second
coursework submission, you should arrange a tutorial with him
2-4pm.




Week 9: Tuesday 1 May: Primary Sources for the Local History
of Music and What To Do With Them: Some West Country Case
Studies (Stephen Banfield)


Aims
At a time when ancestry.com advertises on prime-time television, interest in local
history and its sources has probably never been greater. Yet the musicology of Brit-
ain is still studied overwhelmingly in terms of metropolitan lives, works and stan-
dards of impact. What, by contrast, are the sources for regional and local musical
histories, and what kinds of histories do they deliver? What is gained and what is lost
by changing the grain of historical investigation?


Preparation before the class
One week or ten days before the class, a sheaf of reproduced primary sources will be
made available on Blackboard, in SARC, or by reference to online or library resources.
They will include most or all of the following, and at the same time, questions for
class discussion arising from these examples will be posed:
      an issue of a 19th-century newspaper
      a locally published booklet, pamphlet, journal, magazine or newsletter
      a will or probate inventory
      a census page
                                          11



      a set of Record Office catalogue entries
      a concert programme
      a photograph
      an instruction to consult Records of Early English Drama or The Victoria
       County Histories


FURTHER READING
Celoria, Franics: Teach Yourself Local History (London, 1958). CE Store MW Cel
Hooper, Joseph Graham: A Survey of Music in Bristol: with special reference to the
eighteenth century (MA dissertation, University of Bristol, 1963). ASSL Thesis A367
(confined item)
Temperley, Nicholas: The Music of the English Parish Church (2 vols, Cambridge,
1979). ASSL ML3131 TEM
Finnegan, Ruth: The Hidden Musicians: music-making in an English town [Milton
Keynes!] (Cambridge, 1989; Middletown CT, 2/2007) ASSL ML286.8 FIN [also on
googlebooks]
Bailey, Peter: ‘Breaking the sound barrier’, Popular Culture and Performance in the
Victorian City (Cambridge, 1998), 194-211. ASSL DA533 BAI (and there is a copy in
the theatre collection too)
Smith, Bruce R: The Acoustic World of Early Modern England: attending to the O-
factor (Chicago, 1999). Theatre Collection YX3F S643
Borsay, Peter: ‘Sounding the town’, Urban History xxix/1 (2002), 92-102          ASSL
Serial HT101.U7
Carter, Tim: ‘The sound of silence: models for an urban musicology’, Urban History
xxix/1 (2002), 8-18. ASSL Serial HT101.U7
Banfield, Stephen: ‘Bristol’s music and musicians in region, nation and empire’, Brit-
ish Music xxviii (2006). Will be made available to students
Brooks, Pamela: How to Research Local History (Begbroke, Oxford, 2006). ASSL
DA670 BRO
Cowgill, Rachel and Holman, Peter eds: Music in the British Provinces, 1690-1914
(Aldershot, 2007). ASSL ML285 MUS [and it’s on googlebooks]
                                          12



Essay Assignment
Using the types of source discussed in the class, gather as much primary source ma-
terial as you possibly can for a history of music in [some small west country town or
village of your choice]. Rather than write that place’s musical history, use the mate-
rial, cited in detail and with care, to discuss the terms and categories in which that
history calls to be written, and the problems and opportunities of doing so.


If you wish to complete this assignment, please contact Stephen Banfield to arrange
a tutorial for the afternoon of Tuesday 8 May.




Week 10: Tuesday 8th May: NO CLASS. If you are going
to tackle one of Stephen Banfield’s assignments for
your second coursework submission, please arrange
to have a tutorial with him sometime between 2-4pm.

				
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