Study Material XS ST by TjUs6QZ

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 116

									     STUDY - MATERIAL
                     2009 - 10

            SOCIAL - SCIENCE

                  CLASS – X

            In the guidance of

- Mr. M.S.Chauhan (Assistant Commissioner)
- Mr. R. P. Diwaker (Principal KV OEF Kanpur)




           - Mr. Y.K.Singh KV No.3 Chakeri (Question Paper)
           - Mrs. Kathariya KV Raksha Vihar (History)
           - Mr. Lala Ram KV Kanpur Cantt (Geography)
           - Mrs. NEERJA TEWARI KV No. 1 Armapur (Civics)
            -Mrs. Shiv Kumari KV OEF (Economics)



                                   T.G.T. Social Science
                                      K.V.Kanpur




                                                              1
                                bfrgkl
                                ikB&1
                   ;wjksi esa jk’Vªokn dk mn;
iz0&1      fujadq”kokn (Absolutism) D;k gS A
m0& ,slh ljdkj ;k ‘kklu O;oLFkk ftldh lÙkk ij fdlh izdkj dk dksbZ vadq’k
     ugha gksrk ,slh jkt’kkgh ljdkjksa dks fujadq’k dgk tkrk gS A
     mnkjoknh jk”Vªokn&;wjksi esa mUuhloha lnh ds vkjEHk esa
jk”Vªh; ,drk ls lEcfU/kr fopkj mnkjokn ls tqM+s Fks A mnkjoknh ;ku
Liberalism.
ØkfUr dk ;qx (The Age of Revolutions) 1830-1848 : ;wjksi ds vusd {ks=ksa
esa mnkjokn vkSj jk”Vªokn dks ØkfUr ls tksM+dj ns[kk x;k bVyh
teZuh ds jkT; vkVkseu lkezkT; ds lwcs vkSj vk;jySaM iksySaM ,sls
gh dqN {ks= Fks A 1832 dh dqLrqurqfu;k dh lfU/k us ;wuku dks ,d
Lora= jk”Vª ds :i esa ekU;rk ns nh A
(i)    :ekuh dYiuk vkSj jk”Vªh; Hkkouk (The Romantic Imagination and
       National Feeling)
(ii)   Hkw[k dfBukb;k¡ vkSj tu fonzksg (Hung. Hardship and Popular Revolt).
(iii) 1884 esa mnkjokfn;ksa dh (1884 The Revolution of the Liberals).
usiksfy;u dh lafgrk& 1804 dh ukxfjd lafgrk ftls usiksfy;u dh lafgrk ds
uke ls tkuk tkrk gS mlus dkuwu ds le{k laifÙk ds vf/kdkj dks lqjf{kr
j[kk A
jk”Vªokn vkSj lkezkT;okn
vkn’kZoknh jk”Vªoknh ,d nwljs ds vuqlkj yM+us ds fy, rS;kj jgrs Fks A
  (i) 1857 ds ckn ;wjksi ds ckYdu {ks=ksa esa ruko vkilh
      HkkSxksfyd vkSj tkrh; fHkUurk Lyko dk uke fn;k x;k A vkVkseu
      lkezkT; ds fu;U=.k esa jk”Vªokn ds fopkjksa ds QSlys ls
      vkVkseu lkezkT; ds fo?kVu dk foLQksV A
(ii) fofHkUu Lyko jk”Vªh; lewgksa dh igpku] vkilh Vdjko A
(iii) blh le; ;wjksih; ‘kfDr;ksa ds chp O;kikj vkSj mifuos’kksa ds fy,
      izfrLi/khZ vkSj izFke fo’o ;q) A
(iv) jk”Vªoknh ns’kksa esa lkezkT; fojks/kh vkUnksyu fodflr gq,
      lektksa dk jk”Vª jkT;ksa esa xfBr fd;k tkuk A
1815 ds ckn ,d u;k :f<+okn%&
                                                                          2
(i) 1815 esa usiksfy;u dh gkj ds ckn ;wjksih; ljdkjsa :<+oknh dh
Hkkouk A jkT; vkSj lekt dh LFkkfir ikjEifjd laLFkk,a& jktra=] ppZ]
lkekftd Å¡p&uhp laifRr vkSj ifjokj dks cuk, j[kuk A
(ii) 1815 esa fczVsu] :l iz’kk vkSj vkLVsªfy;k ;wjksih; ‘kfDr;ksa us
      usiksfy;u dks gjk;k A 1815 dh fo;uk lfU/k owcksZ oa”k dks lÙkk
      us cgky fd;k A
(iii) 1815 esa LFkkfir :f<+okn ‘kklu O;oLFkk,¡ dh fujadq’krk dks [kRe
      fd;k A T;knkrj ljdkjksa us lsaljf’ki ds fu;e cuk,] Qkalhlh ØkfUr ls
      tqM+s fl)kUrksa dks viuk;k A




Ikz’uksa ds mÙkj

iz0&1       jk”Vªokn ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \
iz0&2       jk”Vªokn dc viuh pje lhek ij igq¡pk \
iz0&3       dqN izkjfEHkd jk”Vªh;oknh fopkjdksa ds uke fy[kks \
iz0&4       mu nks egRoiw.kZ fo”ks’krkvksa dks fy[ksa tks 19 oha lnh
ds ;wjksih; bfrgkl esa Fkh \
iz0&5       fcLekdZ dh uhfr;ksa vkSj y{;ksa dk o.kZu djsa \
iz0&6       dSowj vkSj fcLekdZ dh rqyuk fdu rF;ksa ds vk/kkj ij dh tk
ldrh gS \
iz0&7       jk”Vª jkT;ksa ds mn; esa lgk;d rhu rRoksa dk o.kZu djks \
iz0&8       fdl rjg ls ;wjksi esa jk”Vª jkT;ksa ds fodkl us fo’o bfrgkl ij
      xgjk                                                        izHkko
      NksM+k \
iz0&9       teZuh ds js[kkafdr ekufp= ij fuEu dks n”kk,¡ \
      (i) 1866 esa izf”k;k }kjk vf/kxzghr {ks=
      (ii) 1871 esa teZuh }kjk vf/kxzghr {ks=
egRoiw.kZ iz'u %&
1- Ýkal esa usiksfy;u }kjk izkjEHk dh x;h ukxfjd lafgrk 1804 dh
    fdUgha pkj fo'ks"krkvksa dk o.kZu dhft,A




                                                                         3
m0% 1-                                                          mlus
       tUe ij vk/kkfjr fo'ks"k vf/kdkj lekIr dj fn;s vkSj dkuwu ds le{k
       lekurk vkSj lEifRr ds vf/kdkj dks lqjf{kr cuk;k x;kA
    2- usiksfy;u us 'kgjksa essa dkjhxjksa ds Js.kh lewg ds fu;a=.k
       dks gVk;kA
    3- Ýkalhlh dEifu;ksa 1858 esa fo;ruke esa Msjk MkykA
    4- n{k x.kra= fLoVtjyS.M] bVyh vkSj teZuh tSls dbZ ;wjksih;
       Hkkxksa esa iz'kklfud foHkktuksa dks ljy cuk;kA lkeUrh
       O;oLFkk dks lekIr fd;kA
2- teZuh ds ,dhdj.k dh izfØ;k dks la{ksi esa fyf[k, A
m0%
                                                                jk"Vªo
    knh Hkkouk,a e/;e oxhZ; teZu yksxksa esa dkQh O;kIr FkhA
    1848 esa teZu egkla?k ds fofHkUu bykdkssa dks tksM+dj ,d
    fuokZfpr laln }kjk 'kkfey jk"Vª jkT; cukusa dk iz;kl fd;kA mlds
    i'pkr~ iz'kk ds jk"Vªh; ,dhdj.k ds vkUnksyu dk usr`Ro lH¡kky
    fy;kA mldk ea=h izeq[k ^^vkVkseu ckWu foLekdZ** bl izfØ;k dk
    tud FkkA lkr o"kZ ds nkSjku vkfLVª;k] MsuekdZ vkSj Ýkal ls
    rhuksa ;q)ksa esa iz'kk dh thr gq;h vkSj ,dhdj.k dh izfØ;k iwjh
    gq;hA tuojh 1871 esa olkZ; esa gq, ,d lekjksg esa iz'kk ds jktk
    fofy;e izFke dks teZuh dk lezkV ?kksf"kr fd;k x;kA
3- ;wjksi ds jk"Vªokn ds fodkl esa lg;ksx nsus okys rhu mnkgj.k
    fy[kksa ftuesa laLd`fr dh >yd fn[kkbZ nsA
m0%&
                                                                vk;jyS
    .M ns'k dSFkksfyd vkSj izksVsLVsV /kkfeZd xqVksa esa xgjkbZ
    esa c¡Vk gqvk FkkA vaxzstksa us vk;jyS.M esa izksVsLVsV
    /keZ ekuus okyksa dks cgqla[;d dSFkksfyd ns'k ij izHkqRo
                                                                       4
      c<+kus esa lgk;rk dhA oksYQVksu vkSj mldh ;wukbVsM
      vk;fj'keSu 1798 bZ0 dh vxqokgh esa vlQy fonzksg ds ckn 1801
      esa vk;jyS.M dks cyiwoZd ^^;wukbZVsM fdaxMe** esa 'kkfey dj
      fy;k x;kA ,d fczrkuh jk"Vª dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;kA ftl ij gkoh vkaXy
      laLd`fr dk izpkj fd;k x;kA
4- fo,u laf/k ds mn~ns'; D;k Fks \
m0%&                                                            1815
      esa fczVs'k :l iz'kk vkSj vkLVsªfy;k tSlh ;wjksih; 'kfDr;ksa us
      feydj usiksfy;u dks gjk;k FkkA mls izfrfuf/k ;wjksi ds fy, ,d
      le>kSrk rS;kj djus ds fy, fo,uk esa feysA bl lEesyu dh estckuh
      vkfLVª;k ds pkalyj M~;wd esVjfud us dhA blesa izfrfuf/k;ksa us
      1815 dh fo,u laf/k rS;kj dh ftldk mn~ns'; mu dbZ lkjs cnykoksa
      dks [kRe djuk FkkA tks usiksfy;u ;q)ksa ds nkSjku gq, FksA
5- bVyh ds ,dhdj.k esa tks izeq[kk ck/kk,a vk;h mud mYys[k djks A
m0-      1-                                                     bVyh
         dk vusd NksVs&NksVs jkT;ksa esa caVk gksukA
   2- fons'kh 'kfDr;ksa dk bVyh ds vusd Hkkxksa ij vf/kdkjA
   3- fo,uk dh dkaxzslA
   4- jkse dk iksiA
   5- vuqnkjoknh 'kkld




                                                                       5
2. baMks&pkbuk esa jk’Vªoknh vkUnksyu

¼d½       phu ds lk, ls mHkjuk (Emerging from the shadow of
China)&
  1. mifuos”koknh vf/kiL; vkSj izfrjks/k& 1858 esa Ýkalhlh lsuk us
  fo;ruke ij vkØe.k dj fn;k] 1880 ds e/; esa mUgksaus mÙkjh {ks= ij
  viuk vf/kdkj LFkkfir dj fy;k A
  2. Ýkalhlh;ksa us mifuos”kksa dh vko’;drk D;ksa le>h& os mUgs
  avius izkd`frd L=ksr rFkk vU; eky ns lds lH; ;wjksih; ns’kksa dk
  nkf;Ro gS fd og fiNM+s gq,] ns’kksa dks lH;rk dh jks’kuh fn[kk, A
  3. mifuos”kksa dk fodkl djuk t:jh& dqN yksxksa dks ekuuk Fkk fd
  mifuos”kksa dk fodkl djuk t:jh gS mifuos”k ykHk dekus ds fy, cuk,
  tkrs gS A vr% v/khuLFk ns’k dh vFkZO;oLFkk vxj etcwr gksxh rks
  yksaxksa dk thou Lrj Å¡pk mBsxk A blls cktkj esa foLrkj gksxk A
fo;ruke dh vksfuos”kd vFkZO;oLFkk eq[; :i ls pkoy dh [ksrh vkSj jcM+
ds cxkuksa ij vkfJr Fkh A
¼[k½     vksifuos”kd f”k{kk dh nqfo/kk (The Dilemma of Colonial
     Education)%& Ýkalhlh;ksa dk dguk Fkk fd ;wjksi lcls vf/kd lH;
     ns”k gS A vk/kqfud fopkj QSykus ds fy, ;fn LFkkuh; laLd`fr;ksa]
     /keksaZ vkSj ijEijkvksa dks Hkh u”V djuk iM+s rks blesa dksbZ
     cqjkbZ ugha gS A
     1. vk/kqfud cksypky%& fo;ruke dk lEiUu oxZ phuh laLd`fr ls
       izHkkfor Fkk A mUgksaus fo;rukeh Ldwyksa dks osn djokdj
       Ýkalhlh Ldwy [kksy fn, mPpoxhZ; lEiUu oxZ ds yksx gh
       Ýkalhlh Ldwyksa esa HkrhZ gq, A
     2. vk/kqfud ns[kus dh yyd%& fo|ky;ksa ls dgk tkrk Fkk fd os
       Nk=ksa ls dgsa fd mUgsa ik’pkR; rjhdksa dks viukuk pkfg,
       mUgsa NksVs cky j[kus pkfg, tcfd os yEcs cky j[krs Fks A
     3. Ldwyksa esa fojks/k Loj%& f’k{kdksa vkSj Nk=ksa us [kqys
       :i ls iqLrdksa vkSj ikB~; Øe dks Lohdkj ugha fd;k cgqr ls
       fo;rukeh v/;kid pqipki fdrkcksa esa fy[kk cny dj i<+rs Fks A
                                                                   6
¼x½      lkQ&lQkbZ] chekjh vkSj furizfr izfrjks/k&
    1. Iysx us guksbZ dks ?ksjk%& guksbZ dks ,d lUqnj vkSj lkQ
       lqFkjk ‘kgj cuk;k x;kA 1903 esa guksbZ ds uofufeZr vk/kqfud
       Hkkx esa d;wckfud Iysx egkekjh QSy xbZ iqjkus {ks= gksus
       ds dkj.k ty fudklh dk mfpr izcU/k u Fkk Hkkjh o”kkZ ds dkj.k
       xUnxh lM+dksa ij QSy tkrh Fkh A
    2. /keZ vkSj mifuo’kokn dk fojks/k%& 1920 esa pwgksa dks
       idM+us ds fy, mUgsa buke fn;k tkrk Fkk A 30 ebZ dks 20,000
       pwgs idM+s x;s A pwgksa dks ekjus ds izek.k esa mudh
       iw¡N VkWxuh iM+rh Fkh A dqN yksx dekus ds fy, pwgs ikyrs
       Fks A fo;rukeh fdlh Hkh :i esa ljdkj dk fojks/k dj ldrs Fks A
¼?k½       /keZ vkSj mifuos’kokn dk fojks/k (Religion and anti
    colonialism)& Ýkalhlh;ksa us lSfud :i ls rks fo;ruke ij viuk vf/kdkj tek
    fy;k Fkk ijUrq os fo;ruke ds lkekftd vkSj lkaLd`frd thou dks Hkh
    iwjh rjg ls cnyus dk iz;kl dj jgs Fks A
          fo;rukeh ckS) /keZ dU¶;wf”k;l okn vkSj LFkkuh; jhfr
    fjoktksa ls ij fo’okl j[krs Fks A1868 dk cqf)thoh fonzksg Ýkalhlh
    dCts vkSj bZlkbZ /keZ ds fo:) vkUnskyu Fkk A ’kkgh vQljksa us
    bldk usr`Ro fd;k Fkk A gtkjksa bZlkb;ksa dks ekSr ds ?kkV mrkj
    fn;k Fkk A 18 oha lnh ds vUr rd mUgksaus 30,00,000 yksxksa
    dks bZlkbZ cuk fy;k A Ýkalhfl;ksa us 1868 ds vkUnksyu dks
    dqpy Mkyk] ijUrq os ns’kHkfDr dh Hkkouk dks u jkSan ik, A
¼M+½ vk/kqfudhdj.k dh n`f”V (The Vision of Modernization)&
   QkufcmpkÅ ,d ,sls jk”Vªoknh Fks] mUgksaus 1903 esa
   VscksY;w’kujh lkslkbVh dk xBu fd;k jktdqekj dqvkax ns bl
   ?kkVh ds eqf[k;k Fks A vU; jk”Vªoknh QkucksBZpkÅ Fks A os
   jktoa’k fojks/kh Fks A os ,d yksdrkaf=d x.kjkT; LFkkfir djus ds
   i{k esa Fks A
¼p½      lkE;oknh      vkUnksyu      vkSj   fo;rukeh jk”Vªokn (The
    communist movement and vietamese Nationalism)&Qjojh 1930 esa
    gksph feUg us jk”Vªokfn;ksa ds vyx&vyx iM+s xqVksa dks ,drk
    ds lw= esa cka/kk rFkk fo;rukeh lkE;oknh ny dk xBu fd;k A 1940
    esa tkiku us bl ij vf/kdkj tek fy;k A 1945 esa fo;rfeUg us guksbZ
    dks tkikuh paxqy ls eqDr djk fy;k Fkk A ckn esa fo;rukeh x.kra=
    dh LFkkiuk gks xbZ A gksph feUg dks igyk v/;k{k
    pquk x;k A
    1. fo;ruke dk u;k x.kjkT;
    2. vesfjdk dk izos’k vkSj ;q) 1965 ls 1972 ds e/;
    3. gksph feUg ekxZ& 1967 ds ckn A
                                                                           7
¼N½            jk”Vª vkSj mlds uk;d (The nation and its heroes)&
       1.   fonzksgh fL=;k¡
       2.   chrs le; ds uk;d
       3.   ;ksn~;k efgyk,¡ ohjkaxuk,¡ ¼1960½
       4.   ‘kkfUr ds le; efgyk,¡ ¼1970½
Vksfdu Ýh Ldwy dh LFkkiuk
if”peh f”k{kk nsus ds fy, 1907 esa Vksfdu Ýh Ldwy [kksyk x;k A bl
f”k{kk esa foKku] LoPNrk vkSj Ýkalhlh Hkk’kk dh d{kk “kkfey Fkh A
vk/kqfud cuus ds fy, fo;rukfe;ksa dks if”pe ds yksxksa tSlk gh fn[kuk
iM+sxk A
fo;ruke ;q++) esa vesfjdh fgLlsnkjh ds dkj.k
vesfjdk dks Hk; Fkk fd fo;ruke ;q) esa lkE;okn dk c<+rk gqvk izHkko
“kh?kz vU; ns”kksa dks viuh yisV esa ys ysxk A vesfjdk ds lkFk
la?kZ"k dk nkSj dkQh ;krukiw.kZ vkSj fueZe jgk A ;qn~/k dk vlj
vesfjdk esa Hkh lkQ eglwl fd;k tk ldrk Fkk A cgqr lkjs yksx bl ckr dk
fojks/k dj jgs Fks A ftUgsa ekspsZ ij Hkstk jgk jgk Fkk muesa cgqr lkj
ukStoku lekt ds vfHktkR; oxZ ds ugha Fks A


19   oha lnh ds vUr esa Ýkalhfl;ksa ds fojks/k dk usr`Ro fdlus
       fd;k \
m0&          mUuhloha lnh ds vf[kj esa Ýkalhfl;ksa ds fojks/k dk usr`Ro
       izk;% dUQ;wf”k;u fon~okuksa dk;ZdrkZvksa ds gkFkksa esa
       gksrk Fkk A ftUgsa viuh nqfu;ka fc[kjrh fn[kkbZ ns jgh Fkh A bl
       ijEijk esa f”kf{kr QkbZ cksb pkm (1867-1940) ,slh gh ,d
       egRoiw.kZ jk’Vªoknh Fks A
iz0&4         fgUn&phu ij nwljs fo”o ;qn~/k dk D;k izHkko iM+k \
iz0&5         fo;ruke esa vejhdh gLr{ksi ds fo’k; esa vki D;k tkurs gSa \
iz0&6    vejhdk vkSj fo;ruke ds chp gq, isfjl le>kSrs dh D;k “krsZa
     Fkha \




                                                                            8
ikB&3
Hkkjr esa jk’Vªokn
     xk¡/kh th dk lR;kxzg ij fopkj 1915& esasa nf{k.k vÝhdk ls
xk¡/kh th Hkkjr ykSVsA mUgksaus lR;kxzg dh ne ij nf{k.kh vÝhdk dh
ljdkj     dks     ?kqVus      Vsdus       ds     fy,       etcwj       dj
fn;k Fkk A lR;kxzg dk vFkZ Fkk mRihM+d ds eqdkcyk djus ds fy, fdlh
“kkjhfjd cy dh vko”;drk ugha gksrh og vfgalk ds cy ij fot; izkIr djrk gS
A mudk fo”okl Fkk fd vfgalk dk cy lHkh Hkkjrh;ksa dks ,drk ds lw=
eas ck¡/k ldrk gS A

     jkWysV ,DV%& Hkkjrh; lnL;ksa ds Hkkjh fojks/k ij Hkh bnl
dkuwu dks baihfj;y ysftLysfVo dkSfUly us “kh?kz gh ikl dj fn;k A
xk¡/kh th us bls ^dkyk dkuwu* dgk bldk fojks/k ßlfou; voKk
vkUnksyuÞ ds }kjk fd;k A ;g vkUnksyu 6 vizSy ls vkjEHk gksuk Fkk
A “kgjksa esa O;kid cUn dk vk;kstu fd;k x;k A

tfy;kaokyk ckx gR;kdkaM%& jkWysV ,DV ds fojks/k esa
egkRek xk¡/kh vkSj lR;iky fdpyw fxj¶rkj gks pqds Fks bldk fojks/k
djus ds fy, 13 vizSy 1919 bZ0 ds oSlk[kh ioZ ds fnu ve`rlj esa
tfy;kaokyk ckx esa ,d tulHkk dk vk;kstu fd;k Fkk A iz”kkld tujy Mk;j
us bl lHkk dks voS/k ?kksf’kr dj fn;k A rc ;gk¡ mlus xksyh pyok;h Fkh
lSdM+ksa O;fDr ekSr dk f”kdkj gks x;s Fks A

Lojkt ikVhZ ds xBu ds ihNs pkj mís”;%&
  1. Lojkt izkIr djuk A
  2. ml ifjikVh dks lekIr djuk tks lÙkk ds v/khu Hkkjr esa fon~;eku
     Fkh A
  3. dkmafly esa izos”k djus ds dk;ZØe dks viukuk vkSj bl rjg ls
     vlg;ksx dks lQy cukuk A
  4. ljdkj dh uhfr;ksa dk fojks/k djuk A muds dk;ksaZa esa ck/kk
     igq¡pkuk A

vlg;ksx vkUnksyu vkSj f[kykQr vkUnksyu esa
lekurk

                                                                        9
 1. fons”kh oLrqvkas dk cfg’dkj] Lons”kh oLrqvksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tk;s
     A
 2. ljdkjh mikf/k;kaas vkSj voSrfud inksa dk cfg’dkj fd;k tk;s A
 3. vaxzsth njckj ds Lokxr lekjksg esa Hkkx u fy;k tk;s A
 4. ljdkjh U;k;ky;ksa dk cfg’dkj fd;k tk;s A
 5. ubZ dkSfUly ds fy, gksus okys pqukoksa esa Hkkx u fy;k tk;s A
 6. lSfud vkSj etnwj fons”kksa esa dke djus u tk,¡ A


1919 ls 1922 ds e/; jk’Vªokfn;ksa dh eq[; ekaxsa%&

1.   1919 bZ0 ds jksysV ,DV dks okil ys fy;k tk;s A
2. tfy;kaokyk ckx gR;kdkaM ds fy, mÙkjnk;h vf/kdkfj;ksa dsk mfpr
naM fn;k tk;s A
3.   rqdhZ ds lkFk fczfV’k ljdkj us tks vU;k; iw.kZ O;ogkj fd;k mldks
     lekIr djus dk opu fn;k tk;s A
4.   Hkkjrh;ksa dks Lojkt ns fn;k tk;s ftlds fy, dksbZ ‘krZ u gks A
5. Hkkjrh; d`f”k m|ksx rFkk mn~;ksxksa dh izxfr ds fy, rqjUr dne
mBk;s tkus pkfg,A
      lu~ 1920 esa vlg;ksx vkUnksyu pyk;k x;k A 1922 bZ0 rd pyk
ijUrq 1922 bZ0 esa ‘kkfUriw.kZ izn”kZu dj jgs izn’kZudkfj;ksa ij iqfyl
us ykBh pktZ fd;k rks ßpkSjk&pkSjkÞ uked LFkku ij HkhM+ us Fkkus
esa vkx yxk nh A 22 flikfg;ksa dks ckgj ugha fudyus fn;k vkSj oss ty
dj ej x;s A
y?kq mÙkjh; iz”u
  1.  vlg;ksx vkUnksyu vkjEHk djus ds ihNs D;k dkj.k Fks \
  2.  1920 ds vlg;ksx vkUnksyu ds ckjs esa D;k tkurs gSa \
  3.  vkkbeu vk;ksx ds ckjs esa fy[kks \
  4.  iw.kZ Lora=rk dh ekax fdlus dh Fkh \
  5.  nkaMh ;k=k ds ckjs esa laf{kIr uksV fy[kks \

nh?kZ mÙkjh; iz”u
  6.  gksely vkUnksyu ftlds usr`Ro esa ,suhcslsUV vkSj fryd us
      D;k fd;k Fkk \

                                                                      10
     7.     ued vkUnksyu ds fo”k; esa vki D;k tkurs gSa \ dqN rF;ksa ij
            izdk’k Mkysa A
     8.     lfou; vfoKk vkUnksyu dh eq[; fo’ks”krk,¡ D;k Fkha \
     9.     lu~ 1919 ds jksysV ,DV dh izeq[k fo’ks”krk,¡ D;k Fkha \
     10.    ekufp= dk;Z%& 1- og LFkku tgk¡ ls nkaMh ;k=k izkjEHk
            gqbZ A
                         2- pkSjh&pkjk A
                         3- tfy;kaokyk ckx gR;kdkaM
                         4- uhy vkUnksyu ¼paikj.k½




ikB&4
HkweaMyh;d`r fo”o dk cuuk
          vk/kqfud ;qx ls iwoZ (The RBC Modern World)& 3,000 bZlk
iwoZ esa leqnzh rVksa ls gksus okys O;kikj dk ek/;e flU/kq?kkVh dh
lH;rk ls tqM+k gqvk Fkk A mls vkt ge if”peh ,f”k;k ds uke ls tkurs gSa
A viuh ;k=k esa yksx rjg&rjg dh phtsa] iSlk] ewY; ekU;rk;sa gquj fopkj
vkfo’dkj vkSj ;gk¡ rd dh dhVk.kq vkSj chekfj;k¡ lkFk ysdj vkrs Fks A
1.        js”ke ls tqM+rk fo”o& flYd ekxZ ds uke ls irk pyrk gS fd bl
          ekxZ ls if”pe dks Hksts tkus okys phuh js”ke dk fdruk egRo Fkk
          A bfrgkldkjksa us cgqr lkjs flYd ekxksaZ ds ckjs esa crk;k gS A
          tehu ;k leqnz ls xqtjus okys ;s jkLrs u dsoy ,f”k;k ds fo”kky
          {ks=ksa dh ,d nwljsa ls tksM+us dk dke djrs cfYd mÙkjh vÝhdk
          ls                         Hkh                          tksM+rs
          Fks A ßO;kikj vkSj lkLd`frd vknku&iznku nksuksa izfØ;k,¡
          lkFk&lkFk pyrh FkhÞ A
                                                                       11
2.   Hkkstu dh ;k=k LiS/ksÙkh vkSj vkyw& nqfu;k ds fofHkUu
     Hkkxksa esa feyus okyh ^rqjUrk* ;k jsMh [kkn~; inkFkksaZ ds
     lk>k L=ksr jgs gSa A ;s [kkn~; inkFkZ ;wjksi vkSj ,f”k;k esa rc
     igq¡ps rc fØLVksQj dksyEcl xyrh ls mu vKkr egk}hiksa esa
     igq¡p x;k Fkk A
3.   fot; jksx O;kikj (Coguest Discase and Trade) & viuh [kkst ls igys
     yk[kksa lky ls vesfjdk dk nqfu;k esa dksbZ lEidZ ugha Fkk A
     lksyogha lknh ls mldh fo”kky Hkwfe vkSj csfglkc Qlysa o [kfut
     inkFkZ gj fn”kk esa thou dk :Ik jax cnyus yxs A mUgksaus us
     vesfjdk dks mifuos”k cukuk “kq: dj fn;k A ;wjksih; lsuk;sa viuh
     lSfud rkdr ds ne ij ugha thrh Fkha lSfud gfFk;kj rks dksbZ Fkk
     gh ugha A ;g gfFk;kj pspd tSls dhVk.kq ls tks Lisfu”k lSfudksa
     vkSj vQljksa ds lkFk ogk¡ tk igq¡ps Fks A ogk¡ yksx bldh pisV
     esa vkus yxs A
mUuhloha “krkCnh (1815-1914)& bl lnh esa vkfFkZd] jktuhfrd]
lkekftd lkaLd`frd vkSj rduhdh dkjdksa us iwjs ds iwjs lektksa dh
dk;k iyV dj nh A
buesa igyk izokg O;kikj dk gksrk gSA
Þ nwljk izokg Je dk gksrk gS A
Þ rhljk izokg i¡wth dk gksrk gS ftls vYi ;k nh?kZ vof/k ds fy, nwj
ds bykdksa esa fuos”k dj fn;k tkrk gS A
1.   fo”o vFkZO;oLFkk dk Lo:i A
2.   rduhd dh Hkwfedk A
3.   mUuhloha lnh ds vUr esa mifuos”kokn A
4.   fjMj isLV ;k i”kq Iysx A
5.   Hkkjr ls vuqcfU/kr Jedksa dk tkuk A
6.   fons”k esa Hkkjrh; mn~;eh A
7.   Hkkjrh; O;kikj mifuos”kokn A




nks egk;qn~;ksa ds chp

¼d½       ;qn~/k dkyhu :ikUrj.k%& bl ;qn~/k esa e”khuxuksa]
     VSadksa gokbZ tgktksa vkSj jklk;fud gfFk;kjksa dk bLrseky fd;k
     x;k A

                                                                    12
¼[k½      ;qn~/kksÙkj lq/kkj%& ;qn~/k ds ckn Hkkjrh; cktkj esa
    igys okyh opZLo”kkyh fLFkfr izkIr djuk fczVsu ds fy, eqf”dy gks
    x;k Fkk A
¼x½      cM+s iSekus ij mRiknu vkSj mi;ksx%& 1920 ds n”kd
    eas vesfjdkh vFkZ O;oLFkk dh ,d cM+h [kkfl;r Fkh cM+s iSekus
    ij mRiknu dk pyu A
¼?k½     egkeanh (The Gread Depression)& vkS|ksfxd ns”kksa esa
    eanh dk lcls cqjk vlj vesfjdk dks ns[kuk iM+k A vesfjdh cSadksa
    us ?kjsyw dj nsuk cUn dj fn;k FkkA vkenuh esa fxjkoV vkus ij
    vesfjdk ds cgqr lkjs ifjokj dtZ pqdkus esa vleFkZ gks x;s A
¼M+½     Hkkjr dh egkeanh%& 1928 ls 1934 ds chp ns”k ds
    vk;kr&fu;kZr ?kVdj yxHkx vk/ks jgs x;s A vUrjkZ”Vªh; cktkj esa
    dherh fxjus yxha Hkkjr esa xsgw¡ dh dher 50% ?kV x;h A

vfry?kq mÙkjh; iz”u
  1.    czsVu&cqMl le>kSrs dk D;k vFkZ Fkk \
  2.    fdl rjg ls 16 oha lnh ds ckn fo’o cM+s iSekus ij fldqM+ x;k \
  3.    19 oha lnh esa ;wjksi esa xjhch vkSj Hkw[k dk gh lkezkT;
        Fkk A D;ksa \
  4.    egkeanh ds dkj.kksa dh la{ksi esa O;oLFkk djsa \
  5.    1840 ds n’kd esa vk;jySaM ds gtkjksa xjhc Hkw[ks ej x, A
        D;ksa \
  6.    fo’o O;kikj dk dsUnz if’pe dh vksj D;ksa pyk x;k \
  7.    tuer ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \
  8.    yphyh ;k rSjrh fofue; nj dk vFkZ crkb, \
  9.    lkezkT;okn dks c<+kok fdlus fn;k \
  10.   twV mRiknu ls fdls ykHk igq¡p jgk Fkk \

y?kqmÙkjh; iz”u
  1.    vesfjdk vkSj vkLVªsfy;k esa vf/kd LFkkukUrj.k D;ksa gqvk \
  2.    mPpdksfV dh dikl Hkkjr ;wjksi dks D;ksa csp nsrk Fkk \
  3.    D;ksa fczfV’k diM+k fuekZrk Hkh vius diM+s ds fy, leqnz ikj
        cktkj <w<+ jgs Fks\
  4.    fczVsu ds fy, ;qn~/k ds ckn vkfFkZd HkjikbZ djuk dfBu gks
        x;k Fkk A Li”V djsa \
  5.    egkeanh dk Hkkjrh; vFkZ O;oLFkk ij D;k izHkko iM+k \




                                                                     13
ikB&5
vkS|ksxhdj.k dk ;qx
1.   vkS|ksfxd ØkfUr ls iwoZ& ml le; fo’o O;kikj ds foLrkj vkSj
     nqfu;ka ds fofHkUu Hkkxkas esa mifuos”kksa dh LFkkiuk ds
     dkj.k oLrqvksa dh ekax c<+us yxh A bldks iwjk djus ds fy, dsoy
     ‘kgjksa esa jgrs gq, mRiknu ugha c<+k;k tk ldrk Fkk A bXySaM
     ds diM+k O;olk;h LVsIyZl ls Åu [kjhnrs Fks A blls tks /kkxk feyrk
     Fkk mls Qqyxh vkSj jax jst ds ikl ys tk;k tkrk Fkk A
2.   gkFk dk Je & cgqr lkjs mRikn gkFk ls rS;kj fd, tkrs Fks
     e’khuksa ls ,d tSls mRikn cM+h la[;k eas cuk, tk ldrs Fks A
     ysfdu cktkj esa vdlj ckjhd fMtkbu vkSj [kkl vkdkj okyh phtksa dh
     ekax dkQh jgrh Fkh A
3.   mifuos’kksa esa vkS|ksxhdj.k& bl ;qx ls igys vUrjkZ”Vªh; ckt
     esa Hkkjr ds js’keh vkSj lwrh mRiknksa dk gh ncnck jgrk Fkk A
     cgqr lkjs ns”kksa esa eksVk dikl iSnk gksrk Fkk A 1760 vkSj
     1770 esa caxky vkSj dukZVd esa jktuhfr lÙkk LFkkfir djus ls
     igys bZLV bf.M;k dEiuh dks fu;kZr ds fy, yxkrkj lIykbZ vklkuh ls
     fey tkrh Fkh A
4.   QSDVªhfj;ksa dk vkxeu& Hkkjr esa vkS|ksfxd mn~;e LFkkfir
     djuk pkgrs Fks A caxky ds }kjkdk ukFk VSxksj us phu ds lkFk
     O;kikj esa [kwc iSlk dek;k vkSj os m|ksxksa esa fuos’k djus yxs
     A 1830-1840 ds n”kkdkas esa mUgksaus 6 la;qDr mn~;e
     dEifu;k¡ yxk yh Fkha A
5.   vkS|ksfxd fodkl dk vuwBkiu& ;wjksih; izcU/kdh; ,tsfUl;ksa dh
     dqN [kkl rjg ds mRiknksa esa gh fnypLeh Fkh A ftudh Hkkjr esa
     fcØh ds fy, ugha cfYd eq[; :Ii ls fu;kZr ds fy, vko’;drk Fkh A
     1900 ls 1912 ds Hkkjr esa lwrh diM+s dk mRiknu nks xquk gks
     x;k A
6.   oLrqvksa ds fy, O;kikj& 19 oha lnh ds vkf[kj esa fuekZrk vius
     mRiknksa dks cspus ds fy, dSysaMj Niokus yxs v[kckjksa vkSj
     i=&if=dkvksa dks rks i<+s fy[ks yksx le> ldrs Fks A pk; dh nqdkuksa vkSj
     ?kjksa esa dSysaMj yVds jgrs Fks A

                                                                           14
7.    laj{k.k rVdj& vk;kr dh tkus okyh oLrqvksa ij muds vk;kr dks jksdus ds fy,
      rVdj dk yxkuk A ?kjsyw m|ksxksa dks laj{k.k nsus ds mís”; ls fd;k tkrk gS
      A laj{k.k rVdj ds }kjk ?kjyw oLrqvksa dks fons”kh oLrqvksa dh izfr;ksfxrk
      ls cpkus ds fy, vkSj LFkkuh; fuekZrkvksa ds fgrksa dh j{kk djus ds fy, A
eqDr O;kikj dh uhfr& vFkZ’kkfL=;ksa dk dguk gS fd fodkl dh xfr
rhoz djus ds fy, okf.kT;okn ;k eqDr O;kikj dh uhfr viukbZ tkuh pkfg, A
ljdkj dks m|ksx ,oa O;kikj esa ;k rks fcYdqy Hkh gLr{ksi ugha djuk
pkfg, ;k fQj de ls de gLr{ksi gh djuk pkfg, Abl fl)kUr dks 1776 esa
fczVsu ds vFkZ’kkL=h ,be fLeFk us is’k fd;k Fkk A
8.    laj{k.k dh uhfr& u, m|ksxksa dks dBksj izfr;ksfxrk ls cpkus ds
      fy, uhfr dks ykxw djuk A
9.    ‘kkgh izkFkfedrk& fczfV’k ‘kklu dky esa fczVsu ls Hkkjr esa
      vk;kr dh tk jgh oLrqvksa dks fo’ks”k lqfo/kk,¡ ,oa fo’ks”kkf/kdkj
      iznku djuk A
10.   pSacj vkWQ dkWelZ& lkewfgd fpUrk ds eqn~nksa ij QSlyk
      ysus vkSj O;olk; Bhd rjg ls pyk lds A 19oha lnh esa bl mís”; dks
      iwjk djus ds fy, pSacj vkWQ dkWelZ dh LFkkiuk dh xbZ A Hkkjr
      esa igyk pSacj enzkl esa [kksyk x;k A
11.   jk”Vªoknh lUns’k& Hkkjrh; fuekZrkvksa ds foKkiuksa esa
      jk”Vªoknh          lUns’k        lkQ        fn[kkbZ          nsrk
      Fkk A mudk dguk Fkk fd vxj jk”Vª dh ijokg djrs gks rks mu
      phtksa dks [kjhnsa ftUgsa] Hkkjrh; us cuk;k gS A foKkiu
      Lons’kh oLrqvksa ds jk”Vªoknh lans’k ds okgd cu x;s Fks A

y?kq mÙkjh; iz’u
  1.  fczVsu esa laj{k.k rVdj uhfr dks viukuk D;ksa t:jh le>k \
  2.  ljdkj dks m|ksx o O;kikj eas n[ky u nsus ds fy, vFkZ”kkfL=;ks
      aus fdl uhfr dks viukus dk lq>ko fn;k \
  3.  vkfn vkS|ksxhdj.k ls D;k vzfHkizk; gS \
  4.  pSacj vkWQ dkWelZ dk igyk dk;kZy; Hkkjr esa dgk¡ LFkkfir
      gqvk \ bldh LFkkiuk ds ihNs ,d izeq[k mís’; D;k Fkk \
  5.  u;s miHkksDrkvksa dks yqHkkus ds fy, foKkiuksa dk D;k
      egRo gS \ buds }kjk jk”Vªoknh lans’k dSls igq¡pk;k tkrk Fkk \

vfr y?kqÙkjh; iz’u
   1.  fczVsu dh efgyk dk;xjksa us fLifuax tSlh e’khuksa ij geys fd,
       A D;ksa \
   2.  lwjr cUnjxkg vBkjgoha lnh ds vUr rd gkf”k, ij igq¡p x;k Fkk \
   3.  igys fo’o ;q) ds le; Hkkjr dk vkS|ksfxd mRiknu D;ksa cM+k \

                                                                             15
  4.   bZLV bf.M;k dEiuh us Hkkjr esa cqudjksa ij fuxjkuh j[kus ds
       fy, xqekjrksa dks fu;qDr fd;k Fkk A
  5.   vkS|ksxhdj.k ds nkSjku deZdkjksa dk thou fdl rjg dk Fkk \
  6.   xk¡o ds cqudjksa vkSj xqekjrksa ds chp >xM+s D;ksa gks jgs
       Fks \


eqnz.k laLd`fr vkSj vk/kqfud nqfu;k

eqnz.k Økafr vkSj mldk vlj

  1.   Nkis[kkus ds vkus ls ,d u;k ikBd oxZ iSnk gqvk] dher fxfj]
       ikBd oxZ c`grj gksrk x;k A
   2.  i<+us dh ,d u;h laLd`fr fodflr gqbZ A i<+dj lquk;s tkrs Fks A
       Kku dk ekSf[kd ysu nsu] NikbZ Økafr ls igys fdrkcsa egaxh]
       Nkiuk Hkh vlaHko A
   3.  fdrkcsa flQZ lk{kj gh i<+ ldrs Fks& lk{kjrk dh nj lhfer Fkh A
       yksxksa esa fnypLih c<+h] ekSf[kd laLd`fr esa nkf[ky gqbZ]
       Jksrk vkSj ikBd oxZ dk esy feyki A
/kkfeZd fookn vkSj fizaV dk Mj
   1.  Nkis[kkus ls fopkjksa dk izlkj
   2.  yksxksa dk vyx&vyx <ax ls lkspuk] u, rjhdksa us yksxksa dh
       ftUnxh cnyh] lwpuk vkSj Kku ls laLFkk vkSj lÙkk ls mudk fj’rk
       gh cny fn;k A
   3.  yksxksa dh Nih fdrkc ds O;kid izlkj vkSj Nis ‘kCnksa dh
       lqxerk dks ysdj vk”kadk] Hk;] yksxksa esa ckxh vkSj
       vk/kkfeZd fopkj iuius yxs A
   4.  ^ewY;oku* lkfgR; dh lÙkk gh u’V gks tk;sxh A /keZxq#vksa
       vkSj lezkVksa] ys[kdksa] dykdjksa dks fpark /keZ ds {ks=
       esa ekfVZu ywFkj dk ;ksxnku A
   5.  u;k ckSf)d ekgkSy cuk;k] /keZ lq/kj vkUnksyu ds u, fopkjksa
       ds izlkj esa enn feyh A
eqnz.k laLd`fr vkSj Ýkalhlh ØkfUr&
   1.  NikbZ ds pyrs Kkuksn; ds fpardksa ds fopkjka dk izlkj A
   2.  ijaijk va/kfo”okl vkSj fujadq”kokn dh vkykspuk foosd dk ‘kklu]
       ys[ku dk O;kid Lrj] ,d u, vkykspukRed] lokfy;k vkSj rkfdZd utfj,
       ls nqfu;k ns[kukA
   3.  NikbZ us okn&fookn laokn dh u;h laLd`fr dks tUe fn;k A
   4.  1780 ds n”kd rd jkt’kkgh vkSj mldh uSfrdrk dk etkd mM+kus
       okys lkfgR; dk <sj yx pqdk Fkk A

                                                                     16
  5.    NikbZ us fopkjksa dks QSykus esa enn dh] fopkjksa dks
        Lohdkjrs Fks A

1- ‘kgj dh fo’ks”krk,Wa%&
       Pkhu dk LVsV ,d yEcs le; rd Nih gqbZ oLrqvksa dk izeq[k
mRiknd jgk gSA lksygoha lnh ls ijh{kk nsusa okyh iqLrdksa ds Nkisa
tkusa esa Hkh o`f) gks xbZA 18oha lnh ds vUr esa ‘kgjh {ks=ksa
esa VksD;ks esa bl lEcU/k esa izxfr gksusa yxh] efgykvksa ij Nih
iqLrdsa] laxhr dk lkt&lkeku] Qwyksa dh ltkoV] [kkuk cukuas dh dyk
izfl) LFkkuksa ls lEcfU/kr iqLrdas gksrh FkhA

2- NikbZ ;wjksi ls vkbZ%&
gkFk ls fy[kh ik.Mqfyfi;ksa ds mRiknu ds }kjk fdrkcksa dh c<+rh
ekWax iwjh u gks ldhA ^^xqVuoxZ vkSj NikbZ e’khu** orZeku
VsDukykth ds vk/kkj ij mlus [kkst dh vksfyo izsl us fizfVax izsl dk
ekMy rS;kj fd;k rFkk /kkrq ls cus Vkbi dks rS;kj fd;kA tks o.kZekyk ds
v{kjksa ij vk/kkfjr FkhA 1450 vkSj 1550 ds nkSjku ;wjksi ds vf/kdrj
ns’kksa esa NikbZ e’khusa LFkkfir gks xbZA

3-NikbZ dzkfUr vkSj bldk izHkko%&
d&ubZ i<+us okyh turk & u;h ikBd laLd`fr LFkkfir gqbZ lk/kkj.k O;fDr
dsoy eqWag tqckuh laLd`fr esa jgrk Fkk os /kkfeZd iqLrdsa lqurs
FksA
[k&/kkfeZd izopu NikbZ dk Hk; & 1517 esa /kkfeZd lq/kkjd ekfVZu
ywFkj 95 Fkhfll fy[kdj jkseu dSFksfyd ppZ ds fdz;k dykiksa dh fuank
dh FkhA

x-NikbZ rFkk ?k`.kk %& 16oha lnh esa bVyh ds ,d feyj euks dkfpvks
us iqLrdsa i<+hA 1558 eas vR;Ur vkifRrtud lkfgR; rFkk izdk’kdksa
,oa iqLrd foØsrkvksa dks jkseu dSFkfyd ppZ ls izfrcaf/kr dj fn;kA
4 iBu dk pko %&
17oh vkSj 18oh lnh esa ;wjksi ds dbZ Hkkxksa esa lk{kjrk nj Åij
c<+us yxhA ;g nj 60 izfr’kr ls 80 izfr’kr nj rd c<+ xbZA
5-Hkkjr vkSj NikbZ dk fo’o%&

Hkkjr esa cgqr iqjkuh vkSj le`) gLrfyfi ik.Mqfyfi ijaijk gSA ftlesa laLd`r]
vjch] Qkjlh ds vykok cgqr lh LFkkuh; Hkk”kkvksa dk ;ksxnku gksrk
gSA fo|kFkhZ ikB~; iqLrds ugha i<+rs Fks os dsoy fy[kuk lh[krs FksA
bl rjg ls cgqr ls yksx f’kf{kr gks x;sA
vfry?kq iz’u%&

                                                                         17
iz’u 1& fuEufyf[kr lUnHkZ esa Hkkjr esa fizaV laLd`fr ds izlkj dk D;k
vFkZ gS \
d- xjhc [k- efgykvksa x- lq/kkjd
iz’u 2 & fdl rjg ls fizaV laLd`fr }kjk jk”Vªokn dks Hkkjr eas c<+kok feyk
\
iz’u 3 & D;ksa fczfV’k ljdkj ds lekpkj i=ksa vkSj iqLrdksa ij izfrca/k yxk
j[kk Fkk \
iz’u 4& Nis gq, n`’; eSVhfj;y ls D;k ykHk gS \
iz’u 5& fdrkc vklkuh ls feyus ds izHkko ls dqN yksx Hk;Hkhr D;ksa
Fks \
iz’u 6& fizfVax iszl dk vfo”dkj fdlus fd;k \
iz’u 7& dkSu lk vkSj dc igyk lekpkj i= Hkkjr esa Nik Fkk \
iz’u 8& jktkjkeeksgu jk; }kjk izdkf’kr nks lekpkj i= dkSu ls Fks\
iz’u 9& eqnz.k Økafr D;k Fkh \
iz’u 10& Hkkjr esa izsl dh c<+ksRrjh dc gqbZ \

y?kqmRrjh;%& d- ekfVZu ywFkj eqnz.k ds i{k essa Fks vkSj mlus
bldh [kqysvke iz’kalk dhA dkj.k crk,a \
[k- D;k dkj.k Fkk fd jkseu dSFkfyd ppZ esa 16oha lnh ds e/; ls
izfrcaaf/kr fdrkcksa dh lwph j[kuh ‘kq: dj nh \
x- dbZ bfrgkldkjksa dk er gS fd eqnz.k laLd`fr us Ýkafllh Økafr ds fy,
i`”B Hkwfe rS;kj dhA foospuk dhft, \
?k- ;wjksih; ds /kkfeZd thou ij Nis lkfgR; dk D;k izHkko gqvk nks
mnkgj.k nsdj le>kb;s \
M- ys[kd us fizafVax ds ckjs esa xgjh vk’kadk D;ksa trkbZ \

ikB 7
dke vkjke vkSj thou

1-‘kgj dh fo’ks”krk,a %& Hkkjr esa mj fuIiqj vkSj eksgu tksnM+ks
lH;rk ‘kgj uxj unh ?kkfV;ksa esa fodflr gqbZA jktuhfrd lRrk iz’kkldh;
usVodZ] O;kikj vkSj m|ksx /kkfeZd laLFkkuksa vkSj ckSf)d xfrfof/k
ds dsUnz izk;% ‘kgj gh gksrs gSaA

d-baXyS.M eas vkS|ksfxdhdj.k vkSj vk/kqfud ‘kgj dk mn;%&

1750 rd baXyS.M vkSj osYl dk gj 9 esa ls 1 vkneh yanu esa jgrk
FkkA 1810 ls 1880 ds chp 70 lkyksa esa mldh vkcknh 10 yk[k ls
c<+dj 4 xquk gks xbZA
[k-gf’k;kbZ lewg ¼The City of London½ %& 1870 ds n’kd esa yanu
esa de ls de 20 gtkj vijk/kh jgrs FksA D;kasfd ml le; vijk/k O;kid fpark
                                                                        18
dk cspSuh dk dkj.k cu pqdh FkhA ekuorkoknh lekt dh uSfrdrk dks
ysdj cspSu FksA

vkokl ¼Housing½ %& 1887 esa fyoj iwy ds ,d ty iksr ekfyd pkYlZ
cwFk us yUnu ds bZLV baM esa yanu ds vYi dq’ky etnwjksa dk igyk
lkekftd losZ{k.k fd;kA mUgksusa ik;k fd yanu ds de ls de 10 yk[k
yksx cgqr xjhc gSaA mudh vkSlru mez 29 o”kZ ls T;knk ugha gSA
cwFk us ik;k fd bu etnwjksa dks fdlh oDlZ ‘kki] vLirky ;k ikxy[kkus
esa ikusa dh laHkkouk T;knk gSA

yanu dh lQkbZ%& 19oha lnh esa vkS|ksfxd ‘kgjksa esa ?kqVuHkjh
HkhM HkM+kds us nsgkrh lkQ gok dh pkg c<+k nh yanu vkSj isfjl ds
cgqr lkjs vehj rks nsgkr esa vodk’k x`g cuokusa dk [kpkZ mBk ldrs
FksA

?k-‘kgj esa vkokxeu %& nqfu;k dh lcls igyh Hkwfexr jsy ds [kaM dk
mn~?kkVu 10 tuojh] 1863 dks fd;k x;kA 20oha lnh ds vkrs vkrs
U;w;kdZ Vksfd;ks vkSj f’kdkxks tSls fo’kky egkuxj viuh lqO;ofLFkr
lkoZtfud O;oLFkk ds fcuk ugha jg ldrs FksA bu ubZ lqfo/kkvksa us
lkekftd ÅWap uhp dks detksj dj fn;k u;s fdLe ds foHksn iSnk dj fn, bu
cnykoksa ls yksxksa ds ?kjsyw thou ij vlj iM+ka
   1- ‘kgj esa lkekftd cnyko ¼Social Change in City½ %& etnwj oxZ
      esa fookg laLFkku VwVusa dh dxkj ij igqWap xbZA osru ds fy,
      dke djusa okyh vkSjrksa dk thou vius ij T;knk fu;af=r FkkA
         1- ‘kgj esa L=h vkSj ifjokj
         2- euksjatu vkSj miHkksx


3-‘kgj dh jktuhfr %&
     ‘kgj esa cgqr lkjs yksxksa dks ,d lkFk jktuSfrd dk;Zokfg;ksa esa
[khapk tk ldrk FkkA bl izdkj ‘kgj dh fo’kky tula[;k ,d volj Hkh FkhA
vkSj ,d [krjk Hkh ‘kgjksa esa fonzksg dh vk’kadkvksa dks de
djusvkSj lqnj cukusa ds fy, ljdkjh ra= us gj laHko mik; fd;sA

4-mifuosf’kd Hkkjr esa ‘kgj %&
     1- Hkkjr dk izeq[k uxj eqEcbZA
     2- ‘kgj esa gksuas okys dkeA
     3- vkokl vkSj lhekorhZ {ks=A
     4- eqEcbZ esa Hkwfe lq/kkjA
     5- eqEcbZ liuksa ds ‘kgj ds :i esaA

                                                                   19
5-uxj i;kZoj.k lEcU/kh pqukSfr;kWa%&
     1- vkS|ksfxd uxjksa dk iznw”k.k
     2- dydRrk esa ok;q iznw”k.k dk yEck bfrgklA

egRoiw.kZ ikfjHkkf”kd ‘kCn
d& ‘kgjhdj.k         [k& ekuorkoknh       x& O;fDrokn
iz’u 2&18oha lnh ds e/; eas yanu dh tula[;k esa o`f) gksusa ds nks
          dkj.k fy[ksa\

iz’u 3&19oha vkSj 20oha lnh esa yanu esa efgykvkas dks feyusa
okys dkeksa esa D;k ifjorZu vk;sA mu rRoakas dk Li”Vhdj.k djksA
  iz’u 4&fdl rjg ls ‘kgjh tula[;k dk cM+k Hkkx izHkkfor djrk gSA

 1- ,d futh Hkwfe dk ekfyd 2- ,d jktuSfrd ny dk usrk




ikB&8
miU;kl] lekt vkSj bfrgkl
vk/kqfud ;qx ls iwoZ%&


                                                                20
17oha lnh ls gh miU;kl fy[ks tkusa yxs FksA iw.kZr;k iqf”ir] ifYyfor
18oha lnh esa gh gq,A
d&izdk’kdh; cktkj & ¼The Publishing Market) & rduhdh fodkl ds
dkj.k fdrkcksa dh NikbZ dk de [kpkZ vkrk gSA cktkj esa gksusa okyh
[kkstksa ds dkj.k fdrkcksa dk cktkj c<+ x;k gS] miU;kl gh ,d igyh
lkewfgd mRikfnr iqLrd FkhA
[k&leqnk; vkSj lekt ¼Community & Society) &miU;kldkj Fkkel
gkMhZ us fy[kk fd xzkeh.k d`f”k leqnk; esa yxkrkj ifjorZu vk jgs gSaA
e’khusa [kjhn dj rFkk etnwj yxkdj cktkj ds fy, mRiknu djkrs FksA

x&ubZ efgyk (The New Women) & efgykvksa dks vkjke ds vykok
miU;kl i<+us fy[kusa dk le; fey x;k Fk kA miU;kl }kjk efgyk txr ds
laosxkas] vuqHkoksa] leL;k dh tkudkjh fey jgh FkhA

?k&;qokvksa ds fy, miU;kl (Novels for the Young) & miU;klksa esa ,d
u;s rjg ds vkn’kZokyk ;qok ik= gksrk Fkk tks dkQh lEiUu vktkn vkSj
lkglh gksrk FkkA 1883 esa izdkf’kr ^^Vªstj vkbZySaM** d sys[kd vkj0
,y0 LVsolu 1894 esa izdkf’kr ^^taxycqd** d sys[kd :Mh;kMZ fdifyax
us rgydk epk fn;k FkkA

M-&mifuos’kokn vkSj okn esa (Colonialalism and After) & Msfu;y
fMQkst dk jksfcUlu dzwlks 1719 ,d lkglh ;k=h vkSj nkl O;kikjh Fkk ,d
}hi ij mudk tgkt /oLr gks x;k dzlks ds dkys yksx ftUgsa bUlku ugha
le>k tkrk Fkk mUgsa NksVk tho le>k tkrk FkkA dksukMZ us miU;kl
fy[ks ftuesa vkSifuosf’kd dky dh dfy;k iznf’kZr dh xbZA

2-miU;kl dk Hkkjr vkxeu &(Novels Come to India) &
19oha lnh esa miU;kl dk orZeku Lo:i Hkkjr esa fodflr gqvk] ejkBh dk
igyk miU;kl ckck in~;kath dk ^^;equk i;ZVu** 1857 esa fy[kk x;k] bldh
‘kSyh lk/kkj.k FkhA
1-nf{k.k Hkkjr esa miU;kl(The Novels in South India) & fctkafeu
fMtVsyh }kjk fyf[kr ^^gsujhbV~Vk         VsEiy** ey;kye Hkk”kk esa
vuqekfur FkkA
2-fgUnh ds miU;kl & (Novels in Hindi) & vk/kqfud fgUnh lkfgR; ds
ys[kd HkkjrsUnq gfj’pUnz us dbZ ys[kdksa dks izksRlkfgr fd;k
vaxzsth] ckaxyk ds miU;kl fgUnh esa vuqokn fd;sA caxky ds miU;kl
& 20oha lnh esa lk/kkj.k Hkk”kk esa dgkuh dgusa dh ‘kfDr dk lapkj
‘kjr pUnz pV~Vksik/;k; }kjk fd;k x;k FkkA
1-vkSifuosf’kd txr ds miU;kl &
1-miU;kl ds mi;ksx
2-vk/kqfud cuusa dh leL;k
                                                                   21
3-i<+usa dk vkuUn
?kjsywiu rFkk ubZ efgyk;sa & ,d bZlkbZ fe’kujh gukg eqfy;Ul ,oa
d:.kkvksa cqyeksfu;j fcokVu ¼1852½ caxky dh izfl) miU;kldkj dgrh
gSa fd og Nqidj fy[krh gSaA
miU;kl vkSj tkfrokn & bafnjk ckbZ vkSj banqj[kk tSls miU;kldkj
mPpoxZ ds Fks mUgksusa mPpoxZ ds ik= vius miU;kl esa fy,A
mRrjh dsjy dsys[kd iksFksjh daqtkEcq fuEu oxZ ds FksA mUgksusa
miU;kl ^^ljLorh t;e** 1892 esa fy[kk FkkA




CHAPTER. (1)

lalk/ku ,oa fodkl
¼Resources and Development½

lalk/ku ¼Resources½

gekjs i;kZoj.k esa miyC/k izR;sd oLrq tks gekjh vko’;drvksa dks iwjk
djrh gS tks vkfFkZd :i ls laHkkO; vkSj lkaLd`frd :i ekU; gS ,d lalk/ku
gS lalk/kuksa dk oxhZdj.k fuEu izdkj ls fd;k x;k A
  1- mRifRr ¼Origin½ ds vk/kkj ij tSo vkSj vtSo-
  2- lekI;rk ¼Exhaustibility½ ds vk/kkj ij & uohdj.k ;ksX; vkSj
     vuohdj.k ;ksX;A
  3- LokfeRo ¼Ownership½ ds vk/kkj ij & O;fDrxr lkeqnkf;d jk”Vªh;
     vkSj vUrjk”Vªh;A
  4- fodkl ¼Development½ ds vk/kkj ij & laHkkoh fodflr HkaMkj vkSj
     lafpr dks”kA


,tsaMk 21 ¼Agenda 21½
     ;g ,d ?kks”k.kk gS ftls 1992 esa fj;ks Mh tsusjks esa UNCED ds
rRok/kku esa jk”Vªk/;{kksa }kjk Lohd`r fd;k x;kA bldk mn~ns’; leku


                                                                    22
fgrksa ikjLifjsd vko’;drkvksa ,oa lfEefyr ftEesnkfj;ksa ds vuqlkj fo’o
lg;ksx ds }kjk i;kZoj.kh; {kfr] xjhch vkSj jksxksa ls fuiVukA
lalk/ku fu;kstu ¼Resource Planing½
     lalk/kuksa ds mfpr mi;ksx o izcU/k dh rdhuhd o dkS’ky ftlls
mudk lgh fodkl gks ldsA
e`nk ¼Soil½
     e`nk d`f”k dk vk/kkj gS A ;g tSfod vkSj vtSfod rRoksa dk feJ.k
gS A ;g i`Foh dh HkwiiZVh dh lcls Åijh ijr gS tks ikS/kksa ds fodkl ds
fy, mi;ksxh gSA


e`nk vijnu ¼Soil Erosion½
     izkd`frd dkjdksa }kjk e`nk dh Åijh ijr dk cg tkuk vFkok gVuk ftlls
Hkwfe d`f”k ds fy, muqi;ksxh gks tkrh gS e`nk vijnu dgykrk gSA ,slh
Hkwfe tksrus ;ksX; ugha jgrh vkSj bls mR[kkr Hkwfe ¼Bad Land)
dgrs gSA pacy csflu esa ,slh Hkwfe dks [kM~M+ ¼Ravine) Hkwfe
dgk tkrk gSA




e`nk laj{k.k ¼Soil Conservation½
  1- ioZrh {ks=ksa esa lh<+hnkj [ksr cukukA
  2- <kyksa ij o`{kkjksi.kA
  3- i'kqvks }kjk vfr pjkbZ ij fu;a=.kA
  4- [kuu izfØ;k dks fu;afU=r djukA
  5- yEch drkj esa isM+ ikS/ks yxkdj j{kd es[kyk cukukA
  6- voukfydk vijnu dks jksdus ds fy, cakf/kdk,a cukukA


Hkw&{kj.k ¼Land Degradation½

                                                                     23
     ekuo fØ;k dykiksa ds }kjk Hkwfe dk {kj.k gksukA blds mRrjnk;h
dkj.k gSA
     1- i’kqvksa }kjk vfr pjkbZA 2- ouksa dh dVkbZ 3- /kjkryh; [kuu 4-
     vkSn~;ksfxd dpjk vkSj fuL=ko dk ty es feyukA
iV~Vh d`f”k ¼Strip Cropping½
     Qlyksa ds chp ?kkl dh ifV~V;ka mxkbZ tkrh gS tks iouksa }kjk
tfur cy dks detksj djrh gSA


leksPp tqrkbZ ¼Contour Ploughing½
     Nky okyh Hkwfe ij leksPp js[kkvksa ds lekukUrj gy pykus ls Nky
ds lkFk ty cgko dh xfr ?kVrh gS bls leksPp tqrkbZ dgrs gSA
‘kq) ¼fuoy½ cks;k x;k {ks= ¼Net Sown Area½
     ,d d`f”k o”kZ esa dqy cks;k x;k {ks= A
  1- ijrh Hkwfe ls vki D;k le>rs gS \
  2- tSo rFkk vtSo lalk/ku D;k gksrs gS \
  3- izkS|ksfxdh vkSj vkfFkZd fodkl ds dkj.k lalk/kuksa dk vf/kd
     mi;ksx dSls gqvk gS \
  4- igkM+h {ks=ksa esa e`nk vijnu dh jksdFkke ds fy, D;k dne
     mBkus pkfg, \
  5- tyks<+ e`nk dh fo’ks”krk,¡ crkb;sa \




CHAPTER. (2)

ou ,oa oU; tho lalk/ku
(FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES)

                                                                    24
Hkkjr esa ouLifrtkr vkSj izkf.ktkr ¼Flora and Fauna in India½
      Hkkjr tSo fofo/krk ds lanHkZ esa fo’o ds lcls le`) ns’kksa esa ls
,d gSA ;gkW fo’o dh lkjh tSo mitkfr;ksa dh 8 izfr’kr la[;k ikbZ tkrh
gSA


fgeky;u ;o ladV esa ¼Himalayan Yew in Trouble½
      fgeky; ;o ¼phM+ dh izdkj dk lnkcgkj o`{k½ ,d vkS”k/kh; ikS/kk
gS tks fgekpy izns’k vkSj v:.kkpy izns’k ds dbZ {ks=ksa eas ik;k tkrk
gSA blds ikS/kks ls Vdlksy ¼Taxol½ uked jlk;u fudkyk tkrk gS tks
dSalj jksx ds mipkj ds fy, iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS] bldh nok fo’o esa lcls
vf/kd fcdus okyh dSalj vkS”kf/k gSA blds vR;f/kd fu”dklu ls bl ouLifr
tkfr dks [krjk iSnk gks x;k gSA
ck?k ifj;kstuk ¼Project Tiger½
      1973 esa vf/kdkfj;ksa }kjk ck?kksa dh fujarj ?kVrh la[;k dks
jksdus ds fy, ck?k ifj;kstuk cukbZA bldk mn~ns’; u dsoy ladVxzLr tkfr
dks cpkus dk gS vfirq bldk mn~ns’; cgqr cM+s vkdkj ds tSotkfr dks
Hkh cpkuk gSA        blds vUrxZr Hkkjr esa 27 ck?k fjtoZ ¼Tiger
Reserve½ cuk, x,A ;g vius edln esa iwjh rjg lQy ugha gks ik;k gS
D;ksafd vkt Hkh f’kdkjh yksx cM+s iSekus ij ck?kksa dk f’kdkj djrs
gSaA
ou ds izdkj ¼Types of Forest½
d&    vkjf{kr ou ¼Reserved Forest½
      ns’k esa vk/ks ls vf/kd ou {ks= vkjf{kr ou ?kksf”kr fd, x, gSa]
      tgkW rd ou vkSj oU; izkf.k;ksa ds laj{k.k dh ckr gS] vkjf{kr ouksa
      dks lokZf/kd ewY;oku ekuk tkrk gSA


[k& lajf{kr ou ¼Protected Forests½

                                                                      25
     ou foHkkx ds vuqlkj ns’k ds dqy ou {ks= dk ,d frgkbZ fgLlk
     lajf{kr gSA bu ouksa dks vkSj vf/kd u”V gksus ls cpkus ds fy,
     budh lqj{kk dh tkrh gSA




leqnk; vkSj ou laj{k.k ¼Community and Conservation½
     fgeky; esa izfl) fpidks vkanksyu dbZ {ks=ksa eas ou dVkbZ
jksdus esa gh dke;kc ugha jgk vfirq ;g Hkh fn[kk;k fd LFkkuh;
ikS/kksa dh tkfr;ksa dks iz;ksx djds lkeqnkf;d ouhdj.k vfHk;ku dks lQy
cuk;k tk ldrk gSA


ifo= isM+ ¼Sacred Groves or Virgin Forests½
     izd`fr dh iwtk lfn;ksa iqjkuk tutkrh; fo’okl gS] ftldk vk/kkj izd`fr ds
gj :i dh j{kk djuk gSA bUgh fo’oklksa us fofHkUu ouksa dks ewy ,oa
dkSek;Z :i eas cpkdj j[kk gS] ftUgsa ifo= isM+ksa ds >qjeqV dgrs
gSa ¼nsoh&nsorkvksa ds ou½] bu ckxks esa LFkkuh; yksx gh
?kqlrs gSa vkSj fdlh isM+ ls NsM+NkM+ ugha djus nsrs A


  1- tSo fofo/krk D;k gS \
  2- ekuoh; fØ;k;sa fdl izdkj izkd`frd ouLifrtkr ds âkl ds dkjd gS \
  3- ou vkSj oU; tho laj{k.k esa lg;ksxh jhfrfjokt ij ‘kd fVIi.kh fy[kks \
  4- jk”Vªh; m|ku vkSj oU; tho i’kq fogkj D;k gS \
  5- ouLifrtkr vkSj izk.khtkr esa D;k vUrj gS \




CHAPTER. (3)

                                                                             26
ty lalk/ku
(WATER RESOURCES)

cgq mn~ns’kh; unh ifj;kstuk,¡ ¼Multi Purpose River Valley
Projects½
       ty lalk/kuksa ds mfpr izcU/k rFkk vdky o ck<+ dh leL;kvksa ds
funku o lek/kku ds fy, ufn;ksa ds ty dks fu;af=r djds mlls ,d lkFk dbZ
mn~ns’;ksa dh iwwfrZ ds fy, lefUor iz;kl dks cgq mn~ns’kh; unh
?kkVh ifj;kstuk dgrs gSA
ty     lalk/kuksa     dk   laj{k.k   rFkk    izcU/ku¼Conservation   and
Management of Water Resources½
       ty dh lhfer miyC/krk vleku forj.k ty fjarj c<+rh ekax rFkk ty dk
fujarj c<+rk iznw”k.k vkfn ,sls dkj.k gS tks fd gesa ty ds laj{k.k dq’ky
izcU/ku vkSj ty lqj{kk ds mik;ksa dks viukus ij cy nsrs gSA


ty laj{k.k ds mik; ¼Ways to Conserve water½
     1- ty laxzg.k ds fy, vf/kd ls vf/kd tyk’k;ksa dk fuekZ.kA
     2- ,d unh csflu ls nwljs unh csflu esa ty dk LFkkukUrj.k A
     3- vUrjkZT;h; ty fooknksa dks tYn ls tYn fuiVkukA
     4- HkkSe ty Lrj dks mBkus ds mik; djuk A
     5- iznwf”kr ty dk mipkj djds mls ckxokuh /kqykbZ vkfn dk;ksZ dk
       iz;ksx djukA
ck¡/k ¼DAM½
       ck¡/k cgrs ty dks jksdus fn’kk nsus ;k cgko de djus dk fy, [kM+h
dh xbZ ck/kk gSA vktdy cka/k dk mi;ksx flQZ flapkbZ ds fy, ugha
vfirq mudk mn~ns’; fo|qr mRiknu] ?kjsyw vkSj vkS|ksfxd mi;ksx ty
vkiwfrZ] ck<+ fu;aU=.k] euksjatu] vkarfjd ukSpkyu vkSj eNyh ikyu
Hkh gSA

                                                                      27
ck¡/k & vk/kqfud Hkkjr ds eafnj ¼Dam – Temples of Modern
India½
     tokgj yky usg: us dgk D;ksfd buds ek/;e ls mifuos’k dky esa cuh
ck/kkvksa dks ikj djrs gq, ns’k dks fodkl vkSj le`f) ds jkLrs ij ys tkus
okys okgu ds :i esa ns[kk x;k A
o”kkZ ty laxzg.k ¼Rain Water Harvesting½
     o”kkZ ds ty dks lafpr djds Hkwfexr ty dh {kerk dks c<+kus dh
rduhd dks o”kkZ ty laxzg.k dgrs gSA
ty laxzg.k ds mn~ns’; A
  1- ty dh c<+rh ekax dks iwjk djukA
  2- /kjkry ij ty cgko dks fu;af=r djukA
  3- HkkSe ty ds ty Lrj esa o`n~f/k djukA


ty laHkj fodkl ¼Water shed Development½
     ty laHkj lgk;d unh nzks.kh gS tc o”kkZ gksrh gS rc cgrk gqvk ty
blls gksdj fdlh u fdlh unh esa fey tkrk gS bldk mn~ns’; feV~Vh vkSj
vknzZrk dk laj{k.k] ty laxzg.k o o`{kkjksi.k vkfn dk;ZØe dks ‘kkfey
djuk gSA
ikyj ikuh ¼Pallar Pani½
     jktLFkku ds v/kZ’kq”d vkSj ‘kq”d {ks=ksa esa o”kkZty dks ikyj
ikuh ds uke ls iqdkjrs gS ftldksa izkd`frd ty dk ‘kq)re :i le>k tkrk gSA
  1- ty nqyZHkrk D;k gS \
  2- ty fdl izdkj uohdj.k ;ksX; lalk/ku gS \
  3- ijaijkxr o”kkZ ty laxzg.k ls vki D;k le>rs gS \
  4- Hkk[kM+k ukaxy cka/k ifj;kstuk ij izdk’k Mkfy, \
  5- ty pØ.k ls vki D;k le>rs gS \


CHAPTER -4
                                                                           28
d`f”k ¼AGRICULTURE½

d`f”k ¼Agriculture½ &
     d`f”k ‘kCn dk vFkZ gS ^Hkwfe dh tqrkbZ* blds vUrxZr Qlysa
mRiUu djuk] i’kqikyu] okfudh rFkk eRL; ikyu lfEefyr gSA d`f”k dh
n`f”V ls Hkkjr ,d egRoiw.kZ ns’k gSA bldh nks frgkbZ tula[;k d`f”k
dk;ksZ esa layXu gSA d`f”k Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk dh jh<+ gSA dqy
?kjsyw mRikn esa bldk 26 izfr’kr ;ksxnku gSA

‘kqn~/k cks;k x;k {ks= ¼Net Sown Area½ &
    o”kZ esa ,d ckj cksbZ xbZ Hkwfe dks ‘kq} cks;k x;k {ks= dgrs
gSaA ‘kq} cks, x, {ks= dh n`f”V ls Hkkjr dk fo’o esa igyk LFkku gSA

Hkkjrh; d`f”k dh izeq[k fo’ks”krk,W ¼Main Features of Indian
Agriculture½&
&    d`f”k dk vf/kdrj Hkkx ekulwuh ckfj’k ij fuHkZj djrk gSA
&    d`f”k mRiknu esa vf/kdrj [kkn~; Qlysa gh mxk;h tkrh gSaA
&    vk/kqfud rduhdsa viukbZ xbZ gSa ijUrq d`f”k; xfrfof/k;ksa esa
     i’kq egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSaA
&    vf/kd iSnkokj ds fy, moZjdks] dhVuk’kdksa vkfn dk mi;ksx c<+
     x;k gSA
&    vk/kqfud fuos’k ds iz;ksx ls Hkkjr esa gfjr ØkfUr vkbZ gSA

‘kL; _rq,W ¼Cropping Season½ &
1& [kjhQ ¼Kharif½ & [kjhQ Qlysa ekulwu ds izkjEHk ls ysdj
     ‘khr_rq ds vkxeu ¼vDVwcj&uoEcj½ rd mxkbZ tkrh gSaA pkoy]
     eDdk] eksVk vukt] dikl]vkfn blds mnkgj.k gSaA
2& jch ¼Rabi½& jch Qlyksa dks ‘khr _rq esa vDVwcj ls fnlEcj ds
     e/; cks;k tkrk gS vkSj xzh”e _rq esa vizSy ls twu ds e/; dkVk
     tkrk gSA xsgWw] tkS] eVj] puk vkfn jch Qlysa gSaA
3& tk;n ¼Zaid½& jch vkSj [kjhQ Qly _rqvksa ds chp xzh”e _rq esa
     cksbZ tkus okyh Qlyksa dks tk;n dgk tkrk gSA blesa eq[;r%
     [kjcwts] rjcwt] [khjs] lfCt;ka vkSj pkjs dh Qlyksa dh [ksrh dh tkrh
     gSA


izkSn~;ksfxdh vkSj laLFkkxr            lq/kkj    ¼Technological     and
    Institutional Reforms½&

izkSn~;ksfxdh; lq/kkj & d½ jklk;fud moZjdksa ds lkFk lkFk tSo
[kknksa dk iz;ksx A
                                                                      29
[k½ uydwi ikuh dh O;oLFkk] fo|qr uydwi dk iz;ksxA
x½ VªSDVj gSjkas] Fksz’kj vkfn dk iz;ksx A
?k½ fMªi flapkbZ vkSj QOokjksa dh flpkabZ dk iz;ksxA
M+½ iDdh lM+ds vkSj rhoz ifjogu lk/kuksa dk iz;ksxA

laLFkkxr lq/kkj %&d½ ljdkj }kjk fdlkuksa dks le; le; ij vusd lqfo/kk,a
miyC/k djkbZ xbZA gfjr Økafr] ‘osr Øakfr tSls vusd dk;ZØe vkjEHk fd,
x,A
[k½ NksVh [ksrksa dh pdcUnh dj vkfFkZ :i ls mi;ksxh cuk;k x;kA
x½ jsfM;ksa vkSj nwjn’kZu }kjk fdlkuksa dks [ksrh dh ubZ vk/kqfud
vkSj la’kksf/kr rduhdksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh iznku djukA
?k½ vfuf’prrk nwj djus ds fy, ljdkj }kjk Qlyksa ds U;wure ewY;
fu/kkZfjr fd, x, gSA

eksVs vukt ¼Millets½& Tokj] cktjk vkSj jkxh Hkkjr esa mxk, tkus
okys eq[; eksVs vukt gS ;|fi bUgs eksVk vukt dgk tkrk gS ijUrq buesa
iks”kd rRoksa dh ek=k vR;f/kd gksrh gSA
nkysa ¼Pulses½& Hkkjr fo’o esa nkyksa dk lclsa cM+k mRiknd rFkk
miHkksDrk ns’k gS A buesa lcls vf/kd izksVhu gksrh gSA nkyksa dks
de ueh dh vko’;drk gksrh gSA vkSj bUgs ‘kq”d ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa Hkh
mxk;k tkrk gSA rqj] mM+n] ew¡x] elwj] eVj Hkkjr dh eq[; nyguh Qlysa
gSA bu Qlyksa dks vkerkSj ij vU; Qlyksa ds vkorZu ¼Rotation) esa
cks;k tkrk gSA

vjok| Qlysa ¼Non Food Crops½&
jcM+ ¼Rubber½ & jcM+ Hkwe/;js[kh; {ks= dh Qly gS ijUrq fo’ks”k
ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa m”.k vkSj miks”.k {ks=ksa esa Hkh mxkbZ tkrh gSA
bldksa 200 lseh ls vf/kd o”kkZ vkSj 25 lsfYl;l ls vf/kd rkieku okyh ue
vknzZ tyok;q dh vko’;drk gksrh gSA bUghs dkj.kksa ls dukZVd jcM+
mRiknu ds ekeysa esa vxz.kh jkT; gSA

twV ¼Jute½ & twV] tks lqugjk js’kk dgk tkrk gSA twV dh Qly ck<+ ds
eSnkuksa esa tyfudkl okyh moZjd feV~Vh esa mxkbZ tkrh gSA tgka
gj o”kZ ck<+ ls vkbZ ubZ feV~Vh tek gksrh jgrh gSA

pk; ¼Tea½ & ;g ,d jksiM+ d`f”k dk mnkgj.k gS pk; dk ikS/kk m”.k
vkSj miks”.k dfVca/kh; tyok;q âqel vkSj thoka’k ;qDr xgjh feV~Vh esa
mxk;k tkrk gSA blds fy, ue vkSj ikykjfgr tyok;q dh vko’;drk gksrh gSA

iz01 d`f”k D;k gS \
iz02 [kkn ,oa moZjd esa vUrj Li”V dhft, \
                                                                    30
iz03 LFkkukUrj.k d`f”k ls D;k le>rs gSa \
iz04 iatkc esa xsgWw dh iSnkokj vf/kd gksrh gS D;ksa \
iz05 vkijs’ku ¶yM ls vki D;k le>rs gSA \




CHAPTER. (5)

[kfut ,oa ÅtkZ lalk/ku
(Minerals and Energy Resources)

[kfut (Minerals) & [kfut ,d izkd`frd :i ls fo|eku le:i rRo gS ftldh ,d fuf’pr
vkarfjd lajpuk gSA [kfut ds nks izdkj gS& /kkfRod vkSj v/kkfRod
[kfutA
ykSg v;Ld (Iron Ore) & ykSg v;Ld ,d vk/kkj Hkwr [kfut gS rFkk
vkS|ksfxd fodkl dh jh<+ gSA Hkkjr esa ykSg v;Ld ds foiqy lalk/ku
fo|eku gSA Hkkjr mPp dkssfV ds yksgka’k;qDr ykSg v;Ld esa /kuh
gSA NRrhlx<+ ds cLrj ftys esa csykfMyk igkM+h Ja`[kykvksa esa vfr
mRre dksfV dk gsesVkbV ik;k tkrk gSA
rkack (Copper) & Hkkjr esa rkacs ds HkaMkj o mRiknu Økafrd :i ls
U;wu gSA /kkro/;Z rU; vkSj iki lqpkyd gksus ds dkj.k rkacs dk mi;ksx
eq[;r% fctyh ds rkj cukus] bysDVªkfuDl vkSj jlk;u m|ksxksa esa fd;k
tkrk gS A e/; izns’k dh ckyk?kkV [knkusa ns’k dk yxHkx 52 izfr’kr
rkack mRiUu djrh gSA >kj[ka.M dk falagHkwe ftyk Hkh rkacs dk eq[;
mRiknd gSA
[kfutksa dk laj{k.k (Conversation of Minerals) &
                                                                           31
     [kfutksa dk laj{k.k blfy, vko’;d gS D;ksafd ;g lhfer rFkk vuohdj.k
;ksX; gS] [kfut fuekZ.k dh HkwxfHkZd izfØ;k,W bruh /kheh gSa fd
muds iquHkZj.k dh nj vifjfer :i ls FkksM+h gSA laj{k.k dh fof/k;kW &
&    gesa budk mi;ksx lqfu;ksftr rjhds ls djuk gksxkA
&    [kuu rFkk lalkf/kr djrs le; budh cckZnh ugh djuh pkfg,A
&    /kkrqvksa ds iqu% pØ.k dks izksRlkgu nsuk pkfg,A
ijaijkxr ÅtkZ lzksr ¼Conventional Sources of Energy½ &
     ijaijkxr lk/kuks esa ydM+h] miys] dks;yk] isVªksfy;e] izkd`frd xSl
rFkk fo|qr lfEefyr gSaA
dks;yk ¼Coal½ & Hkkjr esa dks;yk cgqrk;r esa ik;k tkrk gSA ;g
thok’e bZ/ku ÅtkZ dk egRoiw.kZ L=ksr gSA bls dkyk lksuk Hkh dgrs
gSaA Hkkjr viuh okf.kfT;d ÅtkZ vko’;drkvksa dh iwfrZ gsrq eq[;r%
dks;ys ij fuHkZj gSA


isVªksfy;e ¼Petroleum½ &
     Hkkjr esa dks;ysa ds i’pkr~ ÅtkZ dk nwljk lk/ku isVªksfy;e ;k
[kfut rsy gSA ;g rki o izdk’k ds fy, bZa/ku] e’khuksa dks Lusgd vkSj
vusd fofuekZ.k m|ksxks dks dPpk eky iznku djrk gSA Hkkjr esa dqy
isVªksfy;e mRiknu dk 63 izfr’kr Hkkx eqEcbZ gkbZ ls] 18 izfr0 xqtjkr
ls vkSj 16 izfr0 vle ls izkIr gksrk gSA


ijek.kq ÅtkZ ¼Nuclear Energy½ &
     fu;af=r fn’kkvksa esa ijek.kq ds fo[kaMu }kjk izkIr ÅtkZ ;k ijek.kq
ds ukfHkd ¼Nucleus½ esa ifjorZu ykdj izkIr gksus okyh ÅtkZ dks
ijek.kq ÅtkZ dgrs gSaA bldk mi;ksx fo|qr ÅtkZ mRiUu djus esa fd;k
tkrk gSA Hkkjr esa 6 ukfHkdh; ÅtkZ LVs’ku gSA blhfy, Hkkjr es bldk
mTtoy Hkfo”; gSA

                                                                      32
xSj&ijaijkxr ÅtkZ lzksr ¼Non-conventional Energy Source ½ -
      uohdj.k ;ksX; ÅtkZ lalk/ku tSls lkSj ÅtkZ] iou ÅtkZ] Tokjh; ÅtkZ]
tSfod ÅtkZ rFkk vof’k”V inkFkZ tfur ÅtkZ ds mi;ksx dh cgqr t:jr gSA
;s ÅtkZ ds xSj& ijaijkxr lk/ku dgykrs gSaA


lkSj&ÅtkZ ¼Solar Energy½ -
      Hkkjr ,d m”.k&dfVca/kh; ns’k gSA ;gkW lkSj ÅtkZ ds nksgu dh
vlhe laHkkouk,W gSaA [kkldj fd if’peh Hkkjr esa D;ksafd Fkkj e:LFky
blh {ks= esa gSA Hkkjr dk lcls cM+k lkSj ÅtkZ la;a= Hkqt ds fudV
ek/kkiqj esa fLFkr gS] tgkW lkSj ÅtkZ ls nw/k ds cM+s crZuksa dks
dhVk.kqeqDr fd;k tkrk gSA
iou ÅtkZ ¼Wind Energy½ -
      Hkkjr dks vc fo’o esa ^iou egk’kfDr* (Wind Energy) dk ntkZ izkIr
gS D;ksafd iou ÅtkZ ds izHkkoh iz;ksx ls fo|qr mRiknu vkSj iEi }kjk
[ksrksa dh flapkbZ dh tkrh gSA Hkkjr esa iou ÅtkZ dh fo’kkyre isVh
rfeyukMq esa ukxjdksby ls enqjbZ rd vofLFkr gsA blds vfrfjDr xqtjkr]
dukZVd] y{knhi] dsjy] egkjk”Vª esa Hkh egRoiw.kZ iou ÅtkZ QkeZ
gSA


Ckk;ksxSl ¼Bio-Gas½ -
      Ckk;ksxSl dk mRiknu >kfM+;ksa] d`f”k vif’k”V] i'kqvksa vkSj
ekuo tfur vif’k”V ds mi;ksx gsrq dh tkrh gS ;g T;knkrj xzkeh.k
bykdksa esa iz;ksx dh tkrh gSA D;ksafd blls fdlku nks izdkj ls
ykHkkafor gksrs gSA ,d ÅtkZ ds :i esa vkSj nwljk mUur izdkj ds
moZjd ds :i esA




                                                                     33
Hkw&rkih; ÅtkZ ¼Geo Thermal Energy½
     i`Foh ds vkarfjd Hkkxksa ls rki dk iz;ksx dj mRiUu dh tkus okyh
fo|qr dks Hkw rkih; ÅtkZ dgrs gSA Hkkjr esa lSdM+ksa xeZ ikuh ds
p’esa gS ftudks fo|qr mRiknu ds iz;ksax esa yk;k tkrk gSA blds fy,
Hkkjr esa izk;ksfxd ifj;kstuk,a ‘kq: dh xbZ gSA ,d fgekpy izns’k ds
ef.kdj.k ds fudV ikoZrh ?kkVh esa fLFkr gS rFkk nwljh y|k[k esa iwxk
?kkVh esa fLFkr gSA


[kuu ?kkrd m|ksx ¼Mining Kills Industry½
     [knkuksa esa dke djus okys Jfed yxkrkj /kwy o gkfudkjd /kq,a
esa lkal ysrs gq, QsQM+kas lacU/kh chekfj;ksa ds f’kdkj gks tkrs gS
[knku {ks=ksa esa [kuu ds dkj.k ty L=ksr lan~f”kr gks tkrs gSA blls
ufn;ksa esa iznw”k.k Hkh c<+rk gSA
iz01 vkXus; rFkk dk;karfjr pV~Vkuksa esa [kfutksa dk fuekZ.k dSls
gksrk gS \
iz02 Hkkjr esa dks;ys ds forj.k dk o.kZu dhft, \
iz03 Iyslj fu{ksi ls vki D;k le>rs gS \
iz04 jSV gksy [kuu D;k gS \
iz05 yksgs rFkk vykSg [kfjt esa D;k varj gS \



CHAPTER. (6)

fofuekZ.k m|ksx
(Manufacturing Industries)

fofuekZ.k (Manufacturing) &
     dPps inkFkZ dks ewY;kou mRiknu esa ifjofrZr dj vf/kd ek=k es
oLrqvksa ds mRiknu dks oLrq fuekZ.k ;k fofuekZ.k dgrs gsS fdlh ns’k
dh vkfFkZd mUufr fofuekZ.k m|ksxksa ds fodkl ls ekih tkrh gSA
                                                                  34
fofuekZ.k dk egRo (Importance of Manufacturing) &
      fofuekZ.k m|ksx lkekUr% fodkl dh rFkk fo’ks”kr% vkfFkZd fodkl
dh jh<+ le>s tkrs gSaA d`f”k rFkk m|ksx ,d nwljs ls i`Fkd ugha cfYd
,d nwljs ds iwjd gSaA mnkgj.kkFkZ Hkkjr esa d`f”k ij vk/kkfjr
m|ksxksa us d`f”k iSnkokj c<+ksRrjh dks izksRlkfgr fd;k gSA ;s
m|ksx dPps eky ds fy, d`f”k ij fuHkZj gS rFkk buds nksckjk mRikn
tSls moZjd flapkbZ ds fy, iai vkfn ij fdlku fuHkZj gSA




d`f”k vk/kkfjr m|ksx (Agro Based Insdustries) &
      lwrh oL=] iVlu js’ke Åuh oL= phuh vkfn m|ksx tks d`f”k ls izkIr
dPps eky ij vk/kkfjr gS mUgsa d`f”k vk/kkfjr m|ksx dgrs gSA budh
Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk esa egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk gS D;ksfd bu lHkh dh
Hkkxhnkjh Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oFkk esa yxHkx vk/kh gSA
lwrh oL= m|ksx (Cotton Textile Industries) &
      Hkkjr esa lwrh oL= m|ksx dk viuk egRo gS D;ksafd fo’o O;kikj
esa gekjs ns’k dh Hkkxhnkjh dkQh egRoiw.kZ gSA ;g dqy
vUrjkZ”Vªh; O;kikj dk yxHkx ,d pkSFkkbZ Hkkx gSA xka/khth Hkh
lwrh oL= dks T;knk egRo nsrs Fks D;ksafd gkFk ls cuh [kknh dqVhj
m|ksx ds :i esa cqudjksa dks muds ?kjksa esa cM+sa iSekus ij
jkstxkj iznku djkrk Fkk] ijUrq vkt Hkh lwrh oL= m|ksx dqN izeq[k
ladVksa ls tw> jgk gS tSls dh cqukbZ vkSj drkbZ rFkk izØe.k bdkb;k¡
ns’k esa mRiUu fd, x, mPp dksfV ds /kkxs dk mi;ksx ugha dj ikrh
gSA
vf/kdrj NksVh o fc[kjh gqbZ bdkb;ka gS ftldk mRiknu LFkkuh; cktkj
dh ekax dks gh iwjk dj ikrk gSA ;g bl m|ksx dh lcls cM+h deh gSA
iVlu m|ksx (Jute Industries) &

                                                                   35
     Hkkjr iVlu o iVlu fufeZr lkeku dk lcls cM+k mRiknd gS rFkk
ckaXykns’k ds i’pkr~ nwljk cM+k fu;kZrd Hkh gSA Hkkjr ds yxHkx 70
iVlu m|ksx vf/kdka’k if’pe caxky esa gqxyh unh rV ij 98 fdeh yach
rFkk 3 fdeh pkSM+h ,d ladkjh es[kyk esa fLFkr gS gqxyh unh rV ij
buds fLFkr gksus ds fuEu dkj.k gS iVlu mRiknd {ks=ksa dh fudVrk]
lLrk ty ifjogu] lM+d jsy o ty ifjogu dk tky] dPps eky dks feyksa rd ys
tkus esa lgk;d gksuk izpqj ek=k esa ty] lhekorhZ jkT;ksa ls lLrk Jfed
miyC/k gksukA
phuh m|ksx (Sugar Industry) &
     Hkkjr dk phuh mRiknu eas fo’o esa nwljk LFkku gSA ysfdu
xqM o [kkaMlkjh ds mRiknu esa bldk izFke LFkku gSA ns’k esa 460
ls vf/kd phuh feysa gSa tks mRrj izns’k] fcgkj] iatkc vkfn jkT;ksa esa
QSyh gSa ysfdu fiNys dqN o”kksZ ls bu feyksa dh la[;k nf{k.kh vkSj
if’peh jkT; fo’ks”kdj egkjk”Vª esa c<+h gSA bldk eq[; dkj.k ;gkW ds
xUus esa vf/kd lwØksl dh ek=k gS] BaMh tyok;q Hkh xq.kdkjh gSA
blds vfrfjDr bu jkT;ksa esa lgdkjh lfefr;k¡ Hkh lQy jgh gSaA
yksgk rFkk bLikr m|ksx (Iron & Steel Industry) &
     yksgk rFkk bLIkkr m|ksx ,d vk/kkjHkwr ¼Basic½ m|ksx gS
D;ksafd vU; lHkh Hkkjh] gYds vkSj e/;e m|ksx buls cuh e’khujh ij
fuHkZj gS] fofo/k izdkj ds bathfu;fjax lkeku] fuekZ.k lkexzh] j{kk]
fpfdRlk vkfn fofHkUu miHkksDrk oLrqvksa ds fuekZ.k ds fy, bLikr dh
vko’;drk gksrh gSA bLikr ds mRiknu rFkk [kir dks izk;% ,d ns’k ds
fodkl dk iSekuk ekuk tkrk gSA yksgk rFkk bLikr ,d Hkkjh m|ksx gS
D;ksafd blesa iz;qDr dPpk rFkk rS;kj eky nksuks gh Hkkjh vkSj
LFkwy gksrs gSaA blfy, ;g m|ksx lkoZtfud {ks= ds vUrxZr fufeZr gSA
NksVk ukxiqj ds iBkjh {ks= eas vf/kdka’k yksgk rFkk bLikr m|ksx
ladsafnzr gSA bl izns’k esa bl m|ksx ds fodkl ds fy, vuqdwy lkisf{kr
ifjfLFkfr;kW gSaA buesa ykSg v;Ld dh de ykxr] mPp dksfV ds dPps
                                                                    36
eky dh fudVrk] lLrs Jfed vkSj LFkkuh; cktkj esa buds ekWx dh fo’kky
laHkkO;rk lfEefyr gSaA


jlk;u m|ksx (Chemical Industries) &
     Hkkjr esa jlk;u m|ksx rsth ls fodflr gks jgk gS rFkk QSy jgk gSA
bldh Hkkxhnkjh ldy ?kjsyw mRikn esa yxHkx 3 izfr’kr gSA ;g m|ksx
,f’k;k dk rhljk cM+k rFkk fo’o esa vkdkj dh n`f”V ls 12osa LFkku ij
gSA ;g vius vki esa ,d cM+k m|ksx gSA
lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh rFkk bySDVªkWfud m|ksx (Information
Technology & Electronics Industry) &
     ;g m|ksx Hkkjr esa cgqr rsth ls iSj ilkj jgk gSA           lwpuk
izkS|ksfxdh m|ksx esa yxs O;fDr;ksa dh la[;k 10 yk[k ls Hkh vf/kd gS
tks vxys 3 ls 4 o”kksZ esa ;g la[;k 8 xq.kk gksus dh laHkkouk,W
gSaA fiNys nks ;k rhu o”kksZ ls ;g m|ksx fons’kh eqnzk izkIr djus dk
,d egRoiw.kZ lk/ku cu x;k gSA
vkS|ksfxd iznw”k.k (Industrial Pollution) &
     vkfFkZd fodkl esa fuekZ.k m|ksxks dk ;ksxnku egRoiw.kZ gSA
fQj Hkh m|ksxks us vR;f/kd iznw”k.k c<+k fn;k gS vkSj bl izdkj
i;kZoj.k dk {kj.k fd;k gSA ;g m|ksx pkj izdkj ds iznw”k.k   mRiUu djrs
gSa & ok;q] ty] Hkwfe rFkk /ofuA


1&   fofuekZ.k D;k gS \
2&   m|ksxks dh vofLFkfr dks izHkkfor djus okys rhu dkj.k crk,sa \
3&   vk/kkjHkwr m|ksx D;k gS \
4&   m|ksx i;kZoj.k dks dSls iznwf”kr djrs gSa \
5&   LokfeRo ds vk/kkj ij m|ksxks dk o.kZu dhft, \



                                                                     37
CHAPTER - 7
jk”Vªh; vFkZO;oLFkk dh thou js[kk,W
(LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY)

Lof.kZe prqHkqZt jk”Vªh; jktekxZ ¼Golden Quadilateral Super
Highway½
     fnYyh & dksydkrk] psUubZ&eqEcbZ o fnYyh dks tksM+us okyh
6 ysu okyh lM+d ifj;kstuk ftldk mn~ns’; Hkkjr dh esxkflVh ds e/; dh
nwjh o ifjogu le; dks U;wure djukA

lhekar lM+dsa ¼Border Roads½ &
     Hkkjr ljdkj ds v/khu 1960 esa cuk;k x;k lhek lM+d laxBu
¼Border Road Organisation½ ftldk mn~ns’; lhekar lM+dksa dk
fuekZ.k o mudh ns[kjs[k djukA

lM+d ?kuRo ¼Road Density½ &
     izfr lkS oxZ fdeh {ks= esa lM+dksa dh yackbZ dks lM+d ?kuRo
dgrs gSaA o”kZ 1996&97 ds vuqlkj vkSlr jk”Vªh; lM+d ?kuRo 75
fdeh izfr 100 oxZ fdeh rd gSA

jsy ifjogu ¼Rail Transport½ &
      fiNys 150 o”kksZ ls Hkh vf/kd le; ls Hkkjrh; jsy ,d egRoiw.kZ
leao;d ds :i esa tkuh tkrh gS tks vusd dk;ksZ tSls& O;kikj] Hkze.k]
rhFkZ ;k=kvksa esa lgk;d gSA ;g gekjs ns’k esa lkoZtfud {ks= dk lcls
cM+k miØe gSA mRrj Hkkjr esa jsy ifjogu dk tky blfy, T;knk gS
D;ksafd mRrjh eSnku foLr`r lery Hkwfe] l?ku tula[;k ?kuRo] lEiUu
d`f”k o izpqj lalk/kuksa ds dkj.k jsy ifjogu ds fodkl o o`f) esa lgk;d jgk
gSA fQj Hkh jsy ifjogu dh vis{kk lM+d ifjogu dh T;knk egRrk gS
D;ksafd &
&     ;kr;kr vkSj oLrqvksa dks gekjs ?kj rd ykrh gSA
&     jsyos ykbu dh vis{kk lM+dksa dh fuekZ.k ykxr cgqr de gSA
&     de O;fDr;ksa] de nwjh o de oLrqvksa ds ifjogu esa lM+d ferR;;h
gSA

                                                                        38
&    lM+d ifjogu] vU; ifjogu lk/kuksa ds mi;ksx esa ,d dM+h ds :i esa
Hkh dk;Z djrk
     gSA
ikbiykbu ¼Pipeline½ &
     igys ikbiykbu dk mi;ksx “kgjksa esa ikuh dks igqWpkus ds fy,
gksrk Fkk ijUrq orZeku esa bldk iz;ksx dPpk rsy] isVªksy mRikn rFkk
rsy ls izkIr izkd`frd rFkk xSl {ks= ls miyC/k xSl “kks/ku”kkykvks]
moZjd dkj[kkus o cM+s rki fo|qr x`gksa rd igqWpkus esa fd;k tkrk
gSA bldks fcNkus dh izkjafHkd ykxr vf/kd gS ysfdu bldks pykus dh
ykxr U;wure gSA

ty ifjogu ¼Water Transport½ &
       ty ifjogu] ifjogu dk lcls lLrk lk/ku gSA ;g Hkkjh o LFkwydk;
oLrq,W <ksus esa vuqdwy gSA ;g ifjogu lk/kuksa esa ÅtkZ l{ke rFkk
i;kZoj.k vuqdwy gSA ns’k dk 95 izfr’kr O;kikj ¼eqnzk :i esa 68
izfr’kr½ ty ifjogu dh lgk;rk ls gksrk gSA

ok;q ifjogu ¼Air Transport½ &
      ok;q ifjogu rhozre] vkjkenk;d o izfrf”Br ifjogu dk lk/ku gSA blds
}kjk vfr nqxZe LFkkuksa tSls ÅWps ioZr] e:LFkyksa] ?kus taxyksa o
yacs leqnzh jkLrks dks lqxerk ls ikj fd;k tk ldrk gSA blhfy, ns’k ds
mRrj iwohZ jkT;ksa esa bldk vf/kd mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

lapkj lsok,W ¼Communication½ &
     lapkj dk vFkZ nwjLFk yksxks ls fopkj] lwpuk,W rFkk lans’k
vknku&iznku djuk gSA

fyf[kr lapkj& blds vUrxZr i=] iksLV dkMZ] vUrnsZ”kh; fyQkQk vkfn
vkrs gSaA dkMZ o fyQkQk can fpV~Bh dks igyh Js.kh dh Mkd le>h
tkrh gSA rhoz Mkd fudklh ds fy, N% Mkd ekxZ&jkt/kuh ekxZ]
eSVªks pSuy] xzhu pSuy] O;kikj pSuy] Hkkjh pSuy rFkk nLrkost
pSuy gky gh esa cuk, x, gSaA

tu lapkj& blds vUrxZr nwjn’kZu] vkdk’kok.kh] dEI;wVj] i=] if=dk,W
vkfn vkrh gSaA blesa jsfM;ksa vkSj pyfp= Hkh lfEefyr gSaA
nwjn”kZu] ns”k dk jk’Vªh; lekpkj o lans”k ek/;e gS rFkk fo’o ds c`gRre
lapkj ra= esa ,d gSA

nwj lapkj& nwj lapkj ra- eas Hkkjr ,f’k;k egk}hi esa vxz.kh gSA uxjh;
{ks=ksa ds vfrfjDr] Hkkjr ds nks frgkbZ ls vf/kd xkWo ,l0Vh0Mh0

                                                                     39
¼STD½ lsok ls tqM+s gSaA blds fy, ljdkj us ns’k ds gj xkWo esa
,l0Vh0Mh0 lsok iznku djus ds fy, fo’ks”k izca/k fd, gSaA

varjkZ”Vªh; O;kikj ¼International Trade½ &
      jkT;ksa o ns’kksa esa O;fDr;ksa ds chp oLrqvksa dk vknku
iznku O;kikj dgykrk gSA nks ns’kksa ds e/; ;g varjkZ’Vªh; O;kikj
dgykrk gSA ,d ns”k ds varjkZ”Vªh; O;kikj dh izxfr mlds vkfFkZd
oSHko dk lwpd gSA blhfy, bls jk’Vª dk vkfFkZd cSjksehVj Hkh dgk
tkrk gSA vk;kr vkSj fu;kZr O;kikj ds ?kVd gSaA vk;kr o fu;kZr dk
varj gh ns”k ds O;kikj larqyu dks fu/kkZfjr djrk gSA

i;ZVu&,d O;kikj ds :i esa ¼Tourism as a Trade½ &
      fiNys rhu n’kdks esa Hkkjr esa i;ZVu m|ksx esa egRoiw.kZ o`f)
gqbZ gSA i;ZVu jk’Vªh; ,drk dks izksRlkfgr djrk gS rFkk LFkkuh;
gLrdyk o lkaLd`frd m|eksa dks izJ; nsrk gSA fons”kh i;ZVd Hkkjr esa
fojklr i;ZVu] ikfj&i;ZVu] jksekapdkjh i;ZVu] lkaLd`frd i;ZVu] fpfdRlk
i;ZVu rFkk O;kikfjd i;ZVu ds fy, vkrs gSaA

iz01   Hkkjr ds rhu jkVªh; ty ekxZ ds ckjs esa crkb;s \
iz02   LFkkuh; o vUrjkZ’Vªh; O;kikj esa D;k vUrj gS \
iz03   jsy ifjogu orZeku esa fdu leL;kvksa ls tw> jgk gS \
iz04   Hkkjr esa ikbiykbZu ds rhu izeq[k tky crkb;s \
iz05   ifjogu fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gSa \

Map Work

  - Locate the following items in the given political outline map of India.
  1- Churichura
  2- Bardoli
  3- Koynadam
  4- Rawat Bhata (Nuclear Power Plant)
  5- Salem (Iron and Steel Plant)
  6- Bhowneshwar (Software Technology Park)




                                                                         40
Locate the following items in the given political outline map of India
   1- Champaran
   2- Amrit sar
   3- Hira Kund- Dam
   4- Tarapur – (Nuclear Pawer Plant )
   5- Bhadrawati –Iron and Steel Plant
   6- Hydrabad Software Technology Park




Locate the following items in the given political outline map of India

   1- Digboi(Oil Field)
                                                                         41
2-   Siv sagar(Oil Field)
3-   Tuticorin (SeePort)
4-   Ankaleshwar(Oil field)
5-   KakraPara (Nuclear)
6-   Burnpur(Iron & Steel Plant)
7-   Bokaro (Iron & Steel Plant)
8-   Jamshedpur (Iron & Steel Plant)
9-   Raurkela (Iron & Steel Plant)




                                       42
              v/;k; & 1

lÙkk dh lk>snkjh ¼Power Sharing½

yksdrkaf=d O;oLFkk esa lÙkk ds c¡Vokjs ls fofHkUu lkekftd lewgksa ds chpVdjko
dh vk'kadk de gks tkrh gSA lkekftd Vdjko vkxs pydj fgalk vkSj jktuhfr vfLFkjrk dk
:i ys ysrk gSA vr% lÙkk esa fgLlk ns nsuk lHkhjktuhfrd O;oLFkk ds LFkkf;Ro
ds fy;s vPNk gksrk gSA
csfYt;e rFkk Jhyadk & ¼ Belgium and Srilanka½ csfYt;e ;wjksi dk ,d NksVk lk
ns'k gSA ns'k dh dqy vkcknh dk 59% yksx Mp Hkk"kh gS]40 % yksx Ýsap vkSj
Mp cksyus okys lewgksa ds chp ruko c<+us yxkA bunksuksa leqnk;ksa ds chp
Vdjko dk lcls rh[kk :i jkt/kkuh cwlsYl esa fn[kkAcsfYt;e dh le>nkjh ls bl LkeL;k dks
lqy>k;k x;kA csfYt;e ds usrkvks
aus {ks=h; varjksa rFkk lkaLd`frd fofo/krk dks Lohdkj fd;k 1970 ls 1993 dschp
mUgksaus vius lafo/kku esa pkj la'kks/ku fd;s ftldh eq[; ckrsa fuEufyf[kr gS &
1- lafo/kku esa bl ckr dk Li"V izko/kku gS fd dsUnzh; ljdkj esa Mp vkSj ÝsaHkk"kh
eaf=;ksa dh la[;k leku gksxhA dqN fo'ks"k dkuwu rHkh cu ldrs gSa tcnksuks
Hkk"kk;h lewg ds lkalnksa dk cgqer mlds i{k esa gksA

2-dsUnzh; ljdkj dh vusd 'kfDr;k¡ ns'k ds nksuksa {ks=ksa dh ljdkjksa dks ns nh
xbZ] ;kuh jkT; ljdkjsa dsUnzh; ljdkj ds vk/khu ugha gSaA

3-lafo/kku esa ;g Hkh izko/kku fd;k x;k gS fd jkt/kkuh cwlsYl esa vyx ljdkj
gksxh ftlesa nksuksa leqnk;ksa ¼Mp rFkk Ýsap½ dk leku izfrfuf/kRo gksxkA

4-dsUnz ,oa jkT; ljdkjksa ds vfrfjDr ,d rhljs Lrj dh ljdkj gksxh ftls lkeqnkf;d ljdkj
dgk x;k gSA bldk pquko rhuksa Hkk"kk;h leqnk; ds yksx djsaxsA bl ljdkj dks
laLd`fr] Hkk"kk ,oa f'k{kk vkfn fOk"k;ksa ij fu.kZ; ysus dk vf/kdkj gksxkA

Jhyadk esa cgqla[;dokn & ¼Majoritarianism in Srilanka½ lu~ 1948 esa
Jhyadk Lora= jk"Vª cukA flagyh leqnk; ds usrkvksa us viuh cgqla[;k ds cy ij 'kklu
ij izHkqRo tekuk pkgkA ljdkj n~okjk 1956 es ikfjr ,d vf/kfu;e n~okjk flagyh dks
,dek= jkTkHkk"kk ?kksf"kr fd;k x;k] rFkk rfey Hkk"kk dh mis{kk dh xbZA

ljdkj us fo'ofo|ky;ksa rFkk ljdkjh ukSdfj;ksa esa flagfy;ksa dks izkFkfedrknsus dh uhfr
cukbZA u;s lafo/kku esa ;g izko/kku fd;k x;k fd ljdkj ckS)er dks laj{k.k rFkk c<+kok
nsxhA ljdkj dh HksnHkko dh bl uhfr ls rfey rFkk flagyh leqnk; ds lac/k fcxM+rs pys
x;sA
Jhyadk esa nksuksa leqnk; ds chp ikjLifjd vfo'okl us cM+s Vdjko dk :i ys fy;k gS ;g
Vdjko ^x`g;q)** esa ifj.kr gqvk fdlh eqYd esa ljdkj fojks/kh lewgksa dh fgald yM+kbZ ,slk
                                                                                        43
:I ys ys fd og x`g ;q) lk yxs rks mls x`g;q)¼ Civil war½ dgrs gSaA

lÙkk dh lk>snkjh dh vko';drk & ¼ Need of Power Sharing½ lÙkk dk c¡Vokjk lekt
rFkk ns'k dks 'kfDr iznku djrk gSA mlds fodkl dh xfr dks rst djrk gS] yksdra= dh
tM+ks dks vf/kd lqn`<+ cukrh gSA bldh vko';drk fuEufyf[kr dkj.kksa ls gSa &
1-lÙkk ds c¡Vokjs ls lkekftd lewgksa esa Vdjko dk vans'kk de gks tkrk gSA
2-lÙkk ds fofHkUu vaxksa esa caVokjs ls rkuk'kkgh rFkk euekus <ax ls 'kklu djus ij
yxke yxkrh gSA
3- lÙkk dh lk>snkjh ls jktuhfrd LFkkf;Ro vkrk gS rFkk de le; esa vf/kd izxfr gksrh gSA


lÙkk dh lk>snkjh ds :i & ¼Major Forms of Power Sharing½
vk/kqfud yksdra= esa lÙkk dh lk>snkjh ds fuEufyf[kr :i gSa &
1- ljdkj ds fofHkUu vaxksa ds chp lÙkk dh lk>snkjh gksrh gSA tSls fo?kkf;dk]
dk;Zikfydk rFkk U;k;ikfydk ds chp lÙkk dk c¡VokjkA
2- ljdkj ds fofHkUu Lrjksa ij lÙkk dh lk>snkjh gks ldrh gS & tSls iwjs ns'k ds fy;s
dsUnzh; ljdkj vkSj izkUrh; ;k {ks=h; Lrj ij vyx & vyx ljdkj A
3- lÙkk dk c¡Vokjk fofHkUu lkekftd lewgksa tSls Hkk"kk;h vkSj /kkfeZd lewgksa ds chp
Hkh gks ldrk gSA
4- lÙkk ds c¡Vokjs dk ,d :i fofHkUu izdkj ds ncko lewg rFkk vaknksyuksa n~okjk 'kklu
dks izHkkfor vkSj fu;af=r djus ds rjhdsa ls Hkh y{; gkfly dj ldrs gSA

    egRoiw.kZ iz'u & ( Important Questions )
1- lÙkk dh lk>snkjh ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \
2-x`g;q) fdls dgrs gSa \
3-csfYt;e dh tkrh; lajpuk dk o.kZu djks A
4-Jhyadk us rfey vkSj flagfy;ksa ds e/; la?k"kZ ds D;k dkj.k Fks \
5-yksdra= esa lÙkk ds lk>snkjh D;ksa vko';d gS \
6-lÙkk dh lk>snkjh yksdra=kRed 'kklu O;oLFkk esa D;ksa vko';d gS \
7-lÙkk dh lk>snkjh ds pkj :iksa dk o.kZu dhft;sA

                    v/;k; & 2
            ^la?kokn* FEDERALISM

 bl v/;k; esa lÙkk dh lk>snkjh ds fofHkUu Lo:i dk o.kZu gSA lÙkk ds c¡Vokjs dks gh
 la?kokn dgk tkrk gSA bl O;oLFkk ds }kjk gh yksdrkaf=d O;oLFkk LkqPkk: :i ls py
 ikrh gSA
 la?kokn dk vFkZ rFkk fo'ks"krk;sa ¼Meaning of Federalism and main
 Features½
 la?kh; 'kklu O;oLFkk esa loksZPp lÙkk dsUnzh; 'kklu rFkk mudh fofHkUu
 bdkb;ksa esa ck¡V nh tkrh gSA vkerkSj ij la?kh; O;oLFkk esa nks Lrj dh ljdkjsa
 gksrh gSA blesa ,d ljdkj iwjs ns'k ds fy;s gksrh gSa rFkk nwljs Lrj ij jkT; ;k izkUrksa
 ds Lrj dh ljdkjsa gksrh gSA budh fo'ks"krk;sa fuEu gS &
1-nks ;k vf/kd Lrjksa okyh ljdkj gksrh gSA
2-vyx&vyx Lrj dh ljdkjsa ,d gh ukxfjd lewg ij 'kklu djrh gSa ij mudk viuk &viuk vf/kdkj
                                                                                     44
{ks= gksrk gSA
3-fofHkUu Lrj dh ljdkjksa ds vf/kdkj {ks= lafo/kku esa Li"V:i ls of.kZr gksrs gSA

4- fdlh ,d Lrj dh ljdkj lafo/kku ds ekSfyd izko/kkuksa dks vdsys ugha cny ldrh gSA

5-vnkyrksa dks lafo/kku rFkk fofHkUu Lrj dh ljdkjksa ds vf/kdkjksa dh O;oLFkk djus
dk vf/kdkj gSA

6- fofHkUu Lrj dh ljdkjksa ds fy;s jktLo ds vyx&vyx L=ksr gSA

7- la?kh; 'kklu O;oLFkk ds nksgjs mn~ns'; gksrs gSA

d½ ns'k dh ,drk dks lqjf{kr djuk

[k½    {ks=h; fofo/krk dk lEeku djuk

la?kh; 'kklu O;oLFkk dk xBu &
1-nks ;k nks ls vf/kd Lora= jk"Vªks dks lkFk ykdj ,d cM+h bdkbZ xfBr djukA
mnkgj.k& la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk] vkLVªsfy;k vkfn

2- fdlh cM+s ns'k n~okjk viuh vkarfjd fofo/krk dks /;ku esa j[krs gq;s jkT;ksa dk
xBu djuk vkSj jkT; rFkk jk"Vªh; ljdkj ds chp lÙkk dk c¡Vokjk dj nsukA
mnkgj.k & Hkkjr] csfYt;e vkfnA

Hkkjr eas la?kh; O;oLFkk ¼Federal System in India ½ Hkkjrh; la?k dk xBu
la?kh; 'kklu O;oLFkk ds fl)kUr ij gqvk gSA Hkkjrh; lafo/kku esa nks Lrj dh
'kklu O;oLFkk & la?k 'kklu rFkk jkT; 'kklu dk izko/kku fd;k x;k gSA ckn esa
iapk;rksa rFkk uxjikfydk ds :i esa rhljk Lrj Hkh tksM+k x;k gSA ftls LFkkuh; 'kklu
Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
lafo/kku esa dsUnz ,oa jkT; ljdkjksa ds chp fo/kk;h vf/kdkjksa dks rhu lwfp;ksa
esa ck¡Vk x;k gS tks fuEufyf[kr gSA
1 la?k lwph ¼Union List½ & og lwph ftlesa dsUnzh; ljdkj ds vf/kdkj {ks= ds
fo"k; gSa] mls la?k lwph dgrs gSaaA bl lwph ds vf/kdkj {ks= j{kk] fons'kh ekeys]
cSafdax lapkj rFkk eqnzk vkfn gSaA blesa dqy 97 fo"k; gSaA bu ij dsUnz ljdkj
dkuwucukrh gSA

2- jkT; lwph ¼State List½ & bl lwph ds vf/kdkj {ks= iqfyl] O;kikj] okf.kT;] d`f"k]
flapkbZ vkfn gSA ;s fo"k; izkarh; egRo ds gSaA buesa dqy 66 fo"k; gSA bu
fo"k;ksa ij dkuwu cukus dk vf/kdkj jkT; ljdkj dks gSA

3- leorhZ lwph ¼Concurrent List½ & bl lwph ds vf/kdkj {ks= f'k{kk] ou] fookg]
rykd] mÙkjkf/kdkj vkfn gSA blesa dqy 47 fo"k; gSaA budk laca/k dsUnz rFkk
jkT; nksuksa gh ljdkjksa ls gksrk gSA
gekjs ns'k esa Hkk"kk ds vk/kkj ij izkUrksa dk xBu fd;k x;k gSA Hkkjrh;
lafo/kku esa fdlh ,d Hkk"kk dks jk"Vª Hkk"kk dk ntkZ ugha fn;k x;k gSA lafo/kku
esa 22 Hkk"kkvksa dks lafo/kku dh vkBoha lwph esa lfEefyr fd;k x;k gSA 1990
                                                                                    45
ds ckn ns'k ds vusd jkT;ksa esa {ks=h; nyksa dk mn; gqvkA blh nkSj esa dsUnz
esa xBca/ku ljdkj dh 'kq: gqbZA

lÙkk dk fodsUnzhdj.k ¼ Decentralisation of Power ½ %& dsUnz ,oa jkT;
ljdkj ls 'kfDr;k¡ ysdj LFkkuh; ljdkj dks nh tkrh gS rks bls lÙkk dk fodsUnzhdj.k
dgk tkrk gSA lÙkk ds fodsUnzhdj.k dk eq[; mn~ns'; gS fd vusd eqn~nksa rFkk
leL;kvksa dk fuiVkjk LFkkuh; Lrj vPNs <ax ls djuk rFkk LFkkuh; Lrj ij yksxksa dks
QSalyksa esa lh/ks Hkkxhnkj cukukA lHkh jkT;ksa esa xkao Lrj ij xzke iapk;rksa rFkk
'kgjksa esa uxjikfydkvksa o uxj fuxe dh LFkkiuk dh x;hA bUgsa jkT; ljdkj ds lh/ks
fu;a=.k esa j[kk x;k gSA xk¡o Lrj ij ekStwn LFkkuh; 'kklu O;oLFkk dks iapk;rh jkT; ds
uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA xzke iapk;r ds v/;{k dks ljiap dgk tkrk gSA




egRoiw.kZ iz'u & ¼ Important Questions ½
1- la?kokn ls vki D;k le>rs gS \
2- lÙkk ds fodsUnzhdj.k ls vki D;k le>rs gS \
3- la?kjkT; rFkk leorhZ lwph esa of.kZr nks& nks fo"k;ksa dks fyf[k,A
4- ^Hkkjr ,d la?kkRed 'kklu gS** Li"V dhft;sA
5- Hkkjr esa lÙkk ds fodsUnzhdj.k ds fy;s fd;s x;s mik;ksa dh O;oLFkk dhft;sA
6- LFkkuh; 'kklu O;oLFkk ds fy;s lafo/kku esa D;k izko/kku fd;s x;s gS \




                             v/;k; & 3

             yksdra= vkSj fofo/krk ¼Democracy and Diversity½

Hkk"kk;h vkSj {ks=h; fofo/krkvksa dks lkFk ysdj pyus ds fy;s lÙkk dk c¡Vokjk fd;k tk
ldrk gSA ysfdu yksxksa dh fof'k"V igpku flQZ Hkk"kk vkSj {ks= ds vk/kkj ij ugha curhA
dbZ ckj yksx viuh igpku vkSj nwljksa ls vius lEcU/k 'kkjhfjd cukoV] oxZ] /keZ] fyax]
tkfr] dchys cxSjg ds vk/kkj ij Hkh ifjHkkf"kr djrs gSA bl v/;k; esa yksdra= lkjh lkekftd
fofHkUurkvksa varjks vkSj vlekurkvksa ds chp lkeaatL; cSBkdj mudk loZekU; lek/kku
nsus dh dksf'k'k djrk gSA
        gj lekt esa lkekftd fofo/krk vyx&vyx :i esa lkeus vkrh gSAlkekftd fofo/krk
yksxksa ds chp c¡Vokjs dk ,d cM+k dkj.k t:j gksrh gSA ysfdu ;gh fofHkUurk;sa dbZ ckj
vyx&vyx rjg ds yksxksa ds chp iqy dk Hkh dke djrh gSA lkekftd foHkktu rc gksrk
gSA tc dqN lkekftd vUrj nwljh vusd fofHkUurkvksa ls Åij vkSj cM+h gks tkrh gS tc
,d rjg dk lkekftd vUrj vU; vUrjksa ls T;knk egRoiw.kZ cu tkrk gSA yksxksa dks ;g
                                                                                     46
eglwl gksus yxrk gS fd os nwljs leqnk; ds gS rks blls lkekftd foHkktu dh fLFkfr iSnk gks
tkrh gSA vkt nqfu;k¡ ds vf/kdrj ns'k cgqlkaLd`frd gks x;s gSA vxj jktuhfrd ny lekt
esa ekStwn foHkktu ds vk/kkj ij jktuhfrd gksM+ djus yxs rks lkekftd foHkktu jktuhfrd
foHkktu esa cny tkrk gSA ,sls esa ns'k fo[kaMu dh rjQ tk ldrk gSA


lkekftd foHkktu dh jktuhfrd dk ifj.kke & lkekftd foHkktu dh jktuhfr dk ifj.kke
rhu phtksa ij fuHkZj djrk gS &
1- yksxksa esa viuh igpku ds izfr vkxzg dh Hkkouk
2- fdlh leqnk; dh ekaxksa dks jktuhfrd ny dSls mBk jgs gSA
3- ljdkj dk :[k vFkkZr~ bu ekaxksa ij D;k izfrfØ;k O;Dr djrh gSA yksdra= esa
lkekftd foHkktu dh jktuhfrd vfHkO;fDr ,d lkekU; ckr gS vkSj ;g LoLFk jktuhfr dk
y{k.k Hkh gks ldrh gSA yksx 'kkafriw.kZ vkSj laoS/kkfud rjhds ls viuh ekaxksa dks
mBkrs gSa vkSj pquko ds ek/;e ls muds fy;s ncko cukrs gSA rFkk mudk lek/kku
ikus dk iz;kl djrs gSaA lkekftd foHkktu dh reke xM+cfM+;ksa dh igpku djus rFkk
fofo/krk dks lekfgr djus dk yksdra= gh lcls vPNk rjhdk gSA
Hkkjr esa fuEufyf[kr rhu rRo Hkkjr dh fofHkUurk dks iznf'kZr djrs gSA
1-Hkkjr esa fofHkUu /keksZ tSls fgUnw] eqfLye] flD[k] bZlkbZ] tSu ckSn~/k] vkfn dks
ekuus okys yksx fuokl djrs gSA

2-ns'k ds lafo/kku esa 22 Hkk"kkvksa dks jk"VªHkk"kk ekU;rk ns j[kh gSA ns'k
esa 400 ls T;knk cksfy;ka cksyh tkrh gSA

3-Hkkjr esa fofHkUu tkfr;ksa rFkk oxksZa ds yksx fuokl djrs gSA

lkekftd foHkktu ds nq"ifj.kke &lkekftd foHkktu ds nq"ifj.kke fuEufyf[kr gSa &
1-Hkk"kk;h fofo/krk vkSj {ks=h; fofo/krk brus fgalkRed la?k"kZ dk :i ys ysrs gSA fd
mlls ns'k dk foHkktu r; gks tkrk gSA

2-tc ljdkj tUe] /keZ] jax] Hkk"kk vkfn ds vk/kkj ij HksnHkko djrh gS rks lekt esa
lkekftd fo[kaMu gks tkrk gSA bfrgkl crkrk gSA reke xM+cfM+;ksa dh igpku djus
rFkk vkSj fofo/krkvksa lekfgr djus dk yksdra= gh lcls vPNk rjhdk gSA yksdra= ,slh
'kklu iz.kkyh gSA ftlesa 'kkldksa dk pquko turk }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA

    egRoiw.kZ iz'u & ¼ Important Questions ½
1- yksdra= ls D;k vfHkizk; gS \
2- {ks=okn dh ifjHkk"kk fyf[k, \
3-Hkkjr esa fofHkUurkvksa dks fn[kkus ds fy;s rhu rRoksa dk mYys[k dhft;sA
4-^^yksdra= lkekftd foHkktuksa ds vk/kkj ij lekt dks fo[kaMu dh vksj ys tkrk gSA** bl
rF; dks rdZ nsdj Li"V djsa A



v/;k; & 4
             tkfr] /keZ vkSj ySafxd elys Gender, Religion and Caste
                                                                                     47
    Hkkjrh; lekt esa iq:"k ,oa ukjh ds chp HksnHkko dh ijEijk vR;Ur xgjh o rhoz gSA
    ySafxd vlekurk dk vk/kkj L=h&iq#"k dh tSfod cukoV ds lkFk] izpfyr :f<+;ka rFkk
    lkekftd ekU;rk;sa gaSA Je ds ySafxd foHkktu dk ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd vkSjrs ?kj
    dh pkj nhokjh esa fleV dj jg xbZ gSaA ckgj dk lkoZtfu thou iq:"kksa ds fgLls esa
    vk x;k gSA Hkkjr esa Lora=rk ds ckn ls efgykvksa dh fLFkfr esa dqN lq/kkj gqvk
    gSA ij os vHkh Hkh iq:"kksa ds ihNs gSA gekjk lekt fir` iz/kku lekt gSA ukjh
    vkUnksyu n~okjk efgykvksa d jktuhfrd o oS/kkfud ntsZ dks Å¡pk mBkus] muds
    fy;s f'k{kk rFkk jkstxkj ds volj c<+kus rFkk O;fDrxr~ o lkekftd thou esa cjkcjh dh
    ek¡x mBk;h x;h gSA

    Hkkjr esa efgykvksa ds lkFk HksnHkko ds vk;ke %& Hkkjr esa efgykvksa ds
    lkFk pkj vk;ke fuEufyf[kr gSA
1- efgykvksa dh lk{kjrk izfr'kr 54% gS rFkk iq:"kksa dk lk{kjrk nj 76% gSA
2-jkstxkj ds {ks= esa efgykvksa dks iq:"k dh rqyuk esa de ikfjJfed feyrk gSA

3- Hkkjr ds vusd fgLlksa esa ekrk & firk yM+ds dh pkg j[krs gSA dU;k Hkzw.k
gR;k tSls d`d`R;ksa ls ;g izkekf.kr gksrk gSA fd ns'k ds dqN fgLlksa fyaxkuqikr
850 ls 800 rd fxj x;k gSA
4- jktuhfr esa efgykvksa dh lgHkkfxrk de gSAHkkjr ljdkj us o"kZ 2001 dks
efgykvksa ds l'kDrhdj.k o"kZ ds :i esa euk;kA bl o"kZ Hkkjr ljdkj us fL=;ksa
dks vf/kd vf/kdkj nsus dh jk"Vªh; uhfr dk izkjEHk fd;k LFkkuh; ljdkjksa ;kuh
xzke iapk;rksa vkSj uxj ikfydkvksa esa ,d frgkbZ in efgykvksa ds fy;s vkjf{kr dj
fn;s x;s gSA

lkaiznkf;drk & xka/kh th dk ekuuk Fkk fd jktuhfr /keZ }kjk LFkkfir ewY;ksa ls
funsZf'kr gksuh pkfg;sA /keZ ls mudk rkRi;Z uSfrd ewY;ksa ls FkkA jktuhfrd dks
/keZ ls tksM+uk lkEiznkf;drk dgykrk gSA Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku dk foHkktu
lakiznkf;drk dk nq"ifj.kke gSA lkaiznkf;drk dh Hkkouk vkilh >xM+ksa] naxksa
rFkk fgalk dk dkj.k cu tkrh gSA


/keZ fujis{k jkT; & ¼Secular state½ laiznkf;drk gekjs ns'k ds yksdra= ds fy;s ,d
cM+h pqukSrh gSA gekjs lafo/kku fuekZrk bl bl pqukSrh ds izfr lpsr FksA blh
dkj.k mUgksaus /keZfujis{k 'kklu dks pquk rFkk lafo/kku esa fuEufyf[kr izko/kku
fd;s &
1-Hkkjrh; jkT; us fdlh Hkh /keZ dks jktdh; /keZ ds :i esa vaxhdkj ugha fd;k
gSA
2- gekjk lafo/kku lHkh ukxfjdksa dks fdlh Hkh /keZ dks ikyu djus rFkk izpkj djus
dh vktknh nsrk gSA
3-lafo/kku /keZ ds vk/kkj ij fd;s tkus okys fdlh Hkh rjg ds HksnHkko dks
voS/kkfud ?kksf"kr djrk gSA
4 /kkfeZd leqnk;ksa esa lekurk lqfuf'pr djus ds fy;s 'kklu dks /kkfeZd ekeyksa
esa n[ky nsus dk vf/kdkj gSA
tkfrxr vlekurk;sa & Hkkjr esa tkfr ij vk/kkfjr foHkktu ns[kus dks feyrk gSA Hkkjr
esa tkfrxr vlekurk;sa vHkh Hkh tkjh gSA bu vlekurkvksa dks fuEufyf[kr rF;ksa }kjk
                                                                                   48
Li"V fd;k tk ldrk gSA

1-vHkh Hkh vf/kdka'k yksx viuh tkfr ;k dchys esa gh 'kknh djrs gSA

2- laoS/kkfud izko/kku ds ckn Hkh NqvkNwr dh izFkk vHkh Hkh lekIr ugha gqbZ
gSA
3- yksxksa esa vkt vf/kdrj viuh gh tkfr ds mEehnokjksa dks er Mkyus dk :>ku ns[kk
tkrk gSA vkfFkZd fodkl 'kgjhdj.k lk{kjrk vkSj f'k{kk dk fodkl is'kk pquus dh vktknh
vkSj xkaoksa esa tehnkjh izFkk ds detksj iM+us ls tkfrO;oLFkk ds iqjkus Lo:i o.kZ
O;oLFkk ij fVdh ekufldrk esa cnyko vk;k gSA Lora= Hkkjr esa jktuhfrd nyksa ds
vfLrRo ds fy;s tkfr ,d egRoiw.kZ dkj.k cu x;h gS] ftlds ifj.kke Lo:i Hkkjrh; lekt fofHkUu
oxksZa esa foHkkftr gks x;k gSA

     egRoiw.kZ iz'u & ¼ Important Questions ½
1- ySafxd vlekurk ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \
2- ^^ukjhoknh vkUnksyu** ls D;k vfHkizk; gS \
3- tkfrokn fdls dgrs gS \
4- ^^Hkkjr esa efgyk;sa dbZ rjg ds neu rFkk HksnHkko dk lkeuk djrh gS** Li"V dfj;sA
5- yksdra= ds fy;s lakiznkf;drk fdl izdkj ck/kk mRiUu djrh gS \
6- /keZ fujis{k jkT; ls vki D;k le>rs gSA Hkkjrh; lafo/kku us /keZfujis{krk dks ykxw
djus ds fy;s D;k&D;k izko/kku fd;s gS \



v/;k; & 5
tu la?k"kZ vkSj vkUnksyu ¼Popular struggle and movements½

yksdra=kRed 'kklu esa lÙkk/kkjh LoPNan ugha gSaA vius Åij iM+us okys izHkko o
ncko ls eqDr ugha jg ldrs gSaA yksdra= esa fgrksa rFkk utfj;ksa dk Vdjko pyrk jgrk
gSA ftuds ikl lÙkk gksrh gSA mUgsa ijLij fojks/kh ek¡xksa vkSj nckoksa esa lUrqyu
fcBkuk iM+rk gSA vke ukxfjd fofHkUu rjhdksa rFkk laxBuksa ds lgkjs yksdra=
esa viuh Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSA usiky vkSj cksfyfo;k esa tula?k"kZ & lu~ 2006
ds viSzy ekg esa usiky esa ,d foy{k.k tu vkUnksyu gqvk ftldk eq[; y{; 'kklu dh ckxMksj
jktk ds gkFk ls ysdj nksckjk turk ds gkFkksa esa lkSaiuk FkkA
 laln dh lHkh ikfVZ;ksa us ,d ^^ lsou ikVhZ vyk;al** ¼,l-ih-,-½ cuk;k rFkk 'kklu
dk fojks/k fd;k blesa ekvksoknh rFkk vU; laxBuksa us Hkh lkFk fn;kA 24 vizSy
2006 dks jktk vkUnksyudkfj;ksa dh ekaxksa dks ekuus ds fy;s ck/; gqvk A ,l-ih-
,- us fxfjtk izlkn dksbZjkyk dks varfje ljdkj dk iz/kkuea=h cuk;kA laln fQj cgky
gqbZA u;s dkuwu cusA bu dkuwuksa ds lgkjs jktk dh vf/kdka'k 'kfDRk;k¡ okil ys
yh xbZaA bl la?k"kZ dks usiky dk ^^yksdra= ds fy;s nwljk la?k"kZ** dgk x;kA
 cksfyfo;k esa yksxksa us ikuh ds futhdj.k ds f[kykQ ,d lQy la?k"kZ pyk;kA bl
vkanksyu dk usr`Ro QsMsdksj ¼ FEDECOR½ uked laxBu us fd;kA bl laxBu
esa bathfu;j vkSj i;kZoj.koknh lesr LFkkuh; dkedkth yksx 'kkfey FksA

                                                                                      49
 cksfyfo;k ds ,d 'kgj dkspcack esa tykiwfrZ dk vf/kdkj ,d cgqjk"Vªh; dEiuh dks
csp fn;k x;kA bls dEiuh us ikuh dh dher esa pkj xquk btkQk dj fn;kA ftlds dkj.k
tula?k"kZ HkM+d mBkA ysfdu turk dh rkdr ds vkxs ljdkj dks vkUnksyudkfj;ksa
dh leLr ekaxs ekuuh iM+h bl vkUnksyu dks cksfyfo;k ds ^^ty;q)** ds uke ls tkuk
tkrk gSA
 yksd ra= dk tu la?k"kZ ds ek/;e ls fodkl gksrk gSA yksdrkaf=d la?k"kZ dk
lek/kku turk dh O;kid ykecanh ls gksrk gSA

 fgr lewg vSj ncko lewg ¼Interest Groups and Pressure Groups½ yksxksa
n~okjk cuk;s x;s ,sls laxBu dks dgrs gSa tks vius fgrksa rFkk vkdka{kkvksa dks
iwjk djus ds fy;s ,dtqV gksrs gSa] rFkk ftuds is'ks fgr rFkk vkdk{kk;sa ,d leku
gksrs gSaA dHkh &dHkh yksx cxSj laxBu cuk;s viuh ekaxksa ds fy;s ,dtqV
gksus dk QSlyk djrs gSA ,sls lewg dks vkUnksyu ¼Movements½ dgrs gSaA
 ncko lewg dk ,d y{; lÙkk ij fu;a=.k djus rFkk mlesa fgLlsnkjh dk ugha gksrk
gSA nckc lewg ds foijhr vkanksyuksa dk laxBu <hyk&<kyk gksrk gSA buesa
QSlysa vukSipkfjd rjhds ls fy;s tkrs gSa rFkk ;s QSlys yphysa gksrs gSaA
ncko lewg rFkk vkanksyu vius y{; rFkk xfrfof/k;ksa ds fy;s turk dk leFkZu izkIr
djus dh dksf'k'k djrs gSA
 tks lewg loZeku fgrksa o yksddY;k.k ds fy;s xfBr fd;s tkrs gSa os fgr lewg
 dgykrsa gSaA cksfyfo;k dk ^^QsMsdksj** uked laxBu ,sls gh lewg dk mnkgj.k gSA
 jktuhfrd ny ¼Political Parties½ yksxksa ds ,sls lewg gksrs gSa ftudk y{; lÙkk esa izR;{k
 Hkkxhnkjh gksrk gSA ;s vusd mn~ns';ksa dks ysdj yach vof/k ds fy;s xfBr fd;s tkrs
 gSaA

 egRoiw.kZ iz'u & ¼Important Questions½
1- ncko lwg fdls dgrs gSa \
2- cksfyfo;k esa ty la?k"kZ dk usr`Ro fdl laxBu us fd;k \
3-cksfyfo;k esa dc vkSj D;ksa tu la?k"kZ vkUnksyu izkjaHk gqvk \
4- fgr lewg fdls dgrs gSa \
5- ncko lewg vkSj jktuhfrd ny esa vUrj crkb;s A
6- ^^cksfyfo;k ds ty ;q)** vkSj ^^usiky dks yksdra= ds fy;s nwljk vkUnksyu esa
izeq[k varj crkb;sA


                            v/;k; & 6
                jktufrd ny (Political Parties)
yksdrkaf=d 'kklu O;oLFkk esa ljdkj ds xBu rFkk lapkyu esa jktuhfrd nyksa dh
egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk gksrh gSA vke ukxfjdksa ds fy;s yksdra= dk eryc jktuhfrd ny
gh gSA
jktuhfrd ny dk vFkZ & ¼Meaning of Political Party½
jktuhfrd ny dks yksxksa ds ,sls laxfBr lewg ds :i esa le>k tk ldrk gS tks pquko yM+us
rFkk ljdkj esa jktuhfrd lÙkk gkfly djus ds mn~ns'; ls dke djrk gSA jktuhfrd ny ds rhu
izeq[k Hkkx gSa &
                                                                                      50
1- usrk
2- lfØ; lnL;
3- vuq;k;h ;k leFkZd
jktuhfrd ny ds dk;Z ¼Functions of Political Partics½ &
jktuhfrd nykssa ds izeq[k dk;Z fuEufyf[kr gSa &
1-jktuhfrd ny pquko yM+rs gSa vkSj vius mEehnokjksa dks vf/kd ls vf/kd ftrkus dk
iz;Ru djrs gSaA
2-jktuhfrd ny ernkrk ds lkeus viuh uhfr;k¡ rFkk dk;ZØe j[krs gSaA
3-jktuhfrd ny ns'k ds fy;s dkuwu cukus esa egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrs
gSaA
4-jktuhfrd ny ljdkj ,oa turk ds chp ,d ek/;e dk dk;Z djrs gSaA
5-ny gh ljdkj cukrs gSa rFkk mls pykrs gSaA
6-tuer fuekZ.k esa ny egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSaA Hkkjr esa pquko
vk;ksx esa uke iathd`r djkus okys nyksa dh la[;k 750 ls T;knk gSA dbZ ns'kksa esa
dsoy ,d gh ny dks ljdkj cukus rFkk pykus dh vuqefr gSA bl dkj.k mUgsa ,d nyh; 'kklu
O;oLFkk dgk tkrk gSA dqN ns'kksa esa lÙkk vke rkSj ij nks eq[; nyksa ds chp cnyrh
jgrh gSA ,slh O;oLFkk dks nks nyh; O;oLFkk dgrs gSaA vesfjdk rFkk fczVsu
esa ,slh gh O;oLFkk gSA tc vusd ny lÙkk ds fy;s gksM+ esa gks vkSj nks nyksa ls
T;knk ds fy;s vius ne ij nwljks ls xBcU/ku djds lÙkk esa vkus dk BhdBkd volj gks rks
bls cgqnyh; O;oLFkk dgrs gSa Hkkjr esa ,slh gh cgqnyh; O;oLFkk gSA
jk"Vªh; jktuhfrd ny &
dbZ jktuhfrd ny iwjs ns'k esa QSys gq;s gSa \mUgsa jk"Vªh; ikVhZ dgk tkrk gSA budh
uhfr;ksa dk;ZØe vkSj j.kuhfr;k¡ jk"Vªh; Lrj ij r; gksrs gSaA ns'k dh gj ikVhZ dks pquko
vk;ksx esa viuk iathdj.k djuk iM+rk gSA vxj dksbZ ny yksdlHkk pquko esa iM+s dqy
oksV dk 6% vFkok pkj jkT;ksa ds iM+s fo/kku lHkkbZ pquko esa iM+s dqy oksVksa
dk 6% gkfly djrk gS vkSj yksdlHkk ds pquko esa de ls de pkj lhVksa ij thr ntZ djrk
gSA rks mls jk"Vªh; ny dh ekU;rk feyrh gSA bl oxhZdj.k ds fglkc ls 2006 esa ns'k esa
N% cM+s ny jk"Vªh; Lrj ij ekU;rk izkIr gSA
1-Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; dkaxzsl
2-Hkkjrh; turk ikVhZ
3-cgqtu lekt ikVhZ
4-Hkkjrh; dE;qfuLV ikVhZ ¼ CPIM ½
5-Hkkjrh; dE;qfuLV ikVhZ ¼ CPI ½
6-jk"Vªoknh dkaxzsl ikVhZ

izkUrh; ny & bu Ng jktuhfrd nyksa ds vykok vU; lHkh izeq[k nyksa dks pquko
vk;ksx esa izkUrh; ny ds :i esa ekU;rk nh gSA vkerkSj ij bUgsa {ks=h; ny dgk
tkrk gSA lerk ikVhZ] lektoknh ikVhZ] jk"Vªh; turk ny] chtw turk ny ] fetks us'kuy
ÝaV vkfn blds mnkgj.k gSA fiNys rhu n'kdksa esa izkarh; nyksa dh la[;k rFkk
rkdr esa dkQh o`f) gqbZ gSA

jktuhfrd nyksa ds le> pqukSfr;k¡ & jktufrd nyksa dks fuEufyf[kr
pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gS &
 1- jktuhfrd nyksa ds vUnj vkarfjd yksdra= ds vHkko ds dkj.k cgqr lkjs ;ksX;

                                                                                    51
 usrk vius vf/kdkjksa ls oafpr jg tkrs gSaA
2- jktuhfrd nyksa esa oa'koknh mÙkjkf/kdkj dk izpyu c<+us ls jktuhfrd nyksa
 dks l{ke ,oa ;ksX; usrk ls oafpr gksuk iM+rk gSA
 3- jktuhfrd nyksa dk eq[; mn~ns'; pquko thruk jg x;k gSa] ftlds fy;s os vf/kd
 ek=k es /ku dk mi;ksx djrs gSA
 4- jktuhfrd nyksa dh fopkj/kkjk esa cgqr varj ugha gSA blfy;s cgqr lkjs ny
 gksus ds ckotwn ernkrkvksa ds ikl fodYiksa dk pquko lhfer gks x;k gSA

 jktuhfrd nyksa esa lq/kkj ds mik; &jktuhfrd nyksa esa lq/kkj ds mik;
 fuEufyf[kr gS &
1-fo/kk;dksa rFkk lkalnksa dks ny& cny djus ls jksdus ds fy;s lafo/kku esa la'kks/ku
fd;k x;k gSA
2- pquko vk;ksx us lHkh nyksa ds fy;s laxBfud pquko djkuk rFkk vk;dj dk fjVuZ
Hkjuk t:jh cuk fn;k gSA
3- jktuhfr esa vijkf/k;ksa ds izHkko dks de djus ds fy;s mPpre~ U;k;ky; us ;g vkns'k
tkjh dj fn;s gS fd izR;sd mEehnokj dks 'kiFki= esa viuh lEifÙk rFkk vijkf/kd
ekeyksa dk C;kSjk nsuk gksxkA
4- jktuhfrd nyksa ds vkarfjd dkedkt dks O;ofLFkr djus dk dkuwu cuk;k tkuk pkfg;s
A

5- pquko dk [kpZ ljdkj mBk;s ljdkj nyksa dks yM+us ds fy;s /ku nsA
6- jktuhfrd ny efgykvksa dks ,d [kkl U;wure~ vuqikr esa t:j fVdV nsA
     egRoiw.kZ iz'u ¼Important Questions½
1- jktuhfrd ny ls D;k vfHkizk; gS \
2- ,d nyh; 'kklu O;oLFkk fdls dgrs gSa \
3- jk"Vªh; ny fdls dgrs gSa \
4- 2006 esa pquko vk;ksx n~okjk ekU;rk izkIr jk"Vªh; nyksa ds uke fyf[k;sA
5- ^^jktuhfrd nyksa dh vuqifLFkfr ljdkj ds lapkyu dks dSls izHkkfor djsxh** O;k[;k
dhft;sA
6- jktuhfrd nyksa ds le> dkSu&dkSu lh pqukSfr;k¡ gSa \
7- jktuhfrd nyksa dh dfe;ksa dh nwj djus ds mik; crkb;sA


v/;k; & 7
yksdra= ds ifj.kke Outcomes of Democracy
yksdrkaf=d 'kklu O;oLFkk yksxksa dh viuh 'kklu O;oLFkk gSA blhdkj.k nqfu;k esa
yksdra= ds fopkj ds izfr tcjnLr leFkZu dk Hkko gSA yksdra= 'kklu dh vU;
O;oLFkkvksa ls csgrj gSa rkuk'kkgh rFkk vU; O;oLFkk;sa T;knk nks"kiw.kZ gSaA
yksdra= dks csgrj ljdkj crk;k x;k gS D;ksafd &
1-yksdra= ukxfjdksa esa lekurk dks c<+kok nsrk gSA
                                                                                     52
2- O;fDr dh xfjek dks c<+krk gSA
3- QSlys lksp&le>dj fy;s tkrs gSaA
4- Vdjkoksa dks Vkyus rFkk laHkkyus dk rjhdk nsrk gSA
5- blesa xyfr;ksa dks lq/kkjus dh xqatkb'k gksrh gSA yksdra= ds ifj.kkeksa ds
ckjs esa lko/kkuhiwoZd fopkj djus dh fn'kk esa igyk dne ;gh gS fd ge igys ;g ekus fd
yksdra= 'kklu dk ,d Lo:i Hkj gS ;g dqN phtksa dks gkfly djus dh fLFkfr;ksa rks cuk
ldrk gSA ij ukxfjd dks gh mu fLFkfr;ksa dk ykHk ysdj vius y{;ksa dks gkfly djuk gksrk
gSA yksdra= gekjh lHkh lkekftd cqjkb;ksa dks feVk nsus okyh NM+h Hkh ugha gSA
rks vkb;s ge mu phtksa dh tkap djsa] ftldh mEehn gj yksdrkaf=d O;oLFkk ls dh tk
ldrh gSA yksdra= ,d mÙkjnk;h] ftEesokj rFkk oS/k 'kklu gksrk gSA dqN ,slh
phtsa gSa] ftUgsa yksdra= dks iwjk djuk gh pkfg;sA yksdra= esa lcls cM+h fpUrk
;g gksuh gSA yksxksa dk viuk 'kkld pquus dk vf/kdkj vkSj 'kkldksa ij fu;a=.k cjdjkj
jgsA yksdra= esa bl ckr dh iDdh O;oLFkk gksrh gS fd QSlys dqN dk;ns dkuwu ds
vuqlkj gksxsaA vxj dksbZ ukxfjd tkuuk pkgs fd QSlys ysus esa fu;eksa dk ikyu gqvk
gS fd ugha rks og mldk irk dj ldrk gSA bls ikjnf'kZrk dgrs gSA yksdra= esa ,slh
ljdkj dk xBu gksxk tks dk;ns dkuwu ekusxh rFkk yksxksa ds izfr tokcnsgh
gksxhA
vkfFkZd lao`f) rFkk fodkl & dksbZ dkjdksa elyu ns'k dh tula[;k ds vkdkj oSf'od fLFkfr
vU; ns'kksa ls lg;ksx ns'k }kjk r; dh xbZ vkfFkZd izkFkfedrkvksa ij Hkh fuHkZj djrk
gSA vlekurk vkSj xjhch esa deh dh mEehn yksdrkaf=d O;oLFkkvksa ls j[kuk rdZ laxr
gSA ysfdu okLrfod thou esa yksdrkaf=d O;oLFkk;sa vkfFkZd vlekurkvksa dks de
djus esa T;knk lQy ugha gks ikbZ gSaA yksdrkaf=d O;oLFkk;sa lkekftd fofo/krkvksa
esa lkeatL; LFkkfir djrh gSaA ;g lkekftd foHkktuksa dks laHkkyrh gSA bl izdkj
lkekftd vUrj] foHkktu rFkk Vdjkoksa dk laHkkyuk fuf'pr :i ls yksdrkaf=d O;oLFkkvksa
dk ,d egRoiw.kZ xq.k gSAO;fDr dh xfjek rFkk vktknh ds ekeys esa yksdrkaf=d
O;oLFkk fdlh Hkh vU; 'kklu iz.kkyh ls dkQh csgrj gSA xfjek vkSj vktknh dh pkg gh
yksdra= dk vk/kkj gSA
     egRoiw.kZ iz'u & ¼Important Questions½
1- ftEesokj vkSj oS/k 'kklu ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \
2- jktuhfrd lekurk dks ifjHkkf"kr fdft;s \
3-yksdra= dks ljdkj dk vPNk :i D;ksa ekuk tkrk gS \
4- ,d vPNs yksdra= dh D;k&D;k ftEesnkfj;k¡ gSa \
5-yksdra= fdl rjg lkekftd fofo/krk dks laHkkyrk gS vkSj muds chp lkeatL; fcBkrk
gSa \


v/;k; & 8
yksdra= dh pqukSfr;k¡ Challanges to Democracy

yksdra= ds ekxZ esa vkus okyh ck/kk;sa ftuls NqVdkjk ikuk laHko gS pqukSrh dgykrh
gSA yksdra= dh fofHkUu pqukSfr;ksa ds ckjs esa lHkh lq>ko ;k izLrko** yksdraf=d
lq/kkj ;k jktuhfrd lq/kkj dgs tkrs gSaA yksdra= ds le> rhu fuEufyf[kr pqukSfr;k¡
gSa &
                                                                                  53
1-yksdrakf=d ljdkj dk xBu
2-yksdra= dk foLrkj
3-yksdra= dk etcwr cukuk A
jktuhfrd lq/kkjksa dk dke eq[;r% jktuhfrd dk;ZdrkZ ny vkUnksyu vkSj jktuhfrd :i ls lpsr
ukxfjdksa ds }kjk gh gks ldrk gSA

Hkkjrh; yksdra= ds le{k pqukSfr;k¡ & Hkkjrh; yksdra= ds le{k fuEufyf[kr pqukSfr;k¡
gSA

1-lkEiznkf;drk & lkEiznkf;drk yksdra= ds le{k ,d cM+h pqukSrh gSA ;g
fofHkUu lEiznk;ksa esa ?k`.kk rFkk }s"k dh Hkkouk mRiUu djrh gSA blls ns'k
dh ,drk rFkk v[k.Mrk ds fy;s [krjk iSnk gks tkrk gSA

2- {ks=okn & ns'k ds fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa HksnHkko dh uhfr ftlds
vUrxZr lEiUu {ks=oklh vius {ks= dks mÙke ekuus yxrs gS vkSj fiNM+s
gq;s {ks= dks fuEuA ;g Hkkouk ns'k dh ,drk o v[kaMrk ds fy;s pqukSrh
gks ldrh gSA

3- tkfrokn & dqN tkfr;k¡ viuh tkfr dks Js"B le>dj vU; tkfr;ksa dks fuEu
le>us yxrh gSA ;g Hkkouk yksdra= ds fy;s ,d cM+h pqukSrh gSA

4-vkradokn & yksdra= ds fy;s vkradokn ,d xEHkhj pqukSrh gSA Hkkjr ds
vusd Hkkx fo'ks"kdj tEewd'ehj rFkk iwoksZÙkj jkT; vkradoknh
xfrfof/k;ksa ds dsUnz gSA ;s xfrfof/k;k¡ vjktdrk ,oa vO;oLFkk mRiUu djrh
gSaA blls cM+s iSekus ij tku& eky dh gkfu gksrh gSA

yksdra= dks lqn`<+ djus ds mik; & yksdra= dh dk;Z fof/k dks lgt cukus
fuEufyf[kr mik; djus pkfg;s &
1-yksdra= dks etcwr djus dh fn'kk esa turk dks f'kf{kr djuk vfuok;Z gSA
f'k{kk ds ifj.kkeLo:i turk esa tkx:drk ,oa psruk dk lapkj gksxk vkSj og
mfpr vkSj vuqfpr esa Hksn dj ikus esa leFkZ gksxhA
2-yksdra= ds fy;s vFkZO;oLFkk dk l`n`<+ gksuk vko';d gksrk gSA
blfy;s ,slh vFkZO;oLFkk viuk;h tk;s tks fodkl ,oa vk/kqfudhdj.k dh
izrhd gksaA
3- yksdra= Lora=rk ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gS] blfy;s mu uhfr;ksa dks viuk;k
tkuk pkfg;s tks Lora=rk dks leFkZu nsa ,oa mls etcwrh iznku djsA
4-yksdra= jktuhfrd nyksa rFkk jktuhfrKksa dks viuh ftEesnkjh ls voxr
gksuk pkfg;sA mUgsa O;fDrxr fgrksa dh ctk; jk"Vªh; fgrksa dks vf/kd
egRo nsuk pkfg;sA



egRoiw.kZ iz'u & ¼ Important Questions ½
                                                                                    54
1-yksdra= esa pqukSrh dk D;k vFkZ gS \
2-lkaiznkf;drk fdls dgrs gSa\
3-yksdra= esa vkradokn dks ,d pqukSrh ds :i esa O;k[;k djks ?
4.orZeku esa Hkkjrh; yksdra= dks fdu pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+ jgk
gS\
5-yksdra= dks etcwr ,oa lqn`<+ fdu mik;ksa }kjk cuk;k tk ldrk gS \




                                                                    55
fodkl (Development)
 fodkl (Development) :- fodkl dk vFkZ lekt dks Hkfo”;kseq[k mUufr
dh vksj ys tkuk gSA tks vkfFkZd] lkekftd vk/;kfRed rFkk ekufld
laca/kh fdz;kvksa }kjk gh lEHko gSA

 fodkl ds y{; (Promises of Development) :- yksxks ds fodkl ds y{; vyx
vyx gkrs gS] gj ,d dk fodkl nwljs ds fy, fouk’kdkjh gks ldrk gSA

vkfFkZd fodkl (Economic Development):- fdlh vFkZ O;oLFkk dh
okLrfod jk”Vªh; vk; esa nh?kZdkyhu o`f) gh vkfFkZd fodkl gSA

 jk”Vªh; vk; (National Income) :- ns’k ds vUnj mRikfnr lHkh oLrqvksa
vkSj lsokvksa ds ewY; rFkk fons’kksa ls izkIr vk; dk tksM+
jk”Vªh; vk; dgykrk gSA

 izfr O;fDr vk; (Percapita Income) :- dqy jk”Vªh; vk; rFkk dqy tula[;k
ds Hkkx Qy dks izfrO;fDr vk; ;k vkSlr vk; dgrs gSA

dqy jk”Vªh; vk;
                  = izfr O;fDr vk;
  dqy tula[;k

lk{kjrk nj (Literacy Rate) :- 7 o”kZ vkSj mlls vf/kd vk;q ds yksxksa
esa lk{kjrk tula[;k dk vuqikrA

f’k’kq e`R;q nj (Infant Mortality Rate) (IMR) :- fdlh o”kZ esa iSnk gq,
1000 thfor cPpksa esa ls ,d o”kZ dh vk;q ls igys ej tkus okys
cPpksa dk vuqikrA

fuoy mifLFkfr vuqikr (Net Attendance Ratio) :- 6&10 o”kZ dh vk;q ds
Ldwy tkus okys dqy cPpksa dk ml vk;q oxZ ds dqy cPpksa ds
lkFk izfr’krA

vkfFkZd fodkl dh eki (Measurement of Economic Develoment) :- vkfFkZd
fodkl dks ns’k dh jk”Vªh; vk; izfr O;fDr vk; }kjk ekik tkrk gSA



                                                                     56
lrr~ iks”k.kh; fodkl (Sustainable Development) :- lrr~ iks”k.kh; fodkl dk
vFkZ gS fd fcuk i;kZoj.k dks uqdlku igqapk, vkSj orZeku fodkl
dh izfdz;k Hkfo”; dh ihf<+;ksa dh vko’;drk dh vogsyuk u djsaA

‘kjhj nzO;eku lwpdkad (Body Mass Index) (BMI) :- vYiiksf”kr O;Ldksa
dh x.kuk djus dks (Body Mass Index) (BMI) dgk tkrk gSA



In world Develoment Report 2006 brought out by the World Bank. The Criterion is
used in Classifying countries.
fo’o cSad dh fo’o fodkl fjiksVZ ds vuqlkj fodkl dk ekin.M
      os ns’k ftudh 2004 esa izfr O;fDr vk; 4]53]000 :0 izfr o”kZ
ls vf/kd gS] os le`) ns’k gSA vkSj ftudh izfr O;fDr vk; 37]000 :0
izfr o”kZ ls de gS] os fuEu vk; okys ns’k gSA

Hkkjr (India) :- Hkkjr fuEu vk; okys ns’kksa ds vraxZr vkrk gS
D;kasfd bldh izfr O;fDr vk; 2004 ds vuqlkj 28]000 gSA

uohdj.kh; lalk/ku (Renewable Resources) :- ;s os lalk/ku gS tks ,d
fuf’pr le; esa vius vki fQj ls cu tkrs gSA tSls ikuh gok lw;Z
iSk?ks bR;kfn A

xSj&uohdj.kh; lalk/ku (Non-Renewable Resources) :- ;s os lalk/ku gSa
tks lekIr gksus ds ckn fQj ls ugha cu ldrs gSA for example fossil fuel ,
nuclear energy etc

izkd`frd lalk/ku (Natural Resources) :- izd`frd lalk/ku ds foosdiw.kZ
mi;ksx ds fy, fu;kstu ,d loZekU; j.kfufr gS] ftlds }kjk ge lalk/kuksa
fd deh dks iwjk dj ldrs gSA rFkk gesa vR;f/kd uohdj.kh; lalk/ku
dk iz;ksx djuk pkfg, ÅtkZ ds fy,A
How to compare different Countries or State
fofHkUu ns’kksa ;k jkT;ksa fd rqyuk dSls fd tk,%&
fofHkUu ns’kksa fd rqyuk ;k jkT;ksa dh rqyuk mudh vk; ;k izfr
O;fDr vk;] f’k’kq e`R;q nj] lk{kjrk nj rFkk fuoy mifLFkr vuqikr ds
vk/kkj ij dh tk ldrh gSA



                                                                            57
ekuo fodkl fjiksVZ (Human Development Report) :- ;g UNDP }kjk izdkf’kr
gksrh gS tks ns’kksa dh rqyuk yksxksa ds ‘kSf{kd Lrj mudh
LokLF; fLFkfr vkSj O;fDr vk; dss vk/kkj ij djrh gSA
i;kZoj.k (Environment) :- Ik;kZoj.k ls vfHkizk; mu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls gS
ftuls fdlh Hkh LFkku ij fdlh Hkh le; euq”; f?kjk jgrk gSA

( Meaning of Gross Enrollment Ratio for three Levels ) :-
rhuksa Lrjksa ds fy, ldy ukekadu dk vFkZ %& izkFkfed
Ldwy] ek/;kfed Ldwy vkSj mlls vkxs mPp f’k{kk ds ukekadu
vuqikr dk dqy ;ksxA

izfrO;fDr vk; dh x.kuk (Calculation of Per Capital Income) :- lHkh
ns’kksa esa izfrO;fDr vk; dh x.kuk MkWyj esa dh tkrh gSA ;g bl
rjhds ls dh tkrh gS fd MkWyj fdlh Hkh ns’k esa leku ek=k esa
oLrq vksj lsoka, [kjhn ldsaA

‘kjhj nzO;eku lwpdkad dh x.kuk dSls djrs gS (How to Measure the
Body Mass Index) :- fdlh O;fDr dk Hkkj fdyksxzke esa fyft, vksj mldh
yEckbZ ehVj esa yhft,A fQj Hkkj dks yackbZ ds oxZ ls Hkkx
fnft,A vxj ;g la[;k 18.5 ls de gs rks og O;fDr dks vYiiksf”kr dgk
tk,xk vkSj 25 ls vf/kd gS rks og vfr Hkkfjr gSA bl izdkj BMI dh
x.kuk dh tkrh gSA



i;kZoj.k âkL; (Enviroment degradation) :- Ik;kZoj.k âkL; dk vFkZ gs
i;kZoj.k fd xq.koRrk esa deh vkuk ;g deh vfrtUkla[;k vkSj
izkd`frd lalk/kuksa ds nksgu ls gksrh gSA

ueZnk cpkvksa vkanksyu (Narmada Bachao Andolan) :-
fHkUUk&fHkUu yksxksa ds fHkUUk y{; gksrs gS m|ksxifr unh ij
cka/k pkgrk gS tcfd vkfnoklh cka/k ugh pkgrs gaS D;ksafd mu
yksxksa dk thou vLr O;Lr gks tkrk gS] os cs?kj gks tk,xsa tcfd
fdlku cka/k bl fy, pkgrk gS D;ksafd blds }kjk og vius [ksrksa fd
flapkbZ dj ldrk gS A




                                                                    58
dsjy vkSj fcgkj dh rqyuk (Comparision of keral and Bihar) :- dsjy f’k’kq
e`R;q nj fcgkj ls de gS] D;kasfd ;g LokLF; vkSj f’k{kk dh ekSfyd
lqfo/kk,a Ik;kZIr ek=k esa miyC/k gSA

Hkkjr esa fodkl (Development in India) :- Hkkjr esa izfrO;fDr vk; f’k{kk
vkSj LokLF; fd lqfo/kkvksa esa lq/kkj djds fd;k tk ldrk gSA
o”kZ 2004 ds fy, Hkkjr vkSj mlds iM+kslh ns’kksa ds dqN
vkadM+s
ns’k         izfrO;fDr tUe ds lk{kjrk nj 3 Lrjksa fo’o esa
             vk;         le;            15 o”kZ ds fy, ldy ekuo fodkl
             vejhdh      lEHkkfor dh                 ukekadu lwpdkad
             MkWyj       vk;q           tUkla[;k     vuqikr      (HDI)   dk
             esa                        ds fy,                   dzekad
Jhyadk       4390        74             91           69          93
Hkkjr        3139        64             61           60          126
E;kuekj      1027        61             90           48          130
ikfdLrku     2225        63             50           35          134
usiky        1490        62             50           61          138
ckaXykns’k 1870          63             41           53          137

fodflr vkSj fodkl'khy vFkZO;oLFkk esa vUrj (Difference between
Developed and Developing Countries)
fodflr vFkZO;oLFkk&% 1- fodflr ns'kksa esa vkS/kksfxd {ks=
cMk gksrk gSA
og vk/kqfud VsDuksykWth ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA 2- blesa
oLrqvksa dk mRiknu vf/kd gksrk gSA 3- blesa iw¡tha dk vf/kd
egRo gksrk gSA 4- blesa ykxksa dk thou Lrj mpk gksrk gSA
mnkgj.k ds fy, vesfjdk] ;wŒ dsŒ] teZuh Qzkal tkiku bR;kfn

fodkl'khy vFkZO;oLkFkk&% 1- blesa d`f”k rFkk xzkeh.k {ks=
dk vf/kd egRo gksrk gSA 2- bldk vkfFkZd {ks= dkWQh fiNM+k
gksrk gSA 3- bu ns'kksa esa vkfFkZd {ks=ksa esa vlekurk ik;h
tkrh gSA 4- xjhch dh lEkL;k rFkk izfr O;fDr vk; de gksrh gSA
tula[;k dk vkdkj cM+k gksrk gSA jkstxkj de gksrs gSaA blds
vUrZxr Hkkjr Jhyadk ikfdLrku bR;kfn vkrs gSaA
/kkj.kh;rk dk fo”k; fodkl ds fy,& (Subject of Sustainability for
Devepoment)% izd`fr ds lalk/kuksa dk bLrseky bl izdkj djuk pkfg,
fd mudk vfLrRo lekIr u gks ;fn ge izd`fr ds lalk/kuksa dk
                                                                      59
bLrseky vko';drk vf/kd djsaxsa rks tYnh lekIr gks tk;saxsA mudh
ccZknh dks R;kx dj mfpr iz;ksx djuk pkfg,A oU; [kfut lalk/kuksa
dks ekuo 'kks”k.k cpkuk pkfg,A gesa lhek jg dj lalk/kuksa dk
mfpr iz;ksx djuk pkfg,A blesa gh gekjh vkSj vkxkeh ihM+h dh
HkykbZ fNih gSA




 1.   vkfFkZd fodkl fdls dgrs gS \
 2.   fuoy mifLFkr vuqikr D;k gS \
 3.   izfrO;fDr vk; dh x.kuk dSls fd tkrh gS \
 4.   jk”Vªh; vk; fdls dgrs gSa fdlh ns’k fd vk; dSls ekih tkrh gS \
 5.   ‘kjhj nzO;eku lwpdkad D;k gS . DPS vkSj HDI dk iwjk uke
      fy[kksa \
 6.   fo’o caSd ds vuqlkj fuEu vkSj vf/kd vk; okys ns’kksa dh
      x.kuk dSls fd tkrh gS \
 7.   fuoy mifLFkr vuqikr D;k gS \
 8.   izfrO;fDr vk; dh x.kuk dSls dh tkrh gS \



Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk ds {ks=d
Sector of the Indian Economy

Classification of sectors of an Indian economy
Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk esa {ks=dksa dk oxhZdj.k %&
 izkFkfed {ks=d (Primary Sector) :- tc ge izkd`frd lalk/kuksa ¼lw;Z]
o”kkZ vkSj tyok;q½ dk mi;ksx djds fdlh oLrq dk mRiknu djrs gS]
izkFkfed {ks=d xfrfof/k dgk tkrk gSA tSls& d`f”k] Ms;jh] eRL;u]
ou bR;kfnA
Why are primary
;s izkFkfed D;ksa gS %& D;ksafd ;s lh/ks gesa izd`fr ls izkIr
gksrs gSA rFkk ;s leLr m|ksxksa dk vk/kkj gSA vf/kdk’ka oLrq
izkFkfed {ks= ls vkrh gS] blh fy, izkFkfed {ks=d esa vf/kd jkstxkj
gksrk gSA



                                                                  60
f}rh;d {ks=d (Secoundery Sector) :- blds varxZr izkd`frd mRiknksa
dks ekuoh; dkS’ky ds }kjk fofuekZ.k ds tfj, vU; :iksa esa ifjofrZr
fd;k tkrk gSA ;gka oLrqa, lh/kh izd`fr ls mRikfnr ughaa gksrh
gSA ;g izfdz;k dkj[kkuksa ;k fdlh dk;Z’kkyk ;k ?kj esa gks ldrh
gS] ;g {ks=d m|ksxkss ls tqM+k gqvk gS] blfy, bls vkS|ksfxd
{ks=d (Industrial Sector ) Hkh dgrs gSA

 r`rh;d {ks=d (Tertiary Sector) :- ;s xfrfof/k;ka izkFkfed vkSj f}rh;d
{ks=d ds fodkl esa enn djrh gS tSls ifjogu] cSad] lapkj vkSj
Hka.Mkj.kA ;s {ks=d oLrq fuekZ.k ds ctk; lsokvksa dk l`tu djrs
gSA blhfy, bu {ks=d dks lsok {ks=d ( Service Sector) Hkh dgrs gSA
blds vUrZxr Vhpj] MkDVj] dkWylsaVj] ;krk;kr] Ik;VZu bR;kfnA

ldy ?kjsyw mRikn GDP (Gross Domestic Product)) :- fdlh fo’ks”k o”kZ
esa izR;sd {ks=d ds }kjk mRikfnr vafre oLrqvksa vkSj lsokvksa
dk ewY; ( ml o”kZ es {ks=d ds dqy mRiknu dh tkudkjh iznku djrk
gSA vFkkZr rhuksa {ks=d ds mRiknu ds ;ksxQy dks th0Mh0ih0
dgrs gSA Hkkjr esa th0Mh0ih0 ekiu tSlk dfBu dk;Z dsUnz ljdkj
ds eU=ky; }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA

vf/kdka’k yksx dgka fu;ksftr gSa (Where are most of the people
employed) :- lu~ 2000 esa vk/ks ls T;knk yksx izkFkfed {ks= esa
yxs FksA ijUrq 2003 ls r`rh;d {ks=d esa jkstxkj dk foLrkj gqvkA
bl izdkj le; ifjorZu ds lkFk jkstxkj ds {ks=d eas Hkh ifjorZu vk
tkrk gSA

csjkstxkjh (Unemployment) :-

vYi csjkstxkjh (Under unemployment) :- tc d`f”k eas vko’;drk ls vf/kd
yksx yxs gksrs gaS vfrfjDr yksxksa dks gVkus ls Hkh dk;Z
izHkkfor ugha gksrk gSA d`f”k {ks= es vYi csjkstxkjh xaHkhj
fLFkfr cuh gqbZ gSA dqN ,sls yksx gaS ftUgas fcYdqy jkstxkj
ugha feyk gksrk gSA vYi csjkstxkjh nwljs {ks=d esa Hkh gks
ldrh gSA ‘kgjksa esa Hkh gtkjksa vfu;fer Jfed gaS tks nSfud
jkstxkj ryk’k djrs gaSA



                                                                    61
y{eh ds [ksr ij iwjk o”kZ ifjokj ds lHkh lnL; blfy, dke djrs gaS
D;ksafd mUgs dgha vkSj dk;Z ugha feyrk gSaA tgka [ksr ij nks
yksxksa dh t:jr gS ogka ikap yksx dke dj jgsa gaSA


Difference between open unemployment and disguised unemployment –
[kqyh csjkstxkjh vkSj izPNUu csjkstxkjh esa varj :- [kqyh
csjkstxkjh og gS ftlesa yksx dke djuk pkgrs gS] ijUrq mUgs
jkstxkj ugha feyrk vkssSsj os csdkj cSBs gksrs gaSA izPNUu
csjkstxkjh og dke dj jgs gksrs gaS] ijUrq viuh {kerk ls de dke
djrs gaSA [kqyh csjkstxkjh esa i<+s fy[ks yksxksa esa ikbZ tkrh
gS vkSj izPNUu csjkstxkjh d`f”k {ks= esa ikbZ tkrh gSA ’kgjh
{ks= esa izPNUu csjkstxkjh mnkgj.k gS& iyEcj] isaVj bR;kfn
tgka os iwjk fnu chrk nsrs gaS ij dke de feyrk gSA

(How to create more employment)
 vfrfjDr jkstxkj dk l`tu dSls gks %& dqvksa] ugjksa] iqyksa]
cka/k dk fuekZ.k djds cSad _.k iznku dj ds] xkoksa es flapkbZ
vkSj vU; lqfo/kkvksa esa o`f) djds fdlkuksa dks ykHk ds lkFk
csjkstxkjh nwj gks ldrh gSA[ksrksa dh flapkbZ ds fy, u;s ck/kksa
dk fuekZ.k fd;k tk;s rFkk ugjas [kksnh tk;s blls d`f”k {ks= esa
jkstxkj ds u;s volj l`ftr gks tkrs gaSA ;fn ljdkj ifjogu HkaMjksa ij
csgrj xkzeh.k lM+dksa ds fuekZ.k ij dqN ,slk fuos’k djrh gS] rks
bl dk;Z ls dsoy fdlkuksa dks gh jkstxkj ugha feyrk CkfYd ifjogu
esa yxs yksxkas dks Hkh jkstxkj feyrk gSA

ljdkj ds }kjk csjkstxkjh nwj djus ds mik; %& dke dk vf/kdkj
dk ykxw djds] bls jk”Vªh; xzkeh.k jkstxkj xkjaVh vf/kfu;e 2005
(National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 ) esa ykxw fd;k x;kA ;kstuk
vk;ksx ds v/;;u ds vuqlkj ;fn Ik;ZVu {ks= esa gksrk gS rks ge
izfro”kZ 35 yk[k ls vf/kd yksxksa dks vfrfjDr jkstxkj iznku dj ldrs
gaSA




                                                                       62
Division of Sector as Organised and unorganized-

laxfBr vkSj vlaxfBr ds :i esa {ks=ksa dk foHkktu %&

OrganisedlaxfBr                             UnorganisedvlaxfBr
1& ;s {ks=d ljdkj ds }kjk iathd`r           ;g ljdkj ds fu;a=.k esa ugha
gksrs gaSA                                  gksrk gSA
2& blesa dk;Z] LFkku vkSj                   blesa dk;Z LFkku vkSj jkstxkj
jkstxkj dh vof/k fuf’pr gksrh               dh vof/k fuf’pr ugha gksrh gSA
gSA
3& blesa jkstxkj&lqj{kk jgrh                blesa jkstxkj dh lqj{kk ugha
gSA                                         jgrh gSA
4& mUgs osru ds vfrfjDr                     bles osru ds vfrfjDr vU;
vodk’k lHkqxrku] Hkfo”; fof/k               lqfo/kka, izkIr ugha gksrh gSA
fpfdRlk lqfo/kk vU; lqfo/kk izkIr
gksrk gSA

laxfBr vkSj laxfBr {ks=d esa Jfedksa dh vuqekfur la[;k ¼nl
yk[k esa½
{ks=d (Sector)  laxfBr         vlaxfBr         dqy (Total)
                       (Organised)           (Unorganised)
izkFkfed               2                     240                    442
(Primary)
                 9
f}rh;d (Secondary)                           54                     63
r`rh; (Tertiary) 17                          76                     93
dqy izfr’kr esa 28                           370                    398


LokfeRo vk/kkfjr {ks=d & lkoZtfud vkSj futh {ks=d
Sector in term of ownership – Public and Private

lkoZtfud                                           futh
1& lkoZtfud {ks=d esa vf/kdka’k                    tcfd futh esa ifjlEifRr futh
ifjlEifRr ljdkj ds gkFk esa gksrh                  O;fDr ;k dEiuh ds gkFk esa
gSA                                                gkrh gSA
2& bldk mnns’; ykHk dekuk ugha                     futh {ks= eas mRiknu dk
gksrk gS O;; jkf’k dks dj ds }kjk                  /;s; ykHk dekuk gksrk gSA
izkIr djrh gSA
                                                                             63
3& lHkh phtksa dk mRiknu futh blds varZxr VkVk vk;ju ,ao
{ks=d esa ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA LVhy dEiuh fyfeVsM fVldks
tsls& iqy] lM+ds] jsyos iru] Mkd|j vFkok fjyk;al b.MLVªht
                                   fyfeVsMA

 ljdkj dh izkFkfed ftEesnkjh ( Duties of Government)
vf/kdrj vkfFkZd xfrfof/k;ka ,slh gaS] ftudh izkFkfed ftEesnkjh
ljdkj ij gSA bl ij O;; djuk ljdkj dh vfuok;Zrk gSA f’k{kk] LokLF;]
[kk| lqj{kk] is;ty dh miyC/krk bR;kfnA


 gka Hkkjr es lsod {ks= es nks fofHkUu izdkj ds yksx gksrs
gSaA igys izdkj esa vR;Ur dq’ky vkSj f’kf{kr Jkfedksa dks j[kk
tkrk gSaA tks lhfer gksrh gSaA nwljs izdkj eas NksVh nqdku]
ejEer dk;Z vkSj ifjogu eas vkfn esa yxs gksrs gaSA ftudh la[;k
cgqr vf/kd gksrh gSA ;s yksx cM+h eqf’dy ls thou fuokZg dj ikrs
gaS D;ksafd buds ikl oSdfYid jkstxkj miyC/k ugha gksrkA bles
,d gh izdkj ds yksxksa dks Qk;nk de gS vkSj ‘kks”k.k vf/kd gSA

  1.   izkFkfed {ks= ds nks mRiknksa ds uke crkbZ, \
  2.   r`rh; {ks=d dks lsok {ks=d D;ksa dgk tkrk gS \
  3. (NREGA) ,u0vkj0bZ0th0,0     D;k gS \
  4.   laxfBr vlaxfBr esa pkj vUrj crkbZ, \
  5.   futh lkoZtfud esa nks vUrj crkbZ, \
  6.   csjkstxkjh fdl rjg nwj dh tk ldrh gS \




                                                                64
(Money and Credit)
eqnzk vkSj lk[k

eqnzk (Money):-
     vk/kqfud le; esa eqnzk oLrq vkSj lsokvksa ds vknku iznku
dk ek/;e gSA eqnzk ls dz; fodz; vklku gksrk gSA eqnzk ewY; dk
ekid gSA eqnzk dks dgha Hkh ys tkus esa vklkuh gksrh gSA

fofue;   (Exchange):-   nks   uÉxiÉÑAÉåÇ   ds vknku iznku dks fofue; dgrs
gSA

fofue; ds izdkj (Types of Exchange):- 1:- eqnzk fofue;
                                2:- oLrq fofue;
eqnzk fofue;(Money exchange) :- tc eqnzk ds }kjk oLrq ;k lsoka,
[kjhnh tkrh gS] ExÉå eqnzk fofue; dgrs gS] eÉæxÉå- 10 Ã. qÉæÇ
ÎZÉsÉÉãlÉÉ ZÉUÏSlÉÉ |
oLrq fofue;(Goods             :- ysfdu tc nks uÉxiÉÑAÉåÇ dk
                          exchange)
vknku&iznku gksrk gS rks mls oLrq fofue; dgrs gSA ml oLrq ;k
vko’;drk dks nksgjk la;ksx (Double Coincidence) pÉÏ dgk tkrk gS] tSls
xsgw ds cnys pkoy] nksgjk la;ksx rHkh lEHko gS tc nksuksa
yksxksa dh bPNk ds vuq:Ik oLrq gksA

eqnzk ds vk/kqfud :Ik           (Modern forms of money)%&   eqnzk ds nks :Ik
gSA
                                   1%& dkxth eqnzk ¼dkxt dk uksV½
(Paper Notes)
                                   2%& /kkfRod eqnzk ¼flDds½           (Metal
Currency)

tek ekWx( Demand deposits):- cSd [kkrksa esa tek /ku dks qÉÉðaÉ
ds tfj;s fudkyk tk ldrk gS blfy, bl tek dks tek qÉÉðaÉ dgk tk gSA

ekWx tek eqnzk ds :Ik esa (Demand Deposits as a money)%& qÉÉðaÉ
tek qÉÉðaÉ djus ij pSd ;k eqnzk fudkyus okyh iphZ ds ek/;e ls
Hkqxrku ;ksX; gksrk gS] blfy, bl qÉÉðaÉ tek dsk eqnzk le>k tkrk
gSA

tek ekWx dh fo’ks”krka, (Features of demand deposits)%&
      1%& vko’;drk vuqlkj /ku fudkyus dh lqfo/kk gksrh gSA
                                                                          65
      2%& tek /ku ij lwn ¼C;kt Interest½ Hkh izkIr gksrk gSA
      3%& pssssSd ds }kjk Hkh Hkqxrku gksrk gS] ysfdu cSad
es [kkrk gksuk t:jh gSA

psSd (Cheque):- psd ,d ,slk dkxt gS tks cSad dks fdlh O;fDr ds
[kkrs ls psSsd ij fy[ksa uke ds fdlh nwljs O;fDr dks ,d [kkl jde dk
Hkqxrku djus dk vkns’k nsrk gSA

tekdrkZ (Depositers):- tks yksx tek djrs gSA

dtZnkj (Borrowers):- tks dtZ ysrs gSA

cSad (Bank) :- cSd ,d ,slh laLFkk gS tks ykHk izkIr djus ds
mnns’; ls tek Lohdkj djrh gS] ftldh psSd }kjk Hkqxrku dj fn;k tkrk
gS tks yksxksa dks _.k vkSj vfxze nsrh gSA

cSad ds dk;Z (Functions of Bank):-
1%& cSad turk ls /ku tek [kkrksa es Lohdkj djrk gSA

2%& cSd tek jde dk ,d NksVk fgLlk vius ikl udn ds :Ik esa j[krsa
gS] cpk gqvk fgLlk dtZnkj dks _.k ds :Ik esa iznku djrk gSA

3%& cSad tek ij tekdrkZ dks tks C;kt nsrk gS mlls T;knk C;kt
_.k ij ysrs gS] _.k nsuk cSad dh vk; dk izeq[k L=ksr gSA

4%& cSad dtZnkj vkSj tekdrkZ ds chp e/;LFkrk dk dke djrk gSA

fjtoZ cSad ds dk;Z (Functions of Reserve Bank):-
1%& Hkkjrh; fjtoZ cSad vU; cSdksa dh xfrfof/k;ksa ij utj j[krk
gSA

2%& Hkkjrh; fjtoZ cSd cSdks ij utj j[krk gS fd cSad okLro es uxn
cuk, gq, gSA

3%& fjtoZ cSad bl ij Hkh utj j[krk gS fd cSad dsoy ykHk cukus
okyh bZdkbZ;ksa ;k O;kikfj;ksa dks gh _.k eqgS;k ugh djk jgk
gS] cfYd NksVs fdlku] NksVs dtZnkj dks Hkh _.k ns jgk gSA

                                                                 66
4%& cSadks dks le; le; ij fjtoZ cSad dks ;g crkuk iM+rk gS fd os
fdruk _.k ns jgsa gS] vksj mldh C;kt njsa D;k gSA

5%& ;g Hkkjr dk dsUnzh; cSd gS] ftldks eqnzk tkjh djus dk
vf/kdkj gSA
rkfydk esa fofHkUu yksxkssa ds o;olk; fn[kk;sa x, gS] bu
yksxksa dks _.k dh t:jr fdl mnns’; ls gS] crkb;sA

O;olk; (Occupation)                   _.k ysus ds dkj.k   (Reason for Needing
                                      Credit)
1%& dEI;wVj f’kf{kr Lukrd             dEI;wVj [kjhnusA
Nk=
2%& fnYyh esa izoklh etnwj            >ksiM+h fuekZ.k ds fy, A
3%& vkWVks fjD’kk pkyd                vkWVks fjD’kk [kjhnus ds fy, A
4%& can QSDVªh dk etnwj               Hkkstu O;OLFkk ds fy, A

lk[k (Credit /Loan):- yksxks }kjk futh O;fDr;ksa ;k cSdksa ls fy;k x;k
/kuA

leFkZd _.kk/kkj (Collateral):- m/kkjnkrk dksbZ leFkZd _.kk/kkj
¼fxjoh j[kus ds fy,½ dh ekax djrk gSA leFkZd _.kk/kkj ,slh leifRr
gS fd ftldk ekfyd dtZnkj gksrk gSA ¼tSls Hkwfe bekjr cSad
iwath½ vkSj bldk bLrseky m/kkj nkrk xkjUVh nsus ds :Ik esa
djrk gSA

_.k Qank (Credit trap):- tc _.k vnk;xh dh jkf’k dtZnkj dh vk; ls c<+
tkrh gS] rc og _.k QUns (Credit term) dh fLFkfr gksrh gSA
Hkkjr esa lk[k ds vkSipkfjd vkSj vukSipkfjd lzksr
(Formal and informal Sources of credit in India)
1%& cSad vkSj ljdkjh lfefr;kW vukSipkfjd m/kkjnkrk esa
m/kkjnkrk gksrs gSA            lkgwdkj      O;kikjh]   ekfyd]
                               fj’rsnkj] nksLr bR;kfnA
2%& blesa C;kt dh nj de gksrh bleas C;kt dh nj T;knk gksrh
gSA                            gSA
3%& blesa _.k ysus ds fy, blesa _.k ysus ds fy, leFkZd
leFkZd _.kk/kkj dh t:jr gksrh _.kk/kkj dh t:jr ugh gksrh
gSA                            gSA
4%& blds vUrxZr vf/kdak’k vehj vukSipkfjd L=ksr ls _.k xjhc
                                                                           67
yksx _.k ysrs gSA                    ysrs gSA

Lo;a lgk;rk lewg (SHG) Self Help Group:- ,d fo’ks”k lgk;rk lewg ,d
nwljs ds 15&20 iM+kslh lnL; gksrs gSA tks fu;fer :i ls feyrs gS
vkSj cpr djrs gSA Lo;a lgk;rk lewg dtZnkjksa dks _.kk/kkj dh
deh dh leL;k ;s mHkkjus es enn djrs gS vksj mfpr C;kt nj ij _.k
nsrs gSA budk mnns’; xjhcksa dh enn djuk Lojkstxkj LFkkfir
djkukA budk C;kt lkgwdkj ls de gksrk gSA
           dHkh&dHkh fdlku lkgwdkj ls _.k yssus ds ckn ,sls
ykSVkus esa vleFkZ jgrk gS] D;ksafd mEehn ds vuqlkj mRiknu
;k Qly ugha mxrh gS ftlds dkj.k ml ij C;kt vksj c<+ tkrk gS vkSj
mls mlds cnys viuk ?kj ;k dksbZ vU; lkeku nsuk iM+rk gSA blds
Ckpko ds fy;s vkSipkfjd L=ksrks esa o`f) gksuh pkfg,A rkfd
egaxs vukSipkfjd _.k ij ls fuHkZrk de gksA blh ds lkFk cSad
vkSj lgdkjh lfefr;ksa bR;kfn ls xjhcksa dks feyus okys vkSipkfjd
_.k dk fgLlk c<+kuk pkfg, ;s nksuksa dne fodkl ds fy;s t:jh gSA


1%& eqnzk Money fdls dgrs gS] vk/kqfud le; esa eqnzk ds fdrus :i
gS \
2%& leFkZd _.k/kkj (Collateral) fdls dgrs gS \
3%& ekax tek (Demand deposited) dks eqnzk D;ksa dgk tk ldrk gS \
4%& uksV dkSu tkjh djrk gS \
5%& vkSipkfjd (Formal) vkSj vukSipkfjd (Informal);s /kkj varj crkbZ, \
6%& fjtoZ cSad ;k cSad ds dk;Z crkbZ, \
7%& gesa Hkkjr easa vkSipkfjd L=ksrksa Formal Sources dks
c<+kus dh t:jr D;ksa gS \
8%& ,l0 ,p0 th0 SHG vkSj RBI dk iwjk uke crkb, \
9%& _.k Qank Credit trap D;k gS \




                                                                    68
oS’ohdj.k vkSj Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk
Globalization and the Indian Economy

fuos’k (Investments):- ifjlaifRr;ksa tSls& Hkou] e’khu vkSj midj.kksa
dh [kjhn esa O;; dh xbZ eqnzk dks fuos’k dgrs gSA

varnsZ’kh; mRiknu Production across Countries:-    varnsZ’khZ;
mRiknu ns’k dh lhekvksa ds vanj gh lhfer gksrk gSA

cgqjk”Vªh; daifu;ak Multinational Corporations:- cgqjk”Vªh; daiuh
og gS tks ,d ls vf/kd ns’kksa eas mRiknu ij fu;a=.k vFkok
LokfeRo j[krh gSA ;s daifu;ka vius dkj[kkus mu izns’kksa easa
fLFkr djrh tgka ij mRiknu ds leLr lk/ku vksj Je lLrk gksrk gSA
cgqjk”Vªh; daifu;kW bu ns’kksa dh LFkkuh; daifu;ksa ds lkFk
la;qDr :Ik ls mRiknu djrh gSA ftlls budks nksgjk ykHk izkIr gksrk
gSA

fons’kh fuos’k Foreign Investments:- cgqjk”Vªh; daifu;ksa }kjk fd, x,
fuos’k dks fons’kh fuos’k dgrs gSA fons’kh fuos’k ds }kjk ftl ns’k
esa daifu;ka LFkkfir dh tkrh gS] ogka ij jkstxkj izkIr gksrk gS
vkSj lLrh nj ij oLrqa, izkIr gksrh gSA dksbZ Hkh fuos’k bl vk’kk
ls fd;k tkrk gS dHkh dHkh cgqjk”Vªh; daiuh;ka bu ns’kksa dh
LFkkuh; daifu;ksa ds lkFk mRiknu djrh gSA ftllas LFkkuh;
daifu;ksa dks nksgjk ykHk izkIr gksrk gSA


fons’kh O;kikj Foreign trade:- ,d ns’k dk nwljs ns’kksa ds lkFk
oLrqvksa o lsokvksa dk vk;kr o fu;kZr djuk fons’kh O;kikj dgykrk
gSA fons’kh O;kikj fofHkUu ns’kksa ds O;kikj dks tksM+us vkSj
,dhdj.k esa lgk;d gksrk gSA

oS’ohdj.k Globalization:- gekjh vFkZO;oLFkk dks lalkj dh vU;
vFkZO;oLFkkvksa ls fons'kh O;kikj ,ao fons'kh fuos'k ++}kjk
tksM+uk A bl dk;Z esa cgqjk”Vªh; dEifu;k¡ egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk
fuHkk jgha gSA rFkk fo'o ds vUksd Hkkxksa esa viuh dEifu;k¡
LFkkfir dj jgsa gSA oS’ohdj.k ls vfHkizk; fo’o vFkZO;OLFkk esa
vk, [kqysiu , c<+rh gqbZ ijLij vkfFkZd fuHkZjrk rFkk vkfFkZd
                                                                   69
,dhdj.k ds QSyko ls gSA

mnkjhdj.k Liberalisation:- mnkjhdj.k ls vfHkizk; vFkZO;OLFkk ij
yxs mu izfrca/kks aaij <hy nsuk gS tks fd vFkZ O;oLFkk dks
vkxs c<+krh gSA

vk;kr Import:- vk;kr ls vfHkizk; ml izfdz;k ls gS ftlesa ,d ns’k ls
nwljs ns’k Eksa lkeku [kjhnk tkrk gSA

vUrjk”Vªh; eqnzk dks”k (National Monetary Fund)

O;kikj vojks/kd Trade Barrier:- tc O;kikj ij dksVk] lhek iz’kqYd vkfn
izfrca/k yxk, tkrs gS rks mUgs O;kikj vojks/kd dgk tkrk gSA

fu;kZr Export:- fu;kZr ls vfHkizk; ml izfdz;k ls gS ftlesa ,d ns’k
nwljs ns’k dks lkeku csprk gSA

World trade organization
fo’o O;kikj laxBu (W.T.O) :- fo’o O;kikj laxBu (W.T.O) ,d ,slk laxBu
gS ftldk mnns’; vrajk”Vªh; O;kikj dks mnkj cukuk gSA bldk
eq[;ky; tsusok esa gSA orZeku esa fo’o ds 149 ns’k fo’o O;kikj
laxBu ds lnL; gSA

eqDr O;kikj (Free Trade):- tc nks ns’kksa ds chp O;kikj fcuk fdlh
izfrca/k ds gksrk gS rks mls eqDr O;kikj dgrs gSA

vkfJr O;kikj (Dependent trade):- Hkkjr dk fons’kh O;kikj cSdksa]
chek daifu;ksa rFkk tgkt+ daifu;ksa ij vkfJr gSA

izkSn;ksfxdh (Technology) :- izkSn;ksfxdh og rhoz eq[; dkjd gS
ftlus oS’ohdj.k dh izfdz;k dks mRizsfjr fd;k gSA

Je&dkuwuksa dk yphykiu (Flexibility of Labour Laws) :- bleasa ;g
O;oLFkk gksrh gS fd Jfedks dks dHkh Hkh dke ls gVk;k tk ldrk
gSA bldk vFkZ gS fd Jfedksa dk jkstxkj yacs le; rd lqfuf’pr ugha
gksrk gSA


                                                                   70
LFkk;h Jfed (Permanent labour) :- ftu Jfedksa dks o”kZ Hkj fu;fer
jkstxkj feyrk gS mUgs LFkk;h Jfed dgrs gSA

vLFkk;h Jfed ( Temporary Labour)%& ftu Jfedksa dks o”kZ Hkj
LFkk;h dke ugha feyrk gS] os vLFkk;h Jfed gSA

cktkjksa dk ,dhdj.k ( Unification of Markets )%& fons’kh O;kikj ds tfj,
gh cktkjksa dk ,dhdj.k laHko gqvk gSA

oS’ohdj.k dks laaHko cukus okys dkjd ( Factors Which Makes
Globalisation Possible)& izkSn;ksfxdh esa rhoz mUufr gh eq[; dkjd gS
ftlus oS’ohdj.k dh izfdz;k dks lEHko fd;k gSA

fo’ks”k vkfFkZd {ks= ( Special Economy Area ) %& fo’ks”k vkfFkZd
{ks= LFkkfir m|ksxks dk og {ks= gS tgka fo’o Lrjh; lqfo/kka,
fctyh] ikuh] lM+d] ifjogu] HkaMkj.k] euksjatu vkSj ‘kSf{kd
lqfo/kak, miyC/k djokbZ xbZ gSA bl {ks= esa mRiknu bdkb;ka
yxkus okyh daifu;ksa dks ‘kq: ds 5 o”kksZ rd dksbZ dj ugha
nsuk iM+rk gSA


QksMZ eksVlZ Ford Motors %& ,d vesfjdu daiuh QksMZ eksVlZ
fo’o ds 26 ns’kksa esa izlkj ds lkFk fo’o dh lcls cM+h daiuh gSA
cgqjk”Vªh; daifu;ksa ls mRiknu fu;af=r djrh gSA ;g fodkl’khy
ns’kksa ds NksVs mRikndksa dks mRiknu dk vkMZj nsrh gSA
;g cgqjk”Vªh; daifu;kW cus eky ij vius czkaM ds uke ls
xzkgdksa dks csprh gSA

U;k;laxr oS’ohdj.k ( Fair Globalisation):- U;k; laxr oS’ohdj.k lHkh ds
fy, volj iznku djsxk vkSj ;g lqfuf’pr djsxk fd oS’ohdj.k ds ykHkksa
eas lcdh csgrj fgLlsnkjh gksA
      ljdkj bls laHko cukus esa egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkk ldrh
gSA bldh fufr;kas dks dsoy /kuh vkSj izHkko’kkyh yksxks rd
lhfer ugha djuk pkfg, cfYd ns’k ds lHkh yksxksa ds fgrksa dk
laj{k.k djuk pkfg,A ljdkj ;g lqfuf’pr djsa fd Jfed dkuwu dk mfpr
fdz;kUo;u gks ;fn t:jh gqvk rks vFkkZr ;fn ns’k izfrLi/kkZ djus eas
l{ke ugha gS rks ljdkj , O;kikj vkSj fuos’k vojks/k dk mi;ksx dj
ldrh gSA
                                                                     71
Hkkjr eas oS’ohdj.k dk izHkko (Impact of Globalization in India) :-
          cgqjk”Vªh; daiuh;ksa us Hkkjr esa vius fuos’k es ozf)
dh gSA bl fuos’k ls u, m|ksx vkSj lsokvksa esa u, jkstxkj mRiUu
gq, gS rFkk LFkkuh; daiuh le`) gqbZ gSaA miHkksaDrk ds
lkeus oLrq pquus ds fy, igys ls vf/kd fodYi gSA yksx de dher ls
ykHkkfUor gks jgs gSA ;s yksx igys dh rqyuk esa vkt mPp thou
Lrj dk vkuUn ys jgsa gSA
          vusd ‘kh”kZ Hkkjrh; daifu;ka c<+h gq;h izfrLi/kkZ ls
ykHkkfUor gqbZ gSA bu daifu;ksa us uohure izkS|ksfxdh vkSj
mRiknu iz.kkyh esa fuos’k fd;k gS vkSj vius mRiknu ekudksa
dks Åapk fd;k gSA oS’ohdj.k us dqN c<+h Hkkjrh; daifu;ksa dks
cgqjk”Vªh; daiuh ds :i esa mHkkjus ;ksX; cuk;k gS tSls VkVk
eksVlZ ¼eksVj xkfM+;ka½ baQksfll ¼vkbZ0 Vh0½] jSucSDlh
¼nokb;ak½ ,f’k;u isVal ¼isaV½ lqanje QkLulZ ¼uV vkSj
cksYV½ dqN ,slh Hkkjrh; daifu;ka gSA

How is Information technology connected with Globalization:-
lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh oS’ohdj.k ls dSls tqM+h gS %& gky gh
ds dqN le; esa lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh esa rsth ls ifjorZu gqvk gSA
nwjlapkj lqfo/kkvksa dh lgk;rk ls laiw.kZ fo’o esa ljyrk ls okrkZyki
fd;k tk jgk gSA fofHkUu cgqjk”Vªh; daifu;ka Hkkjr tSsls
fodkl’khy ns’kksa esa dWky lsUVj LFkkfir djds fo’o esa QSys
xzkgdksa dksa tkudkjh iznku dj jgh gSaA blds dkj.k lkjh
cgqjk”Vªh; daifu;ka vk’kk ls vf/kd ykHk vftZr dj jgh gSA
      phu ds cktkjksa esa Hkkjr ls bLikr dk vk;kr fdl izdkj
nksuksa ns’kksa ds bLikr cktkj ds ,dhdj.k esa lgk;rk djsxk (
How will the import of steel from India into the chineese markets lead to Integration of
markets for steel in two countries explain ):-
               phu ds cktkjksa esa Hkkjr ls bLikr dk vk;kr
nksuksa ns’kksa dh bLikr dk vk;kr nksuksa ns’kksa dh bLikr
daifu;ksa dh izfrfuf/k;ksa ds vkokxeu dks c<+k,xkA nksuksa
ns’kksa ds mRiknd la;qDr midze ds :Ik esa Hkh dk;Z dj ldrs gS
Hkkjr esa bLikr ls rS;kj gksus okyh oLrqa, vklkuh ls phu Hkssth
tk ldsaxhA blh izdkj phu ls bLikr ls rS;kj gskus okyh oLrqa,
vklkuh ls Hkkjr Hksth tk ldsxhA nksuska ns’k vPNs fe=ksa dh
rjg oLrqvksa rFkk lsokvksa dk fofue; dj ldrs gSA


                                                                                     72
Small Producers in India what are the things to compete better in the market :-
Hkkjr ds y?kq mRikndksa dks cktkj esa izfrLi/kkZ ds fy, fdu
phtksa dh vko’;drk gksrh gSA
d½ 1& Hkkjrh; mRikndksa ds fy, csgrj lM+ds] fctyh] ikuh] dPpk
eky] foi.ku vkSj lwpuk ra=A
   2& izk};ksfxdh esa lq/kkj ,ao vk/kqfuddj.kA
   3& mfpr C;kt nj ij ¼lk[k Credit½ dh le; ij miyC/krk vko’;d gSA
csgrj lM+dksa ls ifjogu esa fctyh&ikuh dPpk eky vkfn] oLrqvkas
dk rhozrk ls mRiknu djus] foi.ku vkSj lwpuk eky dk fodz; djus
eas] izkn;ksfxdh eas lq/kkj ,ao vk/kqfudhdj.k ls oLrqvksa dh
xq.koRrk dks c<kusa esa rFkk mfpr O;; nj ij lk[k dh miyC/krk ls
Hkkjrh; mRikndks dks lgk;rk izkIr gksxhA
[k½ gka ge ekurs gS fd cgqjk”Vªh; daifu;kW bu {ks=ksa esa
fuos’k djus ds fy, bPNqd gksxh D;ksafd bu {ks=ksaa esa
cgqjk”Vªh; daifu;ksa dks cgqr vf/kd ykHk gks ldrk gSA
?k½ gka ] ge bl ckjs esa lq>ko ns ldrs gS fd ljdkj fons’kksa esa
jgus okys Hkkjrh; yksxksa dks Hkkjr es mifLFkr cgqjk”Vªh;
daifu;ksa dks iwath fuoss’k ds fy, vkeaf=r djsaA
            bl izdkj ge dg ldrs gS fd oS’ohdj.k rhoz ,dhdj.k dh
izfdz;k gSA ;g vR;f/kd fons’kh fuos’k vkSj fons’kh O;kikj ds dkj.k
izfl) gks jgk gSA cgqjk”Vªh; daifu;Wk oS’ohdj.k dh izfdz;k esa
egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkk jgh gSA vf/kd ls vf/kd cgqjk”Vªh;
daifu;ka mu fons’kkas dh [kkst dj jgh gSA tks mRiknu ds fy;s
lLrs gSa blds varxZr izkS|kSfxd vkSj lwpuk us cM+h Hkwfedk
fuHkkbZ gSA O;kikj ls vojks/kdks dks gVk dj oS’ohdj.k dks lqxe
cuk;k gSA oS’ohdj.k dk mnns’; U;k;laxr voljksa dk lt`u djuk gS]
ftlls lHkh dks ykHk gks jgk gSA

1) I.M.F dk iwjk uke fy[kksasA
2) W.T.O dk iwjk uke vkSj bldk eq[;ky; dgk gS \
3) Hkkjr dks oS’ohdj.k ls D;k ykHk gS \
4)& cgqjk”Vªh; daifu;ksa ls vki D;k le>rs gS \
5)& fons’kh O;kikj vkSj fuos’k ls vki D;k le>rs gS \
                                                                                  73
6)& O;kikj vojks/kd D;k gS \
7) Je dkuwu dk yphykiu D;k gS \
8) U;k; laxr oS’ohdj.k ls vki D;k le>rs gks \ Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk
eas osSs’ohdj.k ds vPNs vkSj cqjs izHkko crkb, \




Consumer Rights
miHkksDrk vf/kdkj
miHkksDrk (Consumer) :- tc dksbZ O;fDr fdlh oLrq ;k lsok ds fy,
mldh dher pqdkrs gSa rks ge mls miHkksDrk dgrs gaSA

miHkksaDrk ‘kks”k.k (Consumer Exploitation) :- tc nqdkunkj [kjkc
oLrq ;k lsokvksa ds fy, vf/kd ewY; ysdj geas Bx ysrk gS] mls
miHkksDrk ‘kks”k.k dgrs gaSA

feykoV (Adulteration) :- vf/kd ykHk dekus ds yksHk esa egaxs
[kkn~; inkFkksZ esa ?kfV;k inkFkksaZ dks feykuk gh feykoV
dgykrh gSA

miHkksDrkvksa ds ‘ks”k.k ds dkj.k (Reasons of consumer
Exploitation) :- lhfer lwpuk] lhfer vkiwfrZ] lhfer izfrLi/kkZ o lk{kjrk de
gksuk vkfn gSA

ekudhdj.k (Standardisation) :- ekudhdj.k mRiknksa dh xq.koRrk dh
tkap djus gsrq laLFkk dh LFkkiuk dh gSA ISI ,xWekdZ]
gksyekdZ fpUg ekudhdj.k oLrq dh ‘kq)rk ds fy, bu fpUgksa dks
izkFkfedrk nhA


                                                                        74
miHkksDrk vf/kdkj (Consumer Rights) :- miHkksDrk ds fgrksa ds
lqj{kk ds fy, fn, x, vf/kdkj] lqj{kk dk vf/kdkj (lwpuk dk vf/kdkj]
pquus dk vf/kdkj rFkk f’k{kk dk vf/kdkj vkfnA

cktkj esa miHkksDrk (Consumer in Market) :- ckt+kj esa miHkksDrk
dh Hkkxhnkjh mRiknd vkSj miHkksDrk nksuksa :iks eas gkrh
gSA

miHkksDrk vkanksyu (Consumer Movement) :- ;g miHkksDrkvksa ds
fgrksas dh lqj{kk djus vkSj izksRlkfgr djus dh vko’;drk ij cy nsrk
gSA

miHkksDrk baVjus’kuy (Consumer International) :- ;g varjk”Vªh; Lrj ij
miHkksaDrk vkanksyu dk vk/kkj gSA vkt miHkksDrk baVjus’kuy
100 ls Hkh vf/kd ns’kksa ds 240 laLFkkvksa dh ,d laj{kd cu
xbzZ gSA
miHkksDrk lqj{kk dkuwu (Consumer Protection Act. 1986) :- ;g dkuwu
bl fy, cuk;k x;k rkfd miHkksDrk ds nq[kksa dks vf/kd ljyrk rFkk
rsth ls lquk tk ldsA bls COPRA Hkh dgk tkrk gSA

lkoZtfud forj.k iz.kkyh (Public distribution System) :- lkoZtfud forj.k
iz.kkyh ,d ,slh izfdz;k ftlesa vko’;d oLrqvksa dks de ewY; ij
miHkksDrkvksa dks miyC/k djk;k tkrk gS tks vkfFkZd n`f”V ls
detksj gksrss gSA

oLrq dh xq.koRrk (Goods of quality) :- blesa oLrq ds xq.kksa esa
gksus okys ifjorZu rFkk xq.k vHkko dks jksdus ls miHkksDrk
dks laj{k.k feyrk gSA Hkkjr esa bls BIS ls tkuk tkrk gSA

,xekdZ (Agmark) :- ;g oLrq dh lR;rk dk izrhd gS] ;g ‘kgn] elkyss
tSlh oLrqvksa ij fpfUgr gksrk gSA

vf/kdre [kqnjk ewY; (Maximum retail Price) :- oLrqvksa ds iSdsV ij
Nik ewY; gksrk gS ftl ij miHkksDr eksy&Hkko dj ldrs gaSA

The consumer protuction Act (1986) ensures the following as rights which every
consumer in India should possess-



                                                                           75
miHkksDrk lqj{kk vf/kfu;e ¼1986½                           miHkksDrk        dks
fuEufyf[kr vf/kdkj iznku djrk gS %&
      1& p;u dk vf/kdkj              1& Right to Choice
      2& lwpuk dk vf/kdkj            2& Right to information
      3& fuokj.k dk vf/kdkj          3& Right to redressal
      4& izfrfuf/kRo dk vf/kdkj      4& Right to representation
      5& lqj{kk dk vf/kdkj           5& Right to safety
      6& miHkksDrk f’k{kk dk vf/kdkj      6& Right to                    consumer
education

The Difference between consumer protection council and consumer court-
miHkksDrk laj{k.k ifj”kn ,ao miHkksDrk vnkyr esa varj
     Hkkjr eas miHkksDrk vkanksyu us fofHkUu laxBuksa ds
fuekZ.k eas igy dh gSA          ftUgsas miHkksDrk vnkyr ,ao
miHkksDrk laj{k.k ifj”kn ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA ;s
miHkksDrkvksa dk ekxZ n’kZu djrh gS fd dSls miHkksDrk vnkyr
esa eqdnek ntZ djk,A cgqr ls voljksa ij ;s miHkksDrk vnkyr esa
O;fDr fo’ks”k dk izfrfuf/kRo Hkh djrs gSA ;s Lo;a lsoh laxBu turk
esa tkx:drk iSnk djus ds fy, ljdkj ls foRrh; lg;ksx Hkh izkIr djrs
gaSA

miHkksDrk laj{k.k ifj”kn (COPRA) %& dksijk ds varxZr
miHkksDrk fooknksa ds fuiVkjsa ds fy, ftyk Lrj] jkT; vkSj jk”Vªh;
Lrj ij ,d frzLrjh; ra= LFkkfir fd;k x;k gSA ftldk mn~ns’; miHkksDrk
dks U;k; fnykuk gSA blds }kjk ljdkj dkuwuh izfdz;k ds ckjs esa
ukxfjd dks voxr djkrh gSA

Factors of consumer Exploitation-
miHksDrk ‘kks”k.k ds dkjd %&
  1. feykoV dh leL;k
  2. de rksy ds }kjk
  3. de xq.koRrk okyh oLrq
  4. Åaph dher ds }kjk
  5. MqIyhdsV oLrqvksa ds }kjk


National Consumer Day in India –




                                                                              76
Hkkjr esa jk”Vªh; miHkksDrk fnol %& 24 fnlEcj dks Hkkjr esa
jk”Vªh; miHkksDrk fnol ds :i esa euk;k tkrk gSA 1986 esa blh
fnu laln us miHkksDrk laj{k.k vf/kfu;e (COPRA) ikfjr fd;k FkkA
World Consumer right Day
fo’o miHkksDrk vf/kdkj fnol %& ;g iwjs fo’o esa 15 ekpZ dks
euk;k tkrk gSA



For the following products/Services discuss what safety rules should be observed by the
producer –
fuEufyf[kr mRiknksa@lsokvksa ij ppkZ djsa fd bueas
mRikndksa }kjk fdu lqj{kk fu;eksa dk ikyu djuk pkfg, %

¼d½ ,y0 ih0 th0 flfyaMj LPG Cylinder%& mRikndkas daiuh dks
izR;sd flfyaMj esa xSsl Hkjokrs le; flfyaMj rFkk xSl dk otu
vyx&vyx ekiuk pkfg,A D;ksafd xSl Hkjokrs le; gks ldrk gS fd
deZpkjh flfyaMj ds otu dks /;ku esa j[ks fcuk de xSl Hkj ldrk gSA
flfyaMj ij mlds mi;ksx ds ckjs esa vo’; fy[kk gksuk pkfg,A
xzkgdksa dks ysrs le; mldh lhy dh tkap djuh pkfg, vkSj ;g Hkh
ns[kuk pkfg, fd dgha og yhd rks ugh gks jgh gSA

¼[k½ nokb;ka (Medicines) %& mRikndks dks nokb;ka cukrs le;
lHkh LokLF; fu;eksa ,ao fu/kkfjZr jlk;uksa dk gh iz;ksx djuk
pkfg,A fdlh Hkh izdkj ds vizekf.kr jlk;u dk iz;ksx ugha djuk
pkfg,A cukbZ xbZ nokbZ;ksa ij mudh dher] QkewZys] lekfIr
frfFk vkfn fy[kuh pkfg,A
¼x½ [kk| rsy Edible Oil %& [kk| rsy lhy can fMCcksa ;k iSdsVksa
esa gksuk pkfg,A bu iSdsVksa ij fuekZ.k frfFk] lekfIr frfFk]
fu/kkfjr dher rFkk vkbZ0 ,l0 vkbZ0 dk VªsMekdZ gksuk pkfg,A

Learning to become well-informed consumer –
tkx:d miHkksDrk ds fy, vko’;d ckrsa %& tc ge fofHkUu
oLrq,a vkSj lsok,a [kjhnrs oDr] miHkksDrk ds :Ik esa vius
vf/kdkjksa ds izfr lpsr gksaxs] rc ge vPNs vkSj cqjs esa QdZ
djus rFkk Js”B pquko djus esa l{ke gksaxsA ,d tkx:d miHkksDrk
cuus ds fy, fuiq.krk vkSj Kku izkIr djus dh t:jr gksrh gSA gesa
vius vf/kdkjksas ds izfr lpsr gksuk pkfg,A

                                                                                    77
miHkksDrk vkUnksyu (Consumer Movement) %& miHkksDrk
vkUnksyu dk izkjEHk miHkksDrk ds vlarks”k ds dkj.k gqvk
izkjEHk esa miHkksDrk dks ‘ksk”k.k ls cpkus ds fy, dkuwu ugha
FksA yEcsa le; ds ckn Hkkjr o iwjs fo’o esa miHkksDrk laj{k.k
dkuwu cuk;s x;s gSaA
      Hkkjr esa lkekftd cy ds :Ik esa miHkksDrk vkUnksyu dk
tUe gqvkA vR;f/kd [kk| deh] tek[kksjh] dkykcktkjh] feykoV rFkk
oLrq xq.koRrk dh deh ds dkj.k 1960 ds n’kd esa O;ofLFkr :Ik
esa miHkksDrk vkUnksyu dk mn; gqvkA 1970 ds n’kd rd
miHkksDrk laLFkk,a o`gr Lrj ij miHkksDrk vf/kdkj ls lEcaf/kr
vkys[kksa ds ys[ku vkSj izn’kZu dk vk;kstu dk dk;Z djus yxh
FkhA bu lHkh iz;klksa ds QyLo:Ik 1986 esa miHkksDrk laj{k.k
vf/kfu;e cuk Fkk tks COPRA ds uke ls izfl) gSA

vkbZ0,l0vkbZ0 vkSj ,xekdZ(ISI and AGMARK) %& fofHkUu
oLrq,a [kjhnrs le; vkius vkoj.k ij fy[ks v{kjksa&vkbZ0 ,l0 vkbZ]
,xekdZ ;k gkWyekdZ ds ‘kCn fpUgksa dkss vo’; ns[kk gksxkA tc
miHkksDrk dksbZ oLrq ;k lsoka, [kjhnrk gS] rks ;s izek.kd fpUg
mUgs xq.koRrk lqfuf’pr djus esa enn djrs gaSA ysfdu lHkh
mRikndksa dks bu ekun.Mksa dk ikyu djuk t:jh ugha gSA

  1.   Hkkjr esa jk”Vªh; miHkksDrk fnol dc euk;k tkrk gS \

  2.   miHkksDrk laj{k.k vf/kfu;e   (COPRA)   D;k gS \ dksijk dk iwjk
       uke (full form) fy[kksa \

  3.   nks izek.kd fpUg crkbZ, tks oLrq fd xq.koRrk ds fy, iz;ksx
       fd;s tkrs gSA
  4.   dksijk ds vUrZxr miHkksDrk fooknksa ds fuiVkjs ds fy;s
       dkSu ls U;kf;d rU= LFkkfir fd;s gaS \
  5.   Hkkjr esa jk”Vªh; miHkksDrk fnol dc euk;k tkrk gS \
  6.   miHkksDrk lqj{kk vf/kfu;e ds }kjk miHkksDrk dks dkSu ls
       vf/kdkj izkIr gaS \
  7.   tkx:d miHkksDrk cuus ds fy, dkSu lh vko’;d ckrsa gS \
  8.   miHkksDrk ‘kks”k.k (Consumer exploitation) ds dkSu ls dkjd gaS \
  9.   miHkksDrk laj{k.k ifj”kn ,ao miHkksDrk vnkyr esa D;k vUrj
       gS \

                                                                     78
Ist PRE BOARD EXAMINATION 2009-10
          SOCIAL SCIENCE
             CLASS – X
           Lkekftd foKku

                                    79
TIME : 3 Hours                                                                  Maximum Marks : 80


General Instructions :



    i)           There are 29 Questions in all. All questions are compulsory.


    ii)          Marks for each Questions are indicated against the question.


    iii)         Questions from serial no.1 to 10 are 1 marks Questions. Answer of these
                 may be one word to one sentence.


    iv)          Questions from serial Number 11 to 18 are 3 marks Questions. Answer of these
                 Questions Should not exceed 80 words Each.


    v)           Questions from serial no. 19 to 28 are 4 marks Questions Answer of these Questions should
                 not exceed 100 Words each.


    vi)          Questions Number 29 is map question. Attach all maps inside your answer book.




                                                                      SOCIAL SCIENCE -X




SOCIAL SCIENCE (CLASS – X)


Q1.) erkf/kdkj fdls dgrs gS ?
     What is meant by suffrage.
           vFkok or
                                                                                                       80
      fo;ruke dks Lora=rk dc izkIr gqbZ ?
      When did Vietnam get us freedom ?

Q2.) VksD;ks dk iqjkuk uke D;k Fkk ?
     What was ancient name of Tokyo ?
          vFkok or
      vkuan eB ds ys[kd dkSu Fks?
      Who was the writer of the Anand Math ?

Q3.) izkd`frd lalk/kuksa ds eq[; izdkj dkSu&dkSu ls gSa ?
     What are the main types of natural resoursces ?

Q4.) ty dk fdrus izfr'kr Hkkx flapkbZ ds dke vkrk gS ?
     What percentage of water is used by our irrigation system ?

Q5.) Hkkjr dk lcls cM+k dks;yk {ks= dkSu lk gS ?
     Which is the largest coal field in India ?

Q6.) ifo= isM+ksa ds >qjeqV ;k ifo= ou D;k gSa ?
     What are the sacred groves or the virgin forests ?

Q7.) Jhyadk esa ds nks la?k"kZ djus okys lewgksa ds uke fy[kks A
     Name the conflicting group of people in shreelanka .

Q8.) Hkkjr esa fyax & vuqikr D;k gS ?
     What is the sex – ratio in India ?

Q9.) Je dk ySafxd foHkktu D;k gS ?
     What is the sexual division of labour ?

Q10.) ldy ?kjsyw mRikn ls D;k rkRi;Z gS ?
      What is meant by the gross domestic product (GDP) of a country ?

Q11.) ued ;k=k dh ppkZ djrs gq, Li"V djsa fd mifuos'kokn ds f[kykQ
izfrjks/k ,d
       vljnkj izrhd Fkk A
       Discuss the salt march to make clear why it was an effective symbol
       of resistance against colonialism .

Q12.) Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu esa lqHkk"k panz cksl ds ;ksxnku dh
O;k[;k dhft, A
      Explain the contribution of subhash Chandra bose to the Indian
      National movement .
                                                                         81
Q13.) jk"Vªh; la?k"kksZa esa efgykvksa dh Hkqfedkvksa dh
Hkwfedk ij ,d laf{kIr
    fVIi.kh fy[kks A
        Write a short note on the the sole of women in Nationalist
        Struggle .
            vFkok or
        gks&ph&feUg ds thou vkSj lQyrkvksa dk laf{kIr fooj.k nks
A
        Give a brief description of the life and achievement of Ho-Chi-Minh .

Q14.) 19 oha ÓkrkCnh esa Nih iqLrdksa dk Hkkjrh; efgykvksa ij D;k
izHkko iM+k ?
      What was the impact of printed book on women in India the 19 th century
      ?
           vFkok or
        ,d miU;kldkj ds :i es Fkkel gkMhZ dk ewY;kadu dhft, A
        Give an estimate of Thomas hardy as a novelist.

Q15.) Jhyadk ds lekt dh tkrh; cukoV dk o.kZu djs A
      Describe the ethnic composition of shreelanka ?

Q16.) 1992 ds lafo/kku ds igys vkSj ckn ds LFkkuh; 'kklu ds nks
egRoiw.kZ varjks dks crk, A
        State any two differences between the local government before and after
        the constitutional amendment in 1992 .

Q17.) fodflr vkSj fodkl'khy vFkZO;oLFkkvksa esa varj crkb, A
      Distinguish between developed and developing economy .

Q18.) [kqyh csjkstxkjh vkSj izPNUu csjkstxkjh ds chp varj Li"V
dhft, A
        Differentiate between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.

Q19.) czsVu oqM~l le>kSrs dk D;k vFkZ gS ?
      What is meant by the Brelton Woods agreement ?
            vFkok or
        igys fo'o;q} ds le; Hkkjr dk vkS?kksfxd mRiknu D;ksa i<+k
?
        Why did industrial production in India increase during the first world
war ?
                                                                                82
          vFkok or
    19 oha lnh esa /kuh yanu okfl;ksa us xjhcksa ds fy, edku
cukus dh t:jr
    dk leZFku D;ksa fd;k ?
     Why well off Londoners supported the need of building houses for poor
     in the 19th century ?

Q20.) dsUnz rFkk jkT; ljdkjksa us Hkkjrh; d`f"k dh mUufr ds fy,
dkSu ls izeq[k dne mBk, A
     List important steps that the central and state governments have taken to
     improve Indian Agriculture .

Q21.) mRiknksa ds vk/kkj ij m|ksxksa dk oxhZdj.k dSls djsaxsa ?
      How would you classify industries on the basis of their products?

Q22.) ^^Hkkjrh; lM+d ifjogu leL;kvksa ls xzflr gS** fdUgh pkj
leL;kvksa dk o.kZu dhft, A
     "Indian road transport is confronted with problems". Describe any four
     problems.

Q23.) lkekftd foHkktu fdl rjg jktuhfr dks izHkkfor djrsa gS ?
      Discuss. How social divisions affect politics?

Q24.) usiky esa gksus okys tu vknksayu ds fo"k; esa crkb, A
      Explain the popular struggle that took place in Nepal.

Q25.) yksdra= es dkSu ls nks"k            gksrs gS ?
      What are demerit's of democracy ?

Q26.) ns'k dh vFkZO;oLFkk esa cSadks dh D;k                        Hkwfedk
jgrh gS ?
      What rok do the bank pay in the economy of the country ?

Q27.) nwljs ns'kksa esa cgqjk"Vªh; daifu;k¡ fdl izdkj mRiknu ;k
     mRiknu ij fu;a=.k LFkkfir djrh gS A
     What are the various way in which MNG sit up or control production in
     other countries ?
Q28.) Hkkjrh; dkuwu ds vuqlkj                     miHkksDrkvksa             ds
vf/kdkjksa dh O;k[;k dhft, A
     Explain the rights of the consumers as codified in the Indian laws .
                                                                            83
Q29.) fn,x;s Hkkjr ds js[kh; jktuhfrd ekufp= ij 1 ls 6 vadks
     }kjk N% y{k.k fn[kk, x, gSA uhps nh xbZ tkudkjh ds
     ek/;e ls bu y{k.ksa dks igpkus rFkk nh xbZ js[kkvksa
     ij muds lgh uke fy[ksa A
     Six features from serial no.1 to 6 are marked on the given political map
     of India. Identify these features with the help of map key and write their
     correct names on the line marked against each in the map.

     (d)  og LFkku tgk¡ 1922 esa fgald ?kVuk ?kVh vkSj
          egkRek xk¡/kh us vlg;ksx vkanksyu us okil fy;k A
     ([k) og LFkku tgk¡ xka/kh th us ued dkuwu rksM+k A
     (x) NRrhlx.k es fLFkr bLikr la;=
     (?k) rkacs dh ,d [kku
     (M-) lwrh oL= m|ksx dk ,d dsUnz
     (p) ,d izfl¼ leqnz iRru

     (i)     The place where a violent incident took place in 1922 and
             Mahatma Gandhi call off non cooperation movement
     (ii)    The place where Gandhiji violated salt law.
     (iii)   Steel plant located in Chattisgarh
     (iv)    A copper mines
     (v)     A cotton Textile centre.
     (vi)    A famous sea port
           vFkok or
     fn, x, Hkkjr ds js[kk & ekufp= esa fuEufyf[kr enksa dks
     mi;qDr fpUgksa ls fn[kkb, vkSj muds uke fyf[k, A
     Locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols on the
     given political outline map of India.

     (d)  paikj.k
     ([k) ukxiqj
     (x) flagHkwfe
     (?k) rwrh dksfju
     (M-) ghjkdqaM cka/k
     (p) vgenkckn lwrh oL= m|ksx

     (i)     Champaran
     (ii)    Nagpur
     (iii)   Singbhumi
                                                                            84
       (iv)   Tuticorin
       (v)    Hirakund Dam
       (vi)   Ahmadabad – cotton Textile Industry .


SOCIAL SCIENCE (CLASS – X)

Q1.)   Hkw&nkl dkSu Fks ?
       Who were the serfs ?
            vFkok or
       lu&;kr&lsu dkSu Fks ?
       Who was sun-yat-sen ?

Q2.)   eqnz.k dh lcls igys rduhd dgk¡ fodflr gqbZ ?
       Where was the earliest kind of print technology developed ?
            vFkok or
       Hkkjr ds lcls izphu miU;kl fdl Hkk"kk esa gS ?
       The earliest Indian novels were in which languages ?

Q3.)   Hkkjr dk dqy {ks=Qy fdruk gS?
       What is the total area of India ?

Q4.)   izoky & fHkfRr;k¡ D;k gS ?
       What are the coral-reefs ?

Q5.)   Hkkjr esa lcls cM+k lkSj l;a= dgk¡ yxk gqvk gS ?
       Where is the largest solar plant of India is located ?

Q6.)   ikniksa vkSj thoksa esa fofHkUurk D;ksa ikbZ tkrh
gS ?
       Why do we have diverse flora and fauna ?

Q7.)   lu~ 1968 esa vksyafid dgk¡ vk;ksftr gq, Fks ?
       Where were the Olympics held in 1968 ?

Q8.)   rhu izdkj dh lkekftd fo"kerkvksa ds uke fy[kks ?
       Name any three kinds of social differences?



                                                                     85
Q9.),d ns'k ds vkfFkZd fodkl dks ekius dh lk/kkj.k fof/k
dkSu lh gS ?
       What is the most common method of measuring the economic
       development of a country?

Q10.) futh {ks=d ds mnkgj.k ns A
      Give examples of private sector.

           fuokZpu i}fr esa Hkkjr foHkktu dk ekxZ iz'kLr
Q11.) ^i`Fkd
fd;k**A O;k[;k dhft, A
       "The system of seprate electorates paved the way for partition of India"
       Discuss .

Q12.) 1935 ds xouZesaV vkWQ bafM;k lq/kkjksa esa eq[; nks"k
D;k Fks ?
       What were the main defects in the government of India act of 1935 .

Q13.) bVyh ds ,dhdj.k esa vkus okyh izeq[k ck/kkvksa dk mYys[k
djks A
       Mention the obstacle in the way of the Italian unification .
            vFkok or
    baMks&pkbZuk esa Qzkaflfl;ksa us viuk lkezkT;okn dSls
LFkkfir fd;k ?
       How did france istablish its imperialist control over Indo-China ?

Q14.) bjkLel dkSu Fkk ? mls bfrgkl esa D;ksa                     ;kn fd;k tkrk
gS ?
      Who was Erasmus ? why is he remembered in History ?
           vFkok or
       eqa'kh izsepanz dk Hkkjrh; lkfgR; es D;k LFkku gS ?
       What is the position of munshi premchandra in the Indian literature ?

Q15.) yksdra= es lRrk dh lk>snkjh D;ksa vko';d                        gS ?
      Why is power shairing desirable in Democracy ?

Q16.) Hkkjr es U;k;ikfydk dh Hkwfedk                 dh O;k[;k djsa A
      Discuss the role of Judicary of India .

Q17.) iatkc ds le`¼ fdlku dh D;k vkdk{kk,a gksrh gS ?
      What can be the aspiration or goal of prosperous farmers of Punjab ?
                                                                               86
           vkSj vlaxfBr {ks=ksa dh jkstxkj ifjfLfFkfr;ksa
Q18.) laxfBr
dh rqyuk djsa A
       Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organized and the
       unorganized sector .

Q19.) 19 oha 'krkCnh esa ;wjksi ds yksx vQzhdk dh vksj D;ks
vkdf"kZn gq, ?
      Why were the Europeans attracted towards Africa in the 19th century ?
           vFkok or
    vkS|ksfxd dzkafr ds lcls igys baXySaM esa 'kq:
gksus ds eq[; dkj.k fy[ksa A
       Give reasons why Industrial revolution started first of all in England .
             vFkok or
       19 oha lnh ds e/; esa cEcbZ dh vkcknh esa Hkkjh
o`f}   D;ksa gqbZ ?
       What ud to the major expansion of Bombay's population in the mid-
       nineteenth century ?

Q20.) pkj dkj.k crkb, fd eNyhikyu dk fodkl Hkkjr ds if'peh rV ij
       fo'ks"kdj D;ksa
       gqvk A
       Give 4 reasons why fisheries have developed mainly on India's west
       coast .

Q21.) yksgk vkSj bLikr m|ksx dsoy izk;}hih; Hkkjr esa gh D;ksa
fLFkr gS ?
       Why is the iron and steel industry located in peninsular India only ?

Q22.) lM+d ifjogu] jsy ifjogu dh vis{kk fdl izdkj egRoiw.kZ gS ?
      How does road transport score over railway transport ?

Q23.) xqFkh gqbZ fofHkUrk,a vkSj fc[kjh gqbZ fofHkUrk,a D;k
gS ?
      What are overlapping and cross cutting differences .

Q24.) ncko lewg vkSj jktuhfrd ny esa D;k varj gS ?
      What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party ?

Q25.) rkuk'kkgh ds nks"k D;k gS ?
                                                                                87
     What are the demerits of dictator ship ?

Q26.) fodkl esa JP.k dh Hkwfedk dk fo'ys"k.k dhft, A
      Analyse the role of credit for development .

Q27.) cgqjk"Vªh; daifu;ka D;k gS ? ;s daifu;ka lhekvks ds ikj
     D;ksa QSy jgh gS A mi;qDr mnkgj.k nsdj le>kb, A
     What are Multinational Corporation? why are they spreading across the
     border ? Explain with suitable example.
Q28.) dqN ,sls dkjdksa dh ppkZ djs ftuls miHkksDrkvksa dk
'kks"k.k gksrk gSA
     Mention a few factors which cause exploitation of consumers.

Q29.) fn, x;s Hkkjr ds js[kh; jktuhfrd ekufp= ij 1 ls 6 vadks }kjk
     N% y{k.k fn[kk, x, gSA uhps nh xbZ tkudkjh ds ek/;e ls bu
     y{k.ksa dks igpkus rFkk nh xbZ js[kkvksa ij muds lgh uke
     fy[ksa A
     Six features from serial no.1 to 6 are marked on the given political map
     of India. Identify these features with the help of map key and write their
     correct names on the line marked against each in the map.

     (vii) og LFkku tgk¡ tfy;k¡okyk ckx ?kVuk ?kVh A
     (viii)   og LFkku tgk¡ xk¡/kh vEcsndj le>kSrk gqvk A
     (ix)     rfeyukMq bLikr l;a= A
     (x)      egkunh ij cuk;k x;k ,d ck¡/k A
     (xi)     rki & ÅtkZ dsUnz A
     (xii)    rsy 'kks/kd dkj[kkuk A

     (vii) The city where the jallianwalla bagh incident took place.
     (viii) The place where Gandhi-ambedkar pact took place
     (ix)   A steel plant in Tamilnadu
     (x)    A dam built on Mahanadi
     (xi)   Thermal power station
     (xii) Oil refneries
            vFkok or
     fn, x, Hkkjr ds js[kk & ekufp= esa fuEufyf[kr enksa
     dks mi;qDr fpUgksa ls fn[kkb, vkSj muds uke fyf[k,
     A
     Locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols on the
     given political outline map of India.
                                                                            88
       (vii) paikj.k
       (viii)   iw.ks
       (ix)     jkorHkkVk&ijek.kq ÅtkZ l;a=
       (x)      cksdkjks&yksgk bLikr l;a=
       (xi)     ukxktqZu lkxj cka/k
       (xii)    eksgkyh&lk¶Vos;j izkS|ksfxdh ikdZ

       (vii)    Champaran
       (viii)   Pune
       (ix)     Rawat Bhata – Nuclear power plant
       (x)      Bokaro-Iron and steel plant
       (xi)     Nagarjun sagar-dam
       (xii)    Mohali-software technology park .




SOCIAL SCIENCE (CLASS – X)

Q1.)   X;wLih ekft+uh dkSu Fkk ?
       Who was Guiseppe Mazzini ?
            vFkok or
       mu rhu ns'kksa ds uke crkb, ftuls baMks & pkbZuk dk tUe
gqvk ?
       Name the three countries that form Indo - China ?

Q2.) Hkkjr esa igyh fizfVax izsl dc vkSj dgk¡ cuh?
     When and where did the first printing press come to India ?
          vFkok or
     fgUnh dk izFke miU;kl dkSu Fkk ?
     Which was the first Hindi Novel?

Q3.)   lalk/ku fu;kstu ls vki D;k le>rs gSa ?
       What do you mean by 'Resource Planning’?

Q4.) ck¡/k D;k gS ?
     What is a dam?


                                                                   89
Q5.)   eSXusVkbV vkSj fyeksukbV esa varj crkb, ?
       Distinguish between magnetite and Limonite?

Q6.) ^fpidks vkUnksyu* dh ,d miyfC/k crkb, A
     Point out one of the achievement of 'Chipko movement’.

Q7.)   v'osr 'kfDr ls vki D;k le>rs gSa ?
       What do you know about the 'Black Power’?

Q8.) fyax vuqikr ls vki D;k le>rs gS ?
     What do you mean by 'sex ratio’?

Q9.)   jk"Vªh; vk; dh O;k[;k dhft, A
       Define 'National income' .

Q10.) vFkZO;oLFkk dk izkFkfed {ks=                  D;k gS ?
      What is the primary sector of an economy?

Q11.) Hkkjrh;ksa us jkSysV dkuwu dk fojks/k                     D;ksa fd;k ?
      Why were Indians outraged by the rowlatt act ?

Q12.) Hkkjrh;     bfrgkl esa 26 tuojh 1930 dk D;k egRo gS ?
ppkZ dhft, A
       What is the importance of 26 January 1930 in Indian history? Discuss.
Q13.) usiksfy;u      ds mRFkku vkSj iru dh la{ksi esa O;k[;k
dhft, A
       How would you explain the rise and fall of napoleon?
            vFkok or
       1945 ds ckn uox.kra= fo;ruke dks fdu pkj pqukSfr;ksa dks
       lkeuk djuk iM+k ? foLrkj ls crkb, A
       Explain any four challenges faced by the new republic of Vietnam after
       1945.

Q14.) ^fizfVax izsl* ds ykHkksa dk mYys[k dhft, A
      What were the advantages of 'Printing Press’?
            vFkok or
   ^^vkSifuos'kh Hkkjr esa miU;kldkjksa us jktuhfrd
mn~ns';ksa ls jpuk dhA** leh{kk dhft,A
       "Novelist in colonial India wrote for a political cause" Explain.
                                                                               90
Q15.) yksdra= esa lRrk dh lk>snkjh ds fofHkUu :iksa dk o.kZu
dhft, A
      Describe the major forms of power sharing arrangements in democracies.

Q16.) la?kh; O;oLFkk dh fo'ks"krkvksa               dk mYys[k dhft, A
      Enumerate the features of federalism.

Q17.) rhu mnkgj.k nhft,] tgk¡ fLFkfr;ksa dh rqyuk ds fy, vkSlr dk
iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
      Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations.

Q18.) ;fnfdlkuksa dks flapkbZ vkSj foi.ku lqfo/kk,¡ miyC/k
      djkbZ tkrh gS rks jkstxkj vkSj vk; esa o`f¼ dSls
      gksxh ?
      How would income and employment increase if formers were provided
      with irrigation and marketing facilities?

Q19.) js'ke ekxZ D;k Fks ? mudk ,sfrgkfld egRo D;k                     gS ?
      What were 'silk routes’? What is their historical importance?
           vFkok or
      mUuhloha 'krkCnh ds izkjaHk esa Hkkjr ls lwrh diM+s ds
      fu;kZr es deh D;ks vkus yxh ? blds D;k izHkko Fks ?
      Why did the export of textiles from India begin to declare at the
      beginning of the nineteenth century? What were its implications ?
            vFkok or
      yanu 'kgj ds thou esa vkeksn&izeksn ds D;k lk/ku Fks ?
      What were the sources of leisure for the London city life?

Q20.) jch vkSj [kjhQ dh Qlyksa esa varj Li"V                 dhft, A
      Distinguish between the Rabi crops and kharif crops.

Q21.) mu dkjdksa dh lwph cukb, ftu ij te'ksniqj ykSg bLikr
      mn~;ksx dh fLFkfr fuHkZj djrh gS A
      List all the factors an which the location of steer industry at Jamshedpur
      depends.

Q22.) Lora=rk ds ckn Hkkjrh; jsyksa es lq/kkj ,oa
vk/kqfudhdj.k ds fy, D;k dne mBk, x, ?
                                                                              91
      What steps have been taken for improvement and modernization of
      Indian railways after Independence?

Q23.) Hkkjr dh fo/kkf;dk esa efgyk izfrfuf/kRo dh leh{kk dhft, A
      Sate, the position of women representation in legislature in India.

Q24.) jktuhfrd nyksa ds le{k izeq[k pqukSfr;k¡ D;k gS ?
      What are the various challenges faced by the political parties ?

Q25.) yksdra=  mRrjnk;h] ftEesnkj vkSj oS/k 'kklu dh
mRifRr fdl izdkj djrk gS ?
      How does a democracy produce an accountable, responsive and
      legitemate?

Q26.) ljdkjsa vf/kd fons'kh fuos'k vkdf"kZr djus dk iz;kl D;ksa djrh
gS ?
      Why do government by to attract more foreign investement?

Q27.) miHkksDrk dkSu gS ? miHkksDrkvksa ds ik¡p drZO;ksa dk mYys[k
      dhft, A
      Who is a consumer? Explain five duties of consumers.
Q28.) vkSipkfjd vkSj vukSipkfjd .k es varj crkb, A
      Distinguish between formal and informal dectors of credit.

Q29.) fn, x;s Hkkjr ds js[kh; jktuhfrd ekufp= ij 1 ls 6 vadks
      }kjk N% y{k.k fn[kk, x, gSA uhps nh xbZ tkudkjh ds
      ek/;e ls bu y{k.ksa dks igpkus rFkk nh xbZ js[kkvksa
      ij muds lgh uke fy[ksa A
      Six features from serial no.1 to 6 are marked on the given political map
      of India. Identify these features with the help of map key and write their
      correct names on the line marked against each in the map.

      (1) og LFkk tgk¡ 1920 esa dkaxzsl dk vf/kos'ku
          gqvk A
      (2) og LFkku tgk¡ dj fojks/kh vkUnksyu 'kq: gqvk A
      (3) ykSg v;Ld dh ,d [kku A
      (4) mRrj & nf{k.k xfy;kjs dk nf{k.kh VfeZuy LVs'ku
      A
      (5) dks;ys dh ,d [kku A
                                                                             92
     (6) mM+hlk dk leqnz iRru A
     (xiii)    The place where congress seddion took place in 1920.
     (xiv)     The place where no tax movement started.
     (xv)      An iron mine.
     (xvi)     Southern terminal station of north-south corridor.
     (xvii)    A cool mine
     (xviii)   A seaport of Orissa.
               vFkok or
     fn, x, Hkkjr ds js[kk & ekufp= esa fuEufyf[kr enksa
     dks mi;qDr fpUgksa ls fn[kkb, vkSj muds uke fyf[k,
     A
     Locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols on the
     given political outline map of India.

     (xiii)  psUubZ A
     (xiv) okjk.klh A
     (xv) dSxk&ijek.k ÅtkZ l;a=A
     (xvi) prjatu A
     (xvii) dka?kyk A
     (xviii) Hkk[kMk cka/k A

     (xiii) Chennai
     (xiv) Varanasi
     (xv) Kaiga-nuclear power plant
     (xvi) Chitranjan
     (xvii) Kandla
     (xviii) Bhakra dam


SET-I
MARKING SCHEME (CLASS – X)
Social Science



1-   oksV nsus ds vf/kdkj dks erkf/kdkj dgk tkrk gSA

                                                                       93
vFkok

     1945 bZ0 esa Lora= gqvkA

2-   ,nksa

vFkok

     cafde pUnz pVthZ

3-   tSfod vkSj vtSfod

4-   84%

5-   jkuhxat ¼if’pe caxky½

6-   tutkfr;ksa us vius fo’okl ds vuqlkj ewy ,ao dkSek;Z :i esa
     cpk dj j[kk gS ftUgsa ifo= isMksa ds >qjeqV dgrs gSA

7-   fla?kyh vkSj rfey
8-   dke ds c¡Vokjs dk og rjhdk ftlds vUrxZr ?kj ds vUnj ds lkjs
     dke efgyk, djrh gS ;k ukSdjksa ls djokrh gSA
10- rhuksa {ks=dksa ds mRiknksa ds ;ksxQy dks ns’k dk ldy
    ?kjsyw mRiknu dgk tkrk gSA
11- 12 ekpZ 1930 dks xk¡/kh th us lfou; voKk vkanksyu ‘kq:
    fd;kA leqnz rV ij igq¡pdj MkaMh ued LFkku ij ued cukdj
    ued dkuwu rksM+kA ;g vkUnksyu ljdkjh vkns’kksa dks u
    ekuus dk Árhd FkkA ;g ,d egRoiw.kZ dne Fkk D;ksfd&
     ¼1½ fczfV’k dkuwu dks rksM+uk mifuos’kokn ds fo#) tcjtLr
         dne FkkA blls blls mifuos’kokn ds lkjs <+kps fgy x,
         D;ksfd ued fd vko’;drk vehj xjhc dks iM+rh gSA
     ¼2½ ;k=k esa xk¡/kh th us vusd LFkkuksa ij #duk iM+k
         mudh lHkk,¡ gqbZ ftls jk”Vªh; Hkkouk cnyrh gqbZA 6
         vÁSy 1930 dks leqnz ds ikuh ls ued cuk;k x;k vkSj
         lfou; voKk vkanksyu ‘kq: gks x;kA
                                                              94
12- lqHkk”k pkUnz cksl dk tUe 1897 bZ0 esa dVd esa gqvk
    Hkkjr dks Lora=rk fnykus esa mudk egku ;ksxnku gSA
    mUgksaus 1943 esa vktkn fgUn QkSt dh LFkkiuk dh ;g
    lsuk fot; ÁkIr djrh gqbZ Hkkjr dh lhek rd igq¡p x;h FkhA
    ijUrq 1945 bZ0 esa tkikuh;ksa dh ijkt; gks xbZ vkSj mUgs
    gfFk;kj Mkyus iM+sA ysfdu cgqr ls vQljksa vkSj lSfudksa
    dks cUnh cuk fy;k x;k ftUgs turk ds ‘ks”k Án’kZu djus ij fjgk
    dj fn;k x;kA
13- ¼1½ ;wjksi ds yxHkx lHkh jkT;ksa] Qzkal teZuh] bVyh]
    vkLVªsfy;k] gaxjh esa efgykvks us jk”Vh; vkanksyu esa
    c<&p< dj Hkkx fy;kA
     ¼2½ mUgksus ns’k ds ,dhdj.k] Átkra=h; la/k”kksZ ,ao
         laoS/kkfud Á;klksa esa iw.kZ lg;ksx fn;kA
     ¼3½ efgykvksa us vius vyx jktuSfrd laxBuksa dk fuekZ.k
         fd;k rFkk jktuSfrd xfrfof/k;ksa esa c<+&p<+dj Hkkx
         fy;kA fQj Hkh efgykvksa dks dkQh le; rd oksV dk
         vf/kdkj ugha fn;k x;kA
     vFkok
          gks&ph&feUg dk tUe 1890 bZ0 esa ,d NksVs ls xk¡o
          esa gqvk FkkA mUgksaus viuh f’k{kk Qzkalhlh
          Ldwyksa esa iwjh dhA ckn esa mUgksaus ,d leqnzh
          tgkt esa ukSdj dj yhA mudk lkE;okn dh vksj gks x;kA
          os ysuhu ls Hkh feysA 30 o”kksaZ rd vU; ns’kksa esa
          jgus ds i'pkr os 1941 esa fo;ruke okil vk,A 1943 esa
          os jk”Vªifr pqus x;s Hkwfedk FkhZA 1969 esa mudh
          e`R;q gsk xbZA
14- iqLrdksa dk efgykvksa ij cM+k xgjk ÁHkko iM+k%&
     ¼1½ efgykvksa ds ckjs esa vusd iqLrdksa dks mudh f’k{kk
         ij tksj fn;k x;kA
     ¼2½ efgykvksa ikBdksa dh la[;k rsth ls c<+hA
     ¼3½ [kqys fopkj ds ifr;ksa ds ifr;ksa ,ao ek¡&cki us viuh
         yM+fd;ksa dks Ldwy esa Hkstuk ‘kq: fd;kA


                                                               95
     ¼4½ cgqr lh efgyk ysf[kdkvksa us efgyk f’k{kk dh cgqr
         odkyr dhA ftlls muesa f’k{kk ÁkIr djus dh rhoz Hkkouk
         tkxzr gqbZA
     vFkok
          /kkel gkMhZ baXySaM dk egku miU;kl Fkk mlds
          miU;klksa esa xzkeh.k leqnk;ksa] mudh [kqf’k;ksa
          rFkk muds xeksa ds lkFk tqM+us dk Hkko iSnk fd;kA
          og ÁfrHkk’kkyh ys[kd Fkk ftlus ,d ds ckn ,d ‘kkunkj
          miU;klksa dk l`tu fd;kA os Ád`fr ds egku iqtkjh Fks
          rFkk miU;klksa dh i`”BHkwfedk xzeh.k gS] tgk¡
          vkS/kksfxdj.k rFkk e’khuksa dk dksbZ cksyckyk ugha
          FkkA
     ¼5½ Jhyadk ,d }hih; ns’k gS vkcknh yxHkx 2 djksM+ gS
         ogk¡ dbZ tkrh;& lewgksa ds yksx jgrs gSA
          Dqy tula[;k dk 74% Hkkx flagyh rFkk 18% Hkkx rfey
          gSA ‘ks”k eqfLye ;k bZlkbZ gSA mRrj&iwohZ Hkkx
          rfey yksx vf/kd gS tcdh ckdh fgLlksa esa flagyh pyus
          ds dkj.k x`g;q) ‘kq: gks x;kA ftldk vHkh rd dksbZ gy
          ugha fudyk gSA
16- 1992 esa lafo/kku lalks/ku djds cgqr ls ifjorZu fd;s x, tks bl
    Ádkj ls gS&
     ¼1½ igys LFkkuh; fudk;ksa vkSj iapk;rksa dk pquko
         fu/kkZfjr le; ij ugha gksrk Fkk ysfdu vc mudk dk;Zdky
         5 o”kZ fuf’pr dj fn;k x;kA
     ¼2½ igys efgykvksa dks LFkku vkjf{kr ugha gksrs Fks
         ysfdu vc 33 Áfr’kr lhVsa muds fy, vkjf{kr dj nh xbZ
         gSaA
     ¼3½ igys vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa rFkk tutkfr;ksa ,oa fiNM+sa oxZ
         ds fy, lhVsa vjf{kr ugha gksrh gSA
     ¼4½ igys budk pquko djus dh dksbZ laLFkk ugha FkhA
         ysfdu vc ÁR;sd jkT; esa jkT; pquko vk;ksx dk xBu fd;k
         x;k gSA


                                                                96
17- ¼1½ fodflr ns’kksa esa vkS/kksfxd {ks= cgqr foLr`r gS tcdh
    fodk’k lhy ns’kksa esa   d`f”k rFkk xzeh.k {ks= dk vf/kd
    egRo gskrk gSA
      ¼2½ fodflr vFkZ O;oLFkk esa oLrqvksa dk vf/kd ek=k esa
          fuekZ.k gksrk gS vkSj iwath dk vf/kd egRo gksrk gS
          tcdh fodk’k ‘khy vFkZO;oLFkk esa {ks= dkQh fiNM+k
          gksrk gS] vFkZ O;oLFkk dk <+kpk fiNM+ tkrk gS]
          vkfFkZd vlekurk ikbZ tkrh gS xjhch vf/kd gksrh gS Áfr
          O;fDr vk; cgqr de gksrh gSA
      ¼3½ fodf’kr ns’kksa esa dkjhxj dq’ky vkSj f’kf{kr gksrs gS
          tcdh fodkl’khy vFkZO;oLFkk esa cM+s m|ksx vkSj
          vk/kqfud rduhd dk vkHkko jgrk gSA
18-        Hkkjr dh Je’kfDr cgqr vf/kd gS bldks jkstxkj dh
           vko’;drk gS     ysfdu iwtha dk <+kpk bruk NksVk gS
           fd bl Je’kfDr dks iwjh rjg ugha [kik ldrk iwath vkSj
           Je’kfDr ds vkdkj ds chp dk csesy <+kpk d`f”k vkSj
           m|ksx nksuksa esa yxkrkj csjkstxkjh dh leL;k dk djrk
           gS] bls [kqyh csjkstxkjh dgrs gSaA tgk¡ ÁPNUu
           csjksxkjh esa O;fDr dks dke rks feyrk gS ijUrq v/kwjk]
           ogh [kqyh csjkstxkjh esa yksxksa dks dksbZ dke
           ugha feyrk vkSj os csdkj ?kwers jgrs gSaA
19-        czsVu oqM~l dk le>kSrk fofHkUu ns’kksa ds lEesyu
           esa tqykbZ 1944 dks gqvkA ;g vesfjdk ds U;q gsEi’kj
           ds czsVu oqM~l uked LFkku ij gqvk FkkA
           blesa la;qDr jk”Vªla?k dks nks laLFkkvksa dh LFkkiu
           gqbZA
      ¼1½ vUrjkZ”Vªh; eqnzk dks”k
      ¼2½ fo’o cSad nksuksa laLFkkvks us 1947 ls viuk dke ‘kq:
      fd;k tks vktrd
           lQyrk iwoZd pyjgk gSA bl ÁfØ;k ls if’peh m/kksfxd
           ns’kksa vkSj tkiku dks fo’ks”k ykHk feyk muds O;kikj
           vkSj vk; esa dkQh o`f) gqbZA
           vFkok
           Áeq[k dkj.k fuEu fyf[kr Fks&
                                                               97
     ¼1½ ÁFke fo’o ;q) esa fczVs’k ,slk my> x;k fd mldk /;ku
         vius cpkus esa yx x;k] Hkkjr dks eky fu;kZr ugha dj
         ldk blls Hkh Hkjrh; m|ksx iuis
     ¼2½ bXySaM ds dkj[kkuksa esa lSfud lkexzh rsth ls cuus
         yxh blfy, Hkkjrh; m|ksx dks fo’kky ns’kh cktkj fey x;kA
     ¼3½ blds vykok Hkkjrh m|ksax dks ljdkj }kjk Hkh vusd
         phats cukus dk vkMZj feyk tSls QkSth ds fy, onhZ;ka]
         cwV] VsUV vkfnA blls Hkkjrh; m|ksxksa esa ubZ tku
         vk xbZA
     ¼4½ cgqr ls u, dkj[kkus Hkh [kqy x, ftlls etnwjksa rFkk
         dkjhxjksa dks ykHk gqvkA
     vFkok
     eq[; dkj.k fuEu fyf[kr FksA
     ¼1½ yanu esa dkjhxjksa dks dke fey tkrk Fkk ekfyd mUgs
         jgus ds fy, edku ugha cuokrs Fks blfy, NksVs&NksVs
         vkSj rax dejksa esa fdjk, ij jguk iM+rk FkkA
     ¼2½ blls etnwjksa dk LokLFk [kjkc gks tkrk Fkk vkSj
         egkekjh QSy tkrh Fkh ftlls cpus ds fy, Hkh /kuh yUnu
         okfl;ksa us etnwjksa ds fy, edku cukuk vPNkA
    ¼3½ dkexkjksa dh [ksiM+h es vkx yxus dk Hkh [krjk jgrk
FkkA
     ¼4½ 1917 dh :lh ØkfUr ds i’pkr yanuokfl;ks dks ;g Mj lrkus
     yxk     fd etnwj dksbZ vkUnksyu u NksM+ nsaA
20   ;s lq/kkj fuEufyf[kr gSa&
     ¼1½ tehankjh ÁFkk dk mUewyu
     ¼2½ [ksrksa dks pdcUnh
     ¼3½ Áeq[k flapkbZ ifj;kstukvksa dk fuekZ.k
     ¼4½ [kkn vkSj moZjd ds Á;ksx dks ÁksRlkgu
     ¼5½ u, vf/kd mit okys chtksa dk fodkl
     ¼6½ [ksrh esa vk/kqfud midj.kksa dk Á;ksxA

                                                              98
21- mRiknu ds vk/kkj ij m|ksx fuEufyf[kr rhu oxksaZ esa
    foHkkftr fd, tk ldrs gS&
     ¼1½ ÁkFkfed m|ksx
     ¼2½ xkS.k m|ksx
     ¼3½ r`rh;d m|ksx
     ÁR;sd dh O;k[;k Hkh djuh gSA
22- ¼1½ Hkkjr esa ;kf=;ksa dh la[;k vkSj eky HkkM+k vf/kd
    ek=k esa gS ysfdu      lM+dks dk tky vis{kk d`r de gSA
     ¼2½ Hkkjr esa yxHkx 50 Áfr’kr lM+ds dPph gS tks ok”kkZ
         ds fnuksa esa dhpM+ ls Hkj tkrh gS ;k og tkrh gSA
     ¼3½ jk”Vªh; egkekxZ Hkh vi;kZIr gSa vkSj eq[; uxjksa rd
         lhfer gSA
     ¼4½ clksa Vªdksa o vU; okguksa dh dksbZ fo’ks”k lqj{kk
         ugha gS] lQj djuk [krjksa ls [kkyh ugha gSA
     ¼5½ lM+d ds vklikl lapkj lqfo/kkvksa dk vkHkko gSA
23- bl ckjs esa nks n`f”Vdks.k ds vuqlkj lkekftd foHkktuksa ,ao
    jktuhfr dk esy [krjukd vkSj foLiksVd gksrk gSA fofHkUu
    jktuhfr nyksa esa dBksj ÁfrLi/kkZ cuh jgrh gSA ftlls lekt
    foHkkftr gks ldrk gS dHkh&dHkh ;gh lkekftd foHkktu
    jktuSfrd foHkktu esa cny tkrs gS mnkgkj.k ds fy,
    ;wxksLykfo;k tgk¡ ns’k ds dbZ VqdM+s gks x,A nwljs
    n`f”Vdks.k esa ;g lkekftd foHkktu yksdrU= dks lqMkSyrk
    Ánku djus dk ek/;e cu tkrs gSaA fofHkUu leqnk;ksa dks
    mfpr Áfrfuf/kRo nsus dk Á;kl fd;k tk; vkSj mudh ekaxks dks
    iwjk fd;k tk, blfy, Hkkjr esa yksdrU= lQy gSA
24- usiky Hkkjr ds mRrj esa fLFkr gSA 1990 esa n’kd esa ogk¡
    yksdrU= LFkkfir gqvkA jktk vkSIkpkfjd :i ls jkT; dk Á/kku
    cuk jgk] ysfdu okLrfod lRrk turk }kjk pquh x;h laln vkSj
    ea=h e.My esa FkhA jktk ohjsUnz loS/kkfud Áeq[k cusA
    twu 2001 esa mudh lifjokj gR;k gks xbZA muds HkkbZ jktk
    KkusUnz u, jktk cusA mUgksaus Qjojh 2005 esa
    Á/kkuea=h ds in ls gVkdj ljdkj dks Hkax dj fn;kA vÁy 2006
    esa blds f[kyki ,d tu vkUnksyu ‘kq: gqvk yksx lRrk fQj ls
                                                             99
    laln dks lkSiuk pkgrs      FksA     yk[kksa   yksxksa   us
    fojks/k&Án’kZu fd;kA
    jktk dks yksxksa dh ckr ekuuh iM+hA igys vUrfje vkSj fQj
    LFkkbZ ljdkj cuh vkSj iq”i dqekj ngy ÁpaM u, Á/kkuea=h
    cusA jktk dks in NksM+uk iM+k vkSj ckn esa viuk egy Hkh
    NksM+uk iM+kA
25- ¼1½ blesa QSlyk ysus dh ÁfØ;k esa cM+k le; yxrk gSA
    ¼2½ Hkz”Vkpkj ds in ij dkcw ikuk dfBu gksrk gSA
    ¼3½ tkfrokn jktuhfrd dks ÁksRlkgu
     ¼4½ laÁnkf;drk vkSj >xM+ks dk ÁHkko o<+uk] jk”Vªh;
,dhdj.k dks [krjk
    ¼5½ jk”Vªh; fgrksa dk uqdlku
26- ¼1½ cSad yksxksa ds [kwu&ilhus dh dekbZ dks vius ikl
    tek djds mls     lqjf{kr   j[krs gSA
    ¼2½ cSad tekjkf’k ij C;kt Hkh nsrh gSA cgqr ls ifjokj cSad
        ds bl O;kt ij gh fuHkZj jgrs gSaA
    ¼3½ cSad ftuds ikl Qkyrw /ku gS vkSj ftUgas /ku dh
        vko’;drk gS bu nksuksa ds chp e/;LFrk dk dke djrs
        gSaA
    ¼4½ cSad m|ksx ds fodkl esa Hkh cMs+ lgk;d fl) gksrs
        gSA
    ¼5½ cSad ,d cM+h la[;k esa yksxks dks ukSdjh miyC/k
        djkdj csjkstxkjh dh leL;k dks gy djus esa Hkh ;ksxnku
        nsrsa gSA
27- ¼1½ os ,sls LFkkuksa ij vius mRiknu dsUnz LFkkfir djrh
    gS tks cktkj ds fcYdqy fudV gksrh gSA
    ¼2½ os ,sls LFkkuksa dks pqurh gS tgk¡ mUgs fofHkUu
        Ádkj ds dkjhxj vkSj etnwj vklkuh ls fey tk,aA
    ¼3½ os ,sls LFkkuksa ij dsUnz LFkkfir djsxh tgk¡ mRiknu
        ds mU; lk/ku Hkh vklkuh ls miyC/k gks tk,a tSls&
        fctyh] lM+d vkfnA

                                                            100
     ¼4½ dbZ ckj cgqjk”Vªh; dEifu;k¡ LFkkuh; dEifu;ksa ls feydj
         dke ‘kq: dj nsrh gS rkfd mUgs ;ksX; vkSj rtqjcsdkj
         lkFkh fey ldsaA
     ¼5½ og ,sls LFkkuksa ij fuekZ.k dsUnz [kksysaxs tgk¡ fd
         ljdkjsa mudh fgrksa dk /;ku j[ksaA
28- miHkksDrk ds vf/kdkj fuEufyf[kr gSa&
     ¼1½ lqj{kk dk vf/kdkj
     ¼2½ lwpuk dk vf/kdkj
     ¼3½ pquus dk vf/kdkj
     ¼4½ lquokbZ dk vf/kdkj
     ¼5½ f’kdk;rsa fuiVkus dk vf/kdkj
     ¼ÁR;sd dh O;k[;k djuh gS½
29- ekufp= dk;ZA



Set-II



1-   Hkwnkl os xjhc fdlku Fks tks dqyhu yksaxks dh fo’kky
     tkxhjksa esa nkyksa Hkh Hkk¡fr dke dke djrs FksA
vFkok
     phu ds ,d egku usrk ftUgksaus phu esa jktra= ds iru ds
     i'pkr ogk¡ x.kra= LFkkfir fd;kA
2-   phu] tkiku vkSj dksfj;k esaA
vFkok
     caxkyh vkSj ejkBh Hkk”kkvksa esaA
3-   Hkkjr dk dqy {ks=Qy 32-8 yk[k oxZ fdyksehVj gSA



                                                            101
4-   ;s leqnz ds vanj NksVs }hi gksrs gS tks ,d yacs le; rd Áoky
     uked Ákf.k;ksa ds vfLFk vkos’ks”kksa ds ,df=r gksus ls
     curs gSA
5-   Hkqt ds ikl ek/kksiqj esa Hkkjr dk lcls cM+k lkSj la;= gSA
6-   HkkSfrd ,oa vudwyu ikfjfLFkfrd ra=A
7-   eSfDldksa esa
8-   lkekftd fo”kerk,%&
                     fyax] /keZ] tkfr
9-   vk;A
10- 1- VkVk vk;ju ,.M LVhy daiuh fyfeVsM
     2- fjyk;al b.MLVªht fyfeVsMA
11- i`Fkd fuokZpu i)fr ls gekjk vfHkÁk; ,slh i)fr ls gS tc dsoy
    vius /keZ ds yksxksa dks gh oksV ns ldrs gSA blls yksx
    vkil esa caV x;sA i`Fkd] fuokZpu ds gfFk;kj dk mUgksaus
    bruh pkykdh ls Á;ksx fd;k fd var esa 1947 bZ0 esa ns’k
    c¡Vdj gh jg x;kA
     ¼1½ dkxzsl us fczfV’k ljdkj dh ÁFkd fuokZpu i)fr dh
     Hkkouk dks ÁksRlkgu djus ds fy, mldh dM+h vkykspuk dh
     D;ksafd fczfV’k ljdkj ljdkj dh ;g pky Fkh fd os LFkkuh;
     yksxksa dks fdlh u fdlh elys ij my>k, j[ks vkSj ;gk¡ ‘kklu
     j[ksA
     2- eqfLye usrk i`Fkd fuokZpu Á.kkyh dks elyekuksa ds fgr
     dh lqj{kk ds fy, vko’;d le>rs FksA
     3- nfyr Js.kh;ksa ds usrk] fo’ks”kdj ch0vkj0 vEcsMdj Hkh
     i`Fkd fuozkpu&i)fr ds i{k esa Fks D;ksfd mudk fopkj Fkk
     mlds fcuk nfyrksa ds fgrksa dh j{kk ugha gks ldxhA
12- ¼1½ bl dkuwu }kjk ?k`f.kr oS| ‘kklu O;oLFkk dks ÁkUrks ls
    gVkdj dsUnz esa ykxw dj fn;k x;kA
     ¼2½ bl jDr dk y{; fons’kh ‘kklu cuk, j[kuk FkkA
     ¼3½ blds }kjk jktuhfr vkSj vkfFkZd vf/kdkj igys dh gh rjg
     fons’kh gkFkksa esa      jgsaA
                                                              102
    ¼4½ bl jDr dk la/kh; <+kpk dHkh vfLrRo esa ugha vk ldkA
13- ¼1½ bVyh dk vusd NksVs Hkxksa esa caVk gksuk
    ¼2½ fons’kh ‘kfDr;ksa dk bVyh ds vusd Hkkxksa ij vf/kdkj
    ¼3½ fo;kuk dh dkaxzsl
    ¼4½ jkse dk iksi
    ¼5½ vuqnkj O;k[;k Hkh djsaA
vFkok
    ;qjksi esa teZuh ds ‘kfDr iM+us ds QyLo:i vaxzt vkSj
    Qzklhlh ,d nwljs ds fudV vk x,A blh esy&feyki ds okrkoj.k
    esa mUgksaus phu dks ijkftr dj fn;kA blds ckn Qzkal us
    dksphu &pkbZuk ;k vk/kqfud nf{k.kh fo;ruke] dEcksfM;k
    fgUnh phu] e/; fo;ruke] mRrjh fo;ruke ij vf/kdkj dj fy;k vkSj
    fgUn phu dh uhao j[khA
14- bjkLel gkWySaM ds jkWVjMe uked ‘kgj esa jgus okyk
    ys[kd FkkA
    ¼1½ og ‘kakfre; rjhdks ls /keZ lq/kkj esa yxk FkkA
    ¼2½ og ppZ dh =qfV;ksa dks nwj djuk Pkgrk FkkA
    ¼3½ mldh fy[kh rhu fdrkcs ^ik¡dsV MSxj* /keZ ds nks”kksa
    dk cMs+ lqUnj rjhds ls  o.kZu gSA
vFkok
    eqa’kh Áse pUnz fgUnh vkSj mnZw lkfgR; ds ,d egku
    ys[kd FksA mUgksus dksbZ 300 ds yxHkx dgkfu;k¡] ,d
    ntZu ds yxHkx miU;kl vkSj nks ukVd Hkh fy[ksA mudh
    jpuk,sa 20 oha ‘krkCnh dh vkajfed n’kkavksa dh ,d cMs+
    vkd”kZd <+x ls >yd mifLFkr djrh gSA muds dqN Áfl)
    miU;klksa esa xksnku] jaxHkwfe] fueZyk] lsoklnu] etnwj ds
    uke ij Áeq[k gSA mUgksaus lekt ds gj oxZ dk lVhd fp=.k
    fd;k gSA
15- ¼1½ lRrk dh lk>snkjh fofHkUu leqnk;ksa ds chp Vdjko de
    djrh gSA
    ¼2½ ;g i{kikr dk vans’k de djrh gSA
                                                              103
    ¼3½ lRrk esa yksxksa dh Hkkxsnkjh c<+rh gSA
    ¼4½ vYi la[;dks dh vogsyuk ugha gksrhA
16- U;k;ikfydk Hkkjr es jkT;ksa vkSj dsUnz esa gksus okys
    Vdjko dks de djrh gSA tc dHkh dsUnz vkSj jkT;ksa esa
    Vdjko dh fLFkr vkrh gS rks mldk gy U;k;ikfydk gh djrh gSA
    mnkgj.kkFkZ vkSj iatkc ds e/; ugjh ikuh ds c¡Vokjs vkSj
    dqN fgUnh Hkk”kh vFkok iaatkch Hkk”kh {ks=ksa ds ckjs
    es mRiUu fooknks dk gy U;k;ikfydk djrh gSA
17- ¼1½ fdlkuksa dh muds mit ds T;knk leFkZu ewY;A
    ¼2½ esgurh o lLrs etnwj
    ¼3½ cPpksa dks fons’kksa esa clkukA
18- ¼1½ laxfBr {ks= esa fu;eksa dk ikyu gksrk gSA ftlls
    Jfedksa ds fgr dh j{kk        gksrh gS tcfd vlaxfBr
    {ks=ksa es fu;eksa dk ikyu ugha gksrkA
    ¼2½ laxfBr {ks= esa osru Bhd le; ij feyrk gS ijUrq vlaxfBr
        {ks= es ,slk de gksrk gSA
    ¼3½ laxfBr {ks= esa Jfedksa dh ukSdjh iDdh gksrh gSA
        tcdh vlaxfBr {ks= esa ,slk ugha gksrkA
19- ¼1½ vfQzdk esa mUgs cM+h ek=k esa lLrs etnwj fey tkrs
FksA
    ¼2½ vQhzdk ds fuoklh ;q) {ks= esa detksj FksA
    ¼3½ dPpk eky vkSj [kfut ÁkIr djus ds fy,A
    ¼4½ cuk gqvk eky cspus ds fy,A
vFkok
    ¼1½ ik;kZIr iw¡th gksukA
    ¼2½ yksgs] dks;ys ds i;kZIr HkaMkjA
    ¼3½ dPpk eky vklkuh ls ÁkIr gksukA
    ¼4½ fodflr tgkt m|ksx eky <+ksus ds dke vkrk FkkA
    budh O;k[;k djsaA
vFkok
                                                           104
     ¼1½ cacbZ ÁslhMsalh dh jkt/kuh cuk fn;k tkukA
     ¼2½ diM+k ehyksa dk ÁkjEHkA
     ¼3½ fQYeh fuekZ.k dk dsUnzA
     foLrkj ls crk,
20- ¼1½ xgj egk}hih; fueXu rV vkSj ‘kkUr lkxj dk if’peh rV ds
lkFk gksukA
     ¼2½ lkFk cus cka/kks vkSj ihNs cuh fo’kky >hyksa dh
vf/kd lqfo/kkA
     ¼3½ rV ij rhu leqnzh mRiknksa dks lalkfjr djus rFkk
‘khrkxjksa dh lqfo/kkA
     ¼4½ if’peh ns’kksa dks ePNyh fu;kZrA
21- ¼1½ dPps eky dh miyC/krk
     ¼2½ ifjogu
     ¼3½ lLrs etnwj
     foLrkj ls crk,A
22- ¼1½ lM+d dk fuekZ.k jsyksa dh vis{kk lLrk gSA
     ¼2½ nzrxkeh lsok
     ¼3½ lM+d ifjogu] jsy ifjogu ls vf/kd ykspnkj lsok gSA
     ¼4½ de O;;A
     foLrkj ls crk,aA
23- tc lkekftd fofHkUurk,a ,d nwljs esa xwt tkrh gS rks ,d xgjs
    lekftd foHkktu dh Hkwfedk rS;kj gksus yxrh gS tSlk fd mRrj
    vk;ySaM esa gqvk FkkA bUgsa xqFkh gqbZ fofHkUurk
    dgrs gSA
     ijUrq tgk¡ lkekftd fofHkUurk dgrs gSA xqIius ugha ikrh vkSj
     ,d lkFk dbZ leqnk;ksa esa fo|eku jgrh gS rks ogk¡ mUgsa
     lHkkyuk vklku gksrk gSA
     tgk¡ xqFks gq, varj vkilh la/k”kZ dk dkj.k curs gS cgh fc[kjs
     gq, varj ;k fofHkUurk,a vklkuh ls gy gks tkrs gSA

                                                               105
24- ¼1½ jktuhfrd ny jktuhfrd mn~ns’; ls Ásfjr gksrs gS tcfd
    ncko lewgakas dk ,slk dksbZ mn~ns’; ugha gskrkA
    ¼2½ jktuhfrd ny ,d foLr`r la[;k gS rFkk bldk QSyko yk[kks
        yksxksa esa gksrk gS tcdh ncko lewg ,d lhfer laLFkk
        gSA
    ¼3½ jktuhfrd nyksa dk vfLrRo LFkkbZ gksrk gS tcdh ncko
        lewg FkksM+s le; ds fy, gksrs gSA
25- ¼1½ jktk dk ‘kklu gksrk gSA
    ¼2½ fopkj O;Dr djus ij ikcanhA
    ¼3½ laxBu LFkkfir djus dk vf/kdkj ugha gksrk gSA
     ¼4½ Lora= :i ls pquko esa Hkkx ysus dk vf/kdkj ugha
gksrk gSaA
    ¼2½ fojks/kh nyksa dk dksbZ LFkku ugha gksrk gSA
    foLrkj ls crkb,A
26- ¼1½ ftu yksxksa ds ikl viuk dke pykus ds fy, /ku ugha
    gksrk oks _.k ysdj dke pyk ysrs gSA
    ¼2½ J.k xzkeh.k {ks=ksa esa fdlkuksa dh vksj ‘kgjh
        {ks=ksa esa O;kikfj;ksa] m|ksxifr;ksa dh fo’ks”k lgk;rk
        djrk gSA
    ¼3½ ns’k ds fodkl esa _.k dh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk jgrh gSA
    ¼4½ _.k lk/kkj.k yksxksa ds fy, Hkh dkQh egRoiw.kZ gS
        bldh lgk;rk ls yksx vius ?kj dk fuekZ.k dj ldrs gS vkSj
        ;kr;kr ds fy, okgu Hkh [kjhn ldrs gSA
27- ,slh dEiuh tks vusd ns’kksa esa viuh ‘kk[kk,a LFkkfir djrh
    gS rkfd os mRiknu ij vf/kd ls vf/kd viuk fu;a=.k dj ldsa
    cgqjk”Vªh; dEifu;ka dgykrh gSA
    ¼1½ vf/kd ykHk dh vk’kk
    ¼2½ lLrk Je vkSj lalk/ku
    ¼3½ de O;; mRre mRiknu


                                                            106
           mi;ZqDr dkj.kksa ls cgqjk”Vªh; dEifu;ka lhekvksa ds
ikj QSy jgh gSA
     mnkgj.k&QksMZ us psUubZ esa 1995 esa viuh czkap
[kksy yhA]
28- ¼1½ miHkksDrkvksa dks foHkUu Ádkj dh phtksa ds fo”k;
esa Kku u gksukA
    ¼2½ lk{kjrk de gksuk A
    ¼3½ ubZ&ubZ oLrqvksa dk cktkj esa rhozxfr ls vkrs jgukA
    ¼4½ lhfer viwfrZ
    ¼5½ vkd”kZ.k foKkiuA
    foLrkj ls crkb,A
29- ekufp= dk;ZA




                                                           107
108
Set-III

1-    bVyh ds ØkfUrdkjh rFkk jktra= ds dgj fojks/khA

vFkok
      ykvksl] foruke] dEcksfM;k
2-    16oha ‘krkCnh esa xksok esa cuh FkhA
vFkok
      ijh{kk xq: ys[kd Jhfuokl nkl
3- ,d ,slh rduhd ;k j.kuhfr gS ftlds vUrxZr lalk/kuksa dk
foosdiw.kZ <+ax ls fu;ktu gksrk gSA
4-    ck¡/k cgrs ty dks jksdus] fn’kk nsus ;k cgko de djus ds fy,
      [kM+h dh jkbZ cWk/k gS] tks vke rkSj ij tykl;] >hy vkfn
      cukrs gSaA
5-    eSXusVkbV loksZRre ykSg v;Ld] 72 Áfr’kr yksgk v;Ld] 72
      Áfr’kr yksgkka’k fyeksukbV esa 40 ls 60 Áfr’kr rd yksgka’k
6-    ouksa dh dVkbZ jksdusa esa dke;kc] leqnkf;d ouhdj.k
      vfHk;ku dks lQy cukukA
7-    uLy fojks/kh fgald vkanksyu tks 1956 ls 1975 rd pyk
      vesfjdk ls uLyokn feVkuk mn~ns’; FkkA
8-    ÁR;sd 1000 iq#”kksa ij fL=;ksa dh la[;kA
9-    ,d o”kZ ds nkSjku mRikfnr leLr vafre oLrqvksa ,ao lsokvks
      ds ekSfnzd ewY; ds ;ksx ls gSA
10- os lHkh miØe tks Ád`frd mRiknksa dk mRiknu djrs gS
    tSls& d`f”k] [kuu vkfnA
11- ljdkj }kjk 1919 bZ0 esa jkWyV ,DV ikl fd;k x;kA bldk
    Hkkjfr;ksa us dM+k fojks/k fd;kA
      bl dkuwj ds rgr ljdkj dks vusd vf/kdkj ÁkIr gks x;s FksA
                                                                 109
    fcuk eqdnek pyk, fdlh Hkh O;fDr dks fgjklr es ysuk
    fujadq’krk dk ÁHkko ljdkj ij c<+kA
12- lu~ 1930 bZ0 esa dkaxzsl vf/kos’ku ykgkSj ¼vc ikfdLrku
    esa½ esa lEiUu gqvkA ia0 tokgj yky ug: v/;{k cus FksA
    iw.kZ LorU=rk dk ÁLrko ikl fd;k x;k rFkk Áfro”kZ 26 tuojh
    dks LorU=rk fnol ds :i esa euk;k tk;A blh fu.kZ; dks ykxw
    fd;k x;k 26 tuojh 1930 dks igyk LorU=rk fnol euk;k x;k]
    frjaxk Qgjk;k x;k] jk”Vªh; la/k”kZ esa bl frfFk dk fo’ks”k
    egRo gSA
13- 1804 bZ0 esa usiksfy;u cksukikVZ Qzk¡l dk lezkV ?kksf”kr
    gqvkA
    mlus iMkslh jkT;ksa esa vius dCts esa ysuk ‘kq: dj fn;k
    oa’kxr jktkvksa dks gVkdj vius ifjokj ds lnL;ksa dks lRrk
    lkSaihA
    lewps ;wjksi ds vk/kquhdhdj.k dk chM+k mBk;k rFkk vusd
    duwu cuk,A
    turk dh vis{kk esa [kjk ugha mrjs] lsuk ds vfHk;ku dks
    tuleFkZu u feyukA 1815 bZ0 esa okVjyw ds eSnku esa
    ijkt;] dSn fd;s x,A


vFkok
    1945 ds ckn Áeq[k pqukSfr;k¡ bl Ádkj FkhA
    ¼1½ Ýkalhlh ‘kkld ckvksnkbZ dks dBiqryh dh rjg bLrseky
        djrs gq, ns’k ij dCtk cuk, j[kus gsrq Á;kl jr gks x, FksA
    ¼2½ ftusok dh ‘kkafr okrkZvksa esa ns’kfoHkktu ds ÁLrko
        dks ekuus ds fy, ck/; fd;k x;kA
    ¼3½ mRrjh o nf{k.kh nks fo;ruke cu x,A
    ¼4½ Ýkalhlh geyksa ds dkj.k fo;srfeUg ds lnL;ksa dks
igkM+h bykdksa esa ‘kj.k ysuh iM+hA
14- ykHk bl Ádkj ls FksA
    iqLrds igys lLrh gks x;ha] iqLrds iM+us dh ubZ laLd`fr
    fodflr gqbZA igys dsoy lEiUu oxZ gh iqLrd i<+rk Fkk vc
                                                              110
     lkekU; yksx Hkh iqLrds i<+us yxsaA iqLrdksa dh dhers fxj
     x;hA cM+h ek=k esa d`fr;ka Niuk vklku gks x;haA
     vFkok
     ¼1½ dqN miU;kalksa esa if’peh lH;rk ds ldkjkRed igyqvksa
     dks mtkxj fd;k x;kA
     ¼2½ miU;klksa ds ek/;e ls vifuos’kokn dks c<+kok
     ¼3½ ysfdu dgha&dgha bldk dMk fojks/k Hkh fn[kk;k x;kA
     ¼4½ dqN miU;kl lkekftd eqn~nksa ij gh dsfUnzr jgs] tks
     mifuos’kokn dh nsu FksA
15- ¼1½ ‘kklu ds fofHkUu vaxksa ds e/; lRrk dh lk>snkjh ftlesa
    fo/kkf;dk] dk;Z ikfydk] U;k;      ifydk ds e/; lRrk dk
    foHkktu gqvkA
     ¼2½ ljdkj ds chp fofHkUu Lrjks ij lRrk dk foHkktuA tSls
     dsUn ;k jkT; ljdkjA
     ¼3½ fofHkUu lkekftd lewgks esa lRrk foHkktuA
16- ¼1½ tgk¡ ljdkj nks ;k vf/kd Lrjks okyh gksA
     ¼2½ vyx&vyx Lrj dh ljdkjsa ,d gh ukxfjxd lewgksa ij ‘kklu
     djrh gSA
     ¼3½ fofHkUu Lrjksa dh ljdkjksa ds vf/kdkj {ks= lafo/kku
     esa Li”V #i ls of.kZr gSA
17- ¼1½ ,d VwukZesaV esa 10 ikfj;ksa esa nks cYyscktks }kjk
    cuk,a x, juks dh vkSlrA
     ¼2½ , lsDlu ds {kk=ksa }kjk vFkZ’kkL= esa ÁkIr vkSlr
         vadks dh rqyuk] ch lsDlu ds Nk=ksa }kjk ÁkIr vkSlr
         vadksa ls
     ¼3½ ,d cSad ds deZpkjh;ksa dh vkSlr osru dh rqyuk nwljs
         cSad ds deZpkjh;ksa ds vkSlr lsA
18- vusd dkj.kksa ls o`f) gksxh&
      ¼1½ cka/kks] ugjksa] fczdh Hkouks ckfn ds fuek.k esa u,
volj mRiUu gksxsaA

                                                           111
     ¼2½ flapkbZ dh lqfo/kk gksrs gq, fdlku ,d o”kZ esa nks ;k
     vf/kd Qlyksa dh [ksrh dj ik,xkA iwjs    o”kZ [ksrh esa
     dke feysxk vkSj mldh vk; esa o`f) gksxhA
     ¼3½ mfpr foi.ku O;oLFkk ds dkj.k fdlkuksa dksa viuh Åit dk
     lgh ewY; ÁkIr gks ik,xkA
     ¼4½ vfrfjDr vk; miyC/k gksus ds dkj.k fdlku vPNh fdLe ds
     cht] midj.k vkfn [kjhn       ik,xs blls d`f”k mRiknu esa
     lq/kkj vk,xkA
19- js’ke ekxZ tehu ;k leqnz ls gksdj xqtjrs FksA ,f’k;k ds fo’kky
    {ks= dks vÝhdk rFkk ;wjksi ls tksM+rs FksA bZlk iwoZ ls
    ysdj 15 oha ‘krkCnh rd O;kikjh bUgha ekxksaZ ls gskdj
    O;kikj djrs Fks blh jkLrs ls diM+ks vkSj elkyksa vkfn dk
    O;kikj gksrk FkkA lksus pk¡nh tSlh dherh /kkrq,s Hkh blh
    ekxZ ls ,f’k;k igq¡phA flYdekxZ uke ls irk pyrk gS fd bl
    ekxZ dk js’ke O;kikj esa fo’ks”k egRo FkkA ftlls phuh js’ke
    eaxksfy;k] ikehj vkfn ls gksrk gqvk if’peh ns’kksa dks tkrk
    FkkA
vFkok
     baXySM esa dkj[kkuksa dh LFkkiuk rst xfr ls gks jgh FkhA
     b/kj Hkkjr esa bZLV bafM;k dEiuh us viuh fLFkfr etcwj dj
     yh Fkh blfy, Hkkjrh dikl ¼lwrh oL=½ m|ksx ij cgqr ls
     Áfrca/k yxkus ds fy, fn;s x;s Fks tSls%&
     ¼1½ Hkkjrh; m|ksx }kjk fd;s tk jgs fu;kZr ij jksd yxk;k tkukA
     ¼2½ Hkkjrh; cktkj esa e’khuksa ls fufeZr baXySaM dk
     diM+k cspk tkukA
          blfy, Hkkjrh; cqudkjksa }kjk fd;s tkus okys fu;kZrksa
     esa Hkkjh fxjkoV vkbZA
          ?kjsyw cktkj esa diM+s dh ek¡x esa deh vk;hA
vFkok
     vkS/kkSxhdj.k ds lkFk yUnu eas vkeksn &Áeksn ds u;s
     rjhds fodflr gq,A blesa fuEu fyf[kr Áeq[k gSA
     ¼1½ okf”kZd yanu lhtuA

                                                                112
    ¼2½ iqLrdky;] dyk nh/kkZ,¡ vkSj laxzgky; vkfnA
    ¼3½ leqnzh ;k=ka,s djukA
    ¼ÁR;sd dh O;k[;k Hkh fy[kuh gSA½
20- jch dh Qlysa ‘khr _rq ¼vDVwcj ls fnlEcj½ eas cksbZ tkrh
    gS xzh”e _rq esa dkVh tkrh gS ¼vÁsy ls twu ds e/;½
    xsgw¡] tkS] puk] eVj] ljlksa eq[; Qlysa gSA
    [kjhQ dh Qlysa ekulwu ds vkxeu ds lkFk cksbZ tkrh gSA
    flrEcj] vDVwcj esa dkVh tkrh gSA pkoy] eDdk] tkS] cktjk]
    vjgj] mjn] dikl] ew¡xQyh eq[; Qlysa gSaA
21- >kj[kaM esa dksydkrk ls 250 dh0 eh0 nwj ij fLFkr gS rFkk
    lqo.kZ js[kk rFkk [kkjdkbZ ufn;ks ds laxe ij fLFkr gSA
    Áeq[k dkjd%&
    ¼1½ iru dh lehirk
    ¼2½ foRrh; laLFkkuksa ls i;kZIr iwath miyC/k
    ¼3½ fodk’k ifjokgu lk/kuA
    ¼4½ ufn;kksa ls i;kZIr ek=k esa ty feykuk
    ¼5½ fudV gh dPpk eky miyC/k gksuk
    ¼6½ ÅtkZ ds lLrs o i;kZIr lk/ku miyC/k vU; dkj.k Hkh fy[ks
    tk ldrs gSaA
22- dqN Áeq[k dne bl Ádkj gSa %&
    ¼1½ jsy ekxksaZ dk fo|qrhdj.k
    ¼2½ egRoiw.kZ :Vksa ij jsy VªSdksa dh la[;k esa o`f)
    ¼3½ eky o ;k=h fMCcksa esa o`f)
    ¼4½ rst lapkj O;oLFkk] Lopfyr flXuy vkfnA
    ¼5½ dEI;wVj vkj{k.k Á.kkyh
    ¼6½ daVsuj lsok;s miyC/k
    ¼7½ dqN uxjksa es esVªks jsy lsok;sa
    ¼8½ ekyxkM+h esa dgha dgha ij vyx ls iVfj;k fcNkuk vkfnA

                                                           113
          vU; dne Hkh gks ldrs gSA
23- Hkkjr esa efgyk Áfrfuf/kRo dh leh{kk nks Lrjksa ij dh tk ldrh
    gS&
     ¼1½ LFkkuh; Lok’kklu                  ¼2½ laln ,ao jkT;ksa
     ds fo/kku eaMyks esa
     ¼d½ LFkkuh; Lok’kkyu esa lHkh Lrjksa ij efgykvksa dks ,d
     frgkbZ lhVs vkjf{kr dh x;ha gSA xzke         iapk;rks esa
     efgykvksa ds fy, 33 Áfr’kr lhVsa vkjf{kr gSA
     ¼[k½       yksd lHkk vkSj lHkh jkT;ksa dh fo/kku lHkkvksa
     esa efgykvksa ds fy, vHkh rd vkj{k.k ugha fd;k x;k gS
     ysfdu blls lEcf/kr ,d fo/ks;d laln esa is’k fd;k tk pqdk gS ;|fi
     orZeku yksdlHkk esa igyh ckj 10 Áfr’kr ls vf/kd lhVksa ij
     efgyk,sa fcBkbZ gqbZ gSA
24- jktuSfrd nyksa ds le{k Áeq[k pqukSfr;k¡ bl Ádkj ls gS&
     ¼1½ ikVhZ ds Hkhrj vkarfjd yksdra= dk vkHkkoA
     ¼2½ oa’kokn dh pqukSrh
     ¼3½ iSlk vkSj vijk/kh rRoksa dh c<+rh ?kqliSB
    ¼4½ fofHkUu ikfVZ;ksa dh uhfr;ksa vkSj dk;ZØeksa esa
dksbZ egRoiw.kZ vUrj u gskukA
     bu lHkh dh O;k[;k Hkh djuh gSA
25- yksdrU= ,d ftEesnkj ,oa oS| ‘kklu gS D;ksfd&
     ¼1½ ukxfjdksa dks vius ‘kkldksa dks pquus dk vf/kdkj gSA
     ¼2½ ‘kkldksa ds Åij yksxksa dk fu;a=.k
     ¼3½ egRoiw.kZ eqn~nksa ij fuj.k; osus dh ÁfrfØ;k easa
     ukxfjd ‘kkfey gks ldrs gS ftuls os ÁHkkfor gskrs gSA
     yksdra= esa bl Ádkj dh ljdkj dh mRifRr fuEu dkj.kksa ls
     gks ikrh gS&
     ¼1½ fu.kZ; ysus dh ÁfØ;k ikjn’khZ gksrh gSA
     ¼2½ fu.kZ; dqN dk;ns dkuwu ds vuqlkj fy, tkrs gSA
     ¼3½ Álk’ku dks turk ds Áfr tokc nsg gksuk iM+rk gSA
                                                                  114
26- fons’kh fuos’k ds Áeq[k ykHk&
    ¼1½ ;s eqnzk ,ao iw¡th ykrk gSA
    ¼2½ ;s ubZ Á|ksfxfd ds lkFk ykrk gSSA
    ¼3½ blds lkFk Áca/k dh fodfyr rduhadsa vkrh gSA
    ¼4½ ?kjsyw vFkZ O;oLFkk esa mRiknu ,oa jkstxkj ds Lrj
    esa o`f) gksrh gSA
27- miHksDrk& dbZ O;fDr tks vius mi;ksx ds fy, fdlh oLrq dks
    [kjhnrk gS miHkksDrk dgk tkrk gSA
    Áeq[k drZO;&
    ¼1½ miHkksDrk dks pkfg, Áekf.kr xq.koRrk okyh oLrq,s gh
    [kjhnsaA
    ¼2½ [kjhn ds le; oS| xkjaVh lkVhZfQdsV ysuk u HkwysaA
    ¼3½ oLrq dh [kjhn dh jlhn ÁkIr djsa vkSj mls laHkkydj
    j[ksaA
    ¼4½ mUgsa vius vki dks laxfBr djuk pkfg, vkSj tc t:jr gks
    rks lkeqnkf;d :i ls foØsrkvksa ds fo:) dk;Zokgh djsaA
    ¼5½ mUgs vius drZO;ksa vkSj vf/kdkjksa dh tkudkjh
    gksuh pkfg,A
28- vkSjpkfjd _.k &
    ¼1½ bl oxZ esa cSadks] lgdkjh lfefr;ksa ds fy, d.kZ vkrs
        gSA tcfd vkSipkfjd mnkjrk ls lkgdkj] O;kikjh] ekfyd]
        fj’rsnkj nksLr vkfn gSA
    ¼2½ dqy lk[k dk 52 Áfr’kr Hkkx vkSjpkfjd {ks= }kjk vkSj 48
        Áfr’kr xSj&vkSipkfjd {ks= }kjk Ánku fd;k tkrk gSA
    ¼3½ Hkkjrh; fjtoZ cSad _.kksa ds vkSipkfjd lzkSrks dh
        dk;Z Á.kkyh ij utj j[krk gSA tcfd vukSipkfjd {ks= es
        =.knkrkvksa dh xrhfof/k;ksa dh ns[k&js[k djus okyh
        dksbZ la[;k ugha gksrhA os dtZnkrk ls vf/kd O;kt
        ugha olwyrs gSA



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