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									ICTs and Good Governance



   Prof. Usha Vyasulu Reddi
   Director, Centre for Human
       Development, ASCI

         E-GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP   1
                  MEET
 Whom and Whose Needs are We
         addressing?
• Powerful people who make the decisions
• Decisions that are about people and that have to
  satisfy demands of a large population base
• Often the decisions are about subjects in which
  they have limited knowledge and expertise
• Are experienced in sifting information to get to
  the basics to enable decision
• Have very little time in which to make the
  decision

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                 Defining ICTs
• “ICTs are basically information handling tools—a varied
  set of goods, applications and services that are used to
  produce, store, process, distribute and exchange
  information. They include the “old” ICTS of radio,
  television and telephone, and the “new” ICTs of
  computers, satellites and wireless technology and the
  Internet. These different tools are now able to work
  together, and combine to form our ‘networked world”, a
  massive infrastructure of interconnected telephone
  services, standardized computer hardware, the Internet,
  radio and television, which reaches into every corner of
  the globe’.[1]
                     [1] http://www.apdip.net/resources/ict-poverty-
                                   reduction/21paperreview.pdf p. 6

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Understanding the various ICTs

                 Typology of ICTs




 Technologies                             Services
  --Hardware                               --G2C
   --Telecom          Applications         --G2C
      -fixed          --Proprietary        --G2B
                    --Open Source          --B2B
  --wireless
                                           --B2C
                                           --C2C
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  Classification of ICTs in Current Use
Synchronous: “same time”      Asynchronous:
  “different places”           “different times” and
 Audio-graphic                “different places”
 Computer conferencing
                              Computer based learning
 Electronic blackboard
                              Computer Conferencing
 Radio
                              Computer file transfer
 Satellites
                              Electronic bulletin boards-
 Tele-classrooms
                               emails
 Tele-conferencing
                              multimedia websites,
 Television Broadcast
                              e-learning
 Radio Cable Telephony

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      Strengths and weaknesses of different ICTs

    ICT                   Strengths                                Weaknesses

Print           Familiarity                     Limited by literacy
technologies    Reusable                        Static in time
                Can provide depth               Updating difficult
                Allow economies of scale        Passive, one way technology with little or no
                Allow uniform content and       interactivity
                standards
Broadcast       Familiarity                     Limited access
Analogue        Speed of delivery               Static in time, Synchronous
Technologies    Provides vicarious experience   Updating difficult
                Allow Economies of scale        Not problem or location specific
(Radio and      Uniform content and standards   Passive, little or no interactivity
TV)             possible                        One size fits all content for all groups of people
                Rugged, ease of use             High start up, production and distribution costs
Digital         Interactive                     Limited access still
(Computer       Low per unit cost               High development costs
and Internet    Allow Economies of scale        Capacity of providers
                Uniform content and standards   Computer literacy essential for use
Based           possible                        Local content
Technologies)   Can be updated easily           The real issues of human resources; political will;
                Problem and location specific   inadequate understanding of how and why
                User friendly
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       ICTs, Governance and
            Government
Governance is the outcome, while
 government is the formal apparatus for
 administering system effectively
E government is the application of ICTs
 for providing services to citizens
E governance is a broader term which
 encompasses a wide range of
 relationships between government and
 the citizenry
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  What is different today from the
                past?
• Convergence
  – The coming together, in a seamless
    process, of telecommunications and
    Internet technology with all media, text,
    audio, video, graphics, animation, and
    video so that all are delivered on a
    common platform and yet, the user can
    choose any combination together or
    separately as s/he desires
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             Convergence
A mix and merger of many disciplines—
 convergence of engineering sciences
 with social and behavioural sciences.

Introduction of ICTs requires significant
 social and cultural changes within
 organizations which have been
 structured to separate functions and
 responsibilities
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            Convergence


• Convergence or national alliance that
  includes government, private sector,
  civil society with each contributing
  resources becomes the foundation for
  maximizing the opportunities enabled by
  the new ICT driven environment for
  national development.


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               Convergence

A Multi-stakeholder partnership where
   Government can create favourable policy,
    regulation, funding, capacity building.
   Private sector can open up infrastructure and
   invest in services
   Civil society can work with communities
   Community can own and drive initiatives

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         Key Decision Points
ICTD Review


ICTs in the Project Cycle


ICT interventions are different


What makes planning so critical
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          ICT Activities Review
• ICTD is the domain of IT and telecom
      departments.
• Development departments tend not to have a
  good ICTD orientation,
• they are not able to significantly influence
  ICTD policy and activity partly because they are
  not able to engage with IT departments
• IT departments also have problems of liaison
  with other departments

                 E-GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP         13
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          Stakeholder Analysis
• Stakeholder analysis “refers to a range of tools
  for the identification and description of
  stakeholders on the basis of their attributes,
  interrelationships, and interests related to a
  given issue or resource.”




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         Stakeholder Analysis
• In conducting a stakeholder analysis, the
  following steps should be considered:
  – Identify the main purpose of the analysis.
  – Develop an understanding of the system and
    decision-makers in the system.
  – Identify principal stakeholders.




               E-GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP           15
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         Stakeholder Analysis
• In conducting a stakeholder analysis, the
  following steps should be considered
  (cont):
  – Investigate stakeholder interests,
    characteristics and circumstances.
  – Identify patterns and contexts of interaction
    between stakeholders.
  – Define options for management.

                E-GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP             16
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       Different types of ICT
    E Government Applications
Direct interventions
  Direct interface between the government
   services and the citizens
Indirect interventions
  In support of development efforts and
   projects
  Building information and decision support
   systems
               E-GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP         17
                        MEET
  Planning ICTD Interventions—ICTs in
            the Project Cycle
• First decision—whether intervention is to be
  ICT-driven or ICT-supported
• ICT driven assumes that timely and relevant
  information through ICTs will of itself
  promote economic growth through
  increased income
• ICT supported clarifies the development goal,
  works out the ICT needs, then looks at cost
  effective ways of deploying ICTS to address
  project needs
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         Some key factors impacting on
               success/failure
• Clarity about development goals and
  outcomes
• Demand rather than supply driven
• Sensitive to local conditions and limitations,
  including those of infrastructure, access,
  relevance and language, robust and
  sustainable
• Process oriented, rather than duration or
  merely target driven
• Organizational, attitudinal and systematic changes
  are key factors
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   ICT Interventions are different
• Not merely hardware, but a set of
  management principles and practices
• Conventionalism vs. flexibility
• Mismatch between technology and social
  objectives
• Investment in hardware vs. investment in human
  resources
• The challenge of scale—economies of
  scale vs. local solutions

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      Common Service Centres
     Promoting Universal Access
Needs
  Clear and enabling policy
  Addressing fundamental constraints to economic
   development
  Improving infrastructure
  Opening up markets
  Breaking monopolies
  Effective legal and regulatory system
  Providing education for all

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         Common Service Centres

 Simple telephone, fax
  and photocopying and
  typing booth
 Cyber café
 Info shops
 Government services
 Multipurpose centres




                  E-GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP   22
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        Common Service Centre
       Success and Sustainability
Financing and sustainability
Ownership and operating models
Human Resources
Paid employees vs. volunteers
Training and Capacity building
Community mobilization and role
              E-GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP   23
                       MEET

								
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