Junior Cert History and Business
• Focus on History
• Business Studies at Junior Cert
• Tips for Studying
• Taking Notes
• Stimulating Interest
History Second Year Course
The Age of Exploration
Plantations in Ireland
• Revolutionary Movements
The Industrial Revolution and
Nearly everyone attempts the
Higher Level Paper at JC.
• A leader of a voyage of exploration
• A religious reformer
• One plantation in detail
• One revolutionary leader
• Life in a factory town in Britain
and life in rural Ireland
Key to Success
• Causes – why did it happen?
• Course – what happened?
• Consequences – what were the results?
Follow the principle of UNDERSTANDING the
causes, course and consequences. Get events in the
• I have to write so much • Marks are awarded for the quality
in history. of your answers not their length.
• You have to be good at • There are absolutely no marks lost
spelling and grammar. for poor spelling or grammar
• My presentation is not • No marks are lost for presentation.
good. It makes no harm to make a good
• History is all about impression though!!
dates. • There are no marks awarded or lost
for dates in your answers. The key
is getting events in the right order
Business - A few points
• Most students do higher level but JC
Business is a long course and a
significant number of students do
• Main factor is that while the theory
section is manageable a lot of students
find accounting very difficult.
• Very practical course where questions
often contain some element of maths –
not just accounting.
• Good news is the maths is usually
• Students expected to fill in documents,
do reports, etc.
Key to success is PRACTICE, PRACTICE
and more PRACTICE.
Second Year Course - Business
• Theory • Accounting
• Marketing • Introduction to double entry
• Business Insurance • Business Documents
• People at work • Books of First entry
• Finance for business • Creditors and Debtors Ledger
• Business Plan • Analysed Cash Book
• Business Banking • General Journal
• Delivery Systems • Control Accounts
Accounts – a few points
• Presentation is important.
• Each transaction has two entries – one debit
(left- hand side), one credit (right-hand side).
• Credit the giving and debit the receiving
• Another approach - Follow the money!!!! –
credit account paying the money (source
account) and debit the account receiving the
• All accounts must balance.
• Do rough work in a separate copy.
Enter transaction in Books of First Entry
Sales + Purchases Day Books / General Journal Cash Book
Post to Ledger
General Ledger Debtors Ledger Creditors Ledger
Extract Trial Balance
Prepare Final Accounts
Trading and Profit and Loss Balance Sheet
How to study for History / Business
Start by revising by TOPIC.
PREVIEW the text. Start
with a quick skim of the
Note section headings,
key concepts and words, etc.
Adopt an active approach:
• LOOK for answers to the key
questions that help us understand
• READ the chapter with these
questions in mind. Use a pen and
make brief notes.
Do not write out the book.
Adopt an active approach:
• TEST yourself on the material
that you have studied e.g. do
questions from the end of the
chapter or from past papers.
Extremely important in
• ONGOING REVIEW
Briefly go over the material
you have studied a week later
and then a month later.
Key Questions – Studying Martin Luther
Key Questions Answers
Why was Luther unhappy with
What did Luther do that made him
What was the reaction of the Church?
What happened at the Diet of Worms?
What were the main beliefs in
How did Luther’s beliefs spread?
What effects did his actions
Try and make notes useful!
Organise notes by year and then
Notes should be summaries and
not too detailed.
Write your notes in your own
words and use examples where
Use pictures and a highlighter
pen to give your notes a
Make sure to explain key terms
Term Rich Environment!
Key terms - Luther Explanation
Justification by faith
Diet and Edict of
Key People Role
Pope Leo X
Frederick the Wise
Business - Insurance
Key Concepts Definition – in your own words!!
Utmost Good Faith
Average Clause N.B. Be able to calculate
Types of Insurance – www.axa.ie
Type Bus H’hold Definition
Goods in transit
Spider Diagram: Causes of the
Church Printing Press
Direct Selling Place
Outline Format – US War of Independence
A. Causes of the War of Independence:
a. Stamp Act – “No taxation without Representation”
b. Boston Massacre
c. Boston Tea Party
d. Continental Congress
e. Lexington and Concord
B. Main events...etc. – incl. Role of Washington
C. Consequences of the War
Diagram – Origins of Plantation
Finance Mind Map
• Read outside the box!!
• Visit historical sites
• Use the Internet
E.g. - Business
www.bbc.co.uk/news/business - very professional
www.skoool.ie – very good for revision
www.rte.ie/news/business - keep up to date
ess/- good for revision.
Any major company will have an excellent