CJ 526 Statistical Analysis

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					CJ 526 Statistical Analysis


       Research methods and
             statistics
Assumptions
1. there is order in nature
2. every event has an explanation
3. we will never know everything
Terminology

 Variable: any trait or characteristic
 which can take on a range of values
 Hypothesis: Question or statement
 about the relationship between two or
 more variables i.e., is there a
 relationship between number of
 police on the streets and the crime
 rate?
Terms

 Independent variable (IV): a variable
 thought to have an effect
 Dependent variable (DV): affected
 variable
Terms
 Units of analysis: units observed and
 described to create summary
 descriptions of all units and to explain
 differences among them
 Individuals
 Groups (i.e., families, gangs)
 Organizations (police departments)
 Social artifacts (traffic accidents, court
 cases, prison riots)
Terms
 Theory: an explanation that systematically
 organizes observations and hypotheses
 Basic vs. Applied Research
 Basic--why questions; Applied--solve
 problems
 Cross-sectional vs. Longitudinal Research
 Experimental vs. Ex Post Facto Research
Types of research methods

 Experiments (manipulation and
 control)
 Surveys (written and interviews)
 Field or observational research
 Record or archival research (content
 analysis, secondary analysis)
 Case study
 Evaluation research
Choosing a research problem
Reviewing the literature: abstracts
and journals, books, collected
readings, computer searches
(NCJRS), CD ROMS, and the internet
Conceptualization of variables,
hypotheses, questions
Steps in research

 Selecting how to measure variables
 (operationalization)
 Selecting subjects for the study:
 population and sample
 Method: making observations and
 measurements
 Data processing and analysis
Steps in research (continued)

 Interpreting the results and their
 applications

				
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posted:10/1/2012
language:English
pages:10