Testing and Individual Differences

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					Testing and Individual
      Karla Fajardo
        Period 6
   Standardization and Norms
• Need to know what the scores mean on a
  test that measures psychological
  characteristics, so tests are standardized.
• Administered to a standardization
  sample, a group of people who represent
  the entire population.
• Data compared against norms
• Reliability- a measure of how consistent a
  test is in the measurements it provides
• Methods of measuring reliability :
-testerest method ( giving the same test to
  an individual more than once on different
-split half ( when one group takes half and
  the other takes the other half of a test)
• Validity- refers to the extent that a test measures what it
   intends to measure
• Calculated by comparing how well the results from a
   test correlate with other measures that asses what the
   test is supposed to predict
• Types of Validity
- Predictive (indicates there is a correlation between the
   test and future performance)
- Content Validity ( measures the degree to which the
   material is balanced on the test)
- Construct Validity ( true validity, the degree to which the
   test indeed measures what it is supposed to test)
                Types Of Tests
•    Can be projective tests ( ambiguous stimuli open to
     interpretation and presented) or Inventory-type (parts
     answer a standard series of questions)
•    Popular projective tests:
-Rorschach Inkblot Test and Thematic Appreciation Test (
•    Other Tests:
• Goal Oriented adaptive thinking
• Difficult to measure on a standardized test
• Psychologists measure IQ (intelligence quotient) – computed
  on the basis of the extent to which a person’s score is above
  or below avg.
• Common tests for children Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale
  and Wechsler Intelligence scale for children (also available for
• Psychologists like Howard Gardner accept the idea of Multiple
• Verbal and mathematical are traditionally measured by IQ
  tests. But there is also musical, spatial, environmental, people
  perceptive and personally insightful.
     Heredity/ Environment and
• Heritability coefficient – one way to
  measure the influence of heritage on IQ.
• Intelligence can be made up of half the
  environment and half of heredity
           Human Diversity
• An IQ higher than 135 is considered to be
• \Mental retardation refers to low levels of
  intelligence and adaptive behavior
• Profound retardation is characterized as
  having an IQ lower than 25
          Ethics in Testing
• Psychometrics- psychological testing
• Confidentiality must be protected
• Purpose of test must be clear to everyone
  taking and giving it
• The test taker can ask and should be
  answered the question of who will review
  the scores and how they will be used
• Impacts of scores should be ascertained
  before the test is given

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