CHAPTER TWO by aP68V1sd

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                  CHAPTER TWO
          A GENERAL SURVEY OF COMPUTER
                   TECHNOLOGY

2.1 Introduction


       This chapter presents the role of computer technology in education
especially the role of computer in language learning and teaching.


       It comprises some definitions of the computer, the     main parts of the
computer, the advantages and disadvantages of computer as     a machine and the
nature of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL           for short). It also
includes the history of CALL and the advantages and           disadvantages for
language learning and teaching.


       It discusses the main points related to CALL such as functions of the
computer in the classroom, feedback , classroom management and the different
types of programs.


2.2 Computer

2.2.1 The Nature of Computer

         Ahmad etal (1985: 2) define the computer as “ a tool, of itself incapable
of action. It has no inborn wisdom, no mind of its own, no initiative, and no
inherent ability to learn or teach”.

         Al-Jarah and Al-shiraida (1991:241) define computers as “ electronic
machines that process information. They are capable of communicating with the
user’ of doing five kinds of arithmetic operations, and of making three kinds of
decisions. However, they are incapable of thinking. They accept data and
instruction as input, and after processing information, they output the result”.

         Garrett (1991:75) also considers computer a servant whose role in
education is a medium only.
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2.2.2 The Main Parts of the Computer

2.2.2.1 Hardware

       A Computer equipment is called hardware. This includes anything that
one can fall over in a computer room, i.e., the computer itself, the keyboard, the
display screen, printers and disk drives (Barker and Yeates, 1985:20). Hardware
is seen as "the physical units which constitute a computer system " (Chandler,
1984:115).

         Furthermore, Higgins and John (1984:25) point out that hardware
includes both input devices, i.e. devices for putting information into a computer
e.g. keyboard, Joysticks, voice and the light pen; output devices, i.e. devices for
giving information to human beings e.g. display screen and printer; and data, i.e.
data is just information in a specially coded form. The whole collection of input
device, output device, data, and computer itself is called a microcomputer
system (Wyatt, 1984:5), as show in figure (1) below:

         In addition to this, Rushby (1981:94) referred to “large computers,
which are used in some specialized applications in meteorology and physics,
speech recognition and machine translation, still occupy whole rooms. These
computers are called mainframes; middle-size computers are called
minicomputers, and the smaller computers are known as microcomputers 1 ”.


                                         Memory



                Input                     Process                Output
             information                   Data               information




          Input device                   Computer            Output device


      (e.g. keyboard ,graphics tables)           (e.g. T.V screen , printer , speech)
                                  Figure (1)
                      The Main Parts of a Computer System
                            (See Wellington, 1985:26)


( )
1 Sometimes the microcomputer is known as a personal computer.
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2.2.2.2 Software

          Ahmed etal (1985:22) state that: -

               The word    “software” was created      by analogy      to
          Hardware. Software refers to programs, or set of commands by
          which the computer is instructed to perform specific tasks. The
          computer can be programmed to carry out tasks like reading or
          storing data, analyzing data, performing logical and arithmetic
          operation and reporting back to the user.


     Walker (2003:13) maintains that software refers to the programs and data,
which are used to control the hardware.

2.2.2.3 Memory

      O'shea and Self (1983:271) define memory as “a device for storing
programs and data .It is usually used to refer to internal immediate memory,
particularly (RAM but sometimes also ROM) and it is used to include external
backing store memory, for example, audio cassettes, floppy disks or CD-ROM”.

2.2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer

    Using the computer in education as a machine has both advantages and
disadvantages.

2.2.3.1 Advantages

    The advantages can be summarized in the following points:

1. Computers can present materials in various ways. They can use various colors,
   typeface, and sizes of letters. They can present a text word by word, phrase by
   phrase, line by line, question by question, page by page, etc. They can offer
   interactive learning unlike other technological aids.

2. Computers are flexible and untiring. If the teacher wants to present only a few
   words or sentences on each page, it would be wasteful and expensive to do
   this on paper, but computers can do it in an economical way. Computers do
   not get tired and can repeat the same thing again and again without
   complaining.
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3. Computers can give immediate feedback, if they are programmed to do so.
   They can confirm that an answer is correct, give the correct answer or a hint if
   the answer is incorrect, etc. Computers can rapidly and accurately check
   whether two strings of characters are the same, making them useful for
   checking spelling or answers.

4. Computers have a clock that is useful in various ways. The clock can be used
   to time students’ work, limit the amount of time allowed to read a passage or
   do an exercise or a set of exercises, etc.

5. Computers can use information from floppy disks, hard disks, CD- ROM,
   laser disks, etc. This puts a great deal of information at the disposal of
   computer users.

   (Kenning and Kenning, 1983:2-4),(Wyatt,1983:4) (Ahmed etal, 1985:4-6),and
    (Kitao, 1991:12-14)


2.2.3.2 Disadvantages

      The disadvantages can be summarized in the following points:

1. Computers have limitations on their memory, speed, methods of input and
   output, etc.

2. Computers can only do what they are programmed to do. It is necessary to
   have proper software for a given task. Each kind of software has its own
   limitations. Some software is difficult to use and some may not be able to do
   exactly what the user wants it to do.

3. Computers are expensive . They are still not as cheap as hand-held calculators
   or typewriters.

4. In order to use a computer, a user has to know what commands to give the
   computer and how to respond to the computer. If the user does not know
   these, the computer will not function. It can be difficult to start using a
   new computer or computer program even if it has a good manual. Even after
  the user learns the basic, he or she needs to learn how to use the computer or
  program most effectively.


 (Kenning and Kenning,1981:23)(Ahmed etal, 1985:6-9)and(Kitao, 1991:15-17)
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2.3 The Nature of CALL

      CALL is relatively a new term, having come into favor in the early 1980s,
replacing the older term CALI (Computer –Assisted Language Instruction).The
term CALI fell out of favor because it became associated with programmed
learning, i.e. a teacher-centered rather than a learner – centered approach that
drew heavily on behaviorism (History of CALL 2004:2).Throughout the 1980s
CALL widened its scope, embracing the communicative approach and arrange
of new technologies. CALL now, includes highly interactive and communicative
support for listening, speaking, reading and writing, including extensive use of
multimedia CD-ROMS and the Internet (Davies and Bruzzon,2004:4).


     The definitions of CALL vary with different educationalists, psychologists
and practitioners. According to McArthur (2002:1) "CALL is the study of all
aspects of language learning and teaching with Information and
Communications Technology (ICT)".


     Higgins (1993:1) describes CALL as:

                A relatively new and rapidly evolving academic field that
         explores the role of information and communication technologies
         in language learning and teaching. It provides a fertile ground
         for leading edge, innovative and high creative thinking and
         scholarly work. Because of the multiplicities and changeability of
         the field, which include the emergence of new theoretical,
         methodological and learning paradigms, special understanding
         and expertise is required to assess the quality and depth of such
         scholarly activities.




     The definition of Lee (2002:1) is similar to that of Levys ( 1997:1) which
states that:


               CALL as the search for and study of applications of the
        computer in language teaching and learning.
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    CALL, on the other hand, is defined by Davies (2000:2) as “ an approach to
language teaching and learning in which the computer is used as an aid to the
presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually
including a substantial interactive element”. Similarly, CALL is an approach of
teaching and learning language activity aided directly by a computer (Philips
1986:5)and(Wikipedia,2003:1).

     As for Hudson (1984:8), Hiks and Hunka (1972:191), Wellington
(1985:21) and Kitao (1993:5) they don’t regard CALL as only a teaching aid,
but as a total teaching system. The student responds individually, actively at his
own pace to CALL, the computer gives him an accurate and immediate
feedback. Hence, CALL contains all the essential elements of a complete
teaching system.

         To sum up, CALL, in general, can be defined as an academic field for
teaching and learning foreign language in which the computer plays a central
role in the learning of the students and evaluation of those performances.


2.4 History of CALL

      CALL arose from the combination of two separate factors: educational
needs and technological means (Parpert,1984:27). CALL in general, didn’t
simply emerge ready- made from the direct application of the computer to
teaching and learning; it has evolved over a period of time.


       This development can be categorized into three stages, which are referred
to as behavioristic CALL, communicative CALL, and integrative CALL
(Warshauer,1996a:1). The stages provide brief overview of how computers have
been used in language learning and teaching and each one corresponds to a
certain level of technology as well as a certain pedagogical approach.


2.4.1 Behavioristic CALL

       The first stage of CALL traced back to the 1950s and implemented in the
60s and 70s, was based on the behavioristic theories of learning. Chapell
(2001:9) describes behavioristic CALL as an attempt to transfer existing foreign
language textbooks to computer –based application. Students could then
essentially use the computer to turn pages of the textbook, learn material in
workbook drills and correct answers.
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   Backer (1995:25) provides a summary of this approach to computer-assisted
language learning.

                 Chronologically, the first trend in CALL (originally called
          CAI-computer assisted Instruction) was an electronic extension of
          programmed learning or programme instruction (Pl and PI,
          respectively) based on the behaviorist theories of skinner and
          Bloomfield. According to these theories, all learning could be
          broken down into small frames and the learner could be drilled and
          evaluated in each frame until mastery. The teacher then brought
          the student to the next frame. In the computerized version, the
          progress of the student could be monitored and guided through
          branching. Proficient students could automatically be sent ahead,
          while slower students could be routed to remedial lessons.
          According to Audio- Lingual, a major focus of language teaching
          was grammatical structures through drill and practice.



     Besides, Harrington (1995:7) clarifies that CALL was based on the
technological possibilities of programming computer to respond to user input.
The computers can be used as tutor (Taylor, 1980: 3) or as magister (Higgins,
1988:4). In this use, the computer initiates and controls procedures and judges
performance.

     In addition to this, a number of CALL tutoring systems were developed for
mainframe computers, which were used at that time. One of the important
systems was the PLATO and the important program was drill and skill program
(Wyatt, 1984:36) and (Marty,1981:87).


     Wyatt (1987:90-92) and Hubbard (1987:67) describe the characteristics of
behavioristic CALL as follows:

1.Repetitive language drills and practice are the main substance.

2.Students are passive responders, not initiators.

3.The computer functions as an authoritative instructor.

4.A detail set of high, and low –level learning objective is provided.

5. A positive and negative reinforcement is provided.
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6. Students are allowed to learn at their own pace.

7.Learning paths are predetermined.


        Stevens (1989: 31-32) and Underwood (1989:76) have aptly considered
the behavioristic CALL undermined, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, by two
important factors. First, behaviorist approaches to language learning had been
rejected at both the theoretical and pedagogical level. Secondly, the introduction
of the microcomputer allowed new possibilities.


2.4.2 Communicative CALL


     The second stage of CALL was based on the communicative approach to
teaching, which became prominent in the 1970s and 80s. When personal
computers became more common and less expensive, many schools purchased
and many teachers of foreign language began teaching materials through
communicative CALL (Chapell,2001:12).

      One of the main advocates of this stage was John Underwood, who
directed attention to the computer. He stated that “Computer can be used as
tool. In this role, the computer waits until summoned, responds to requests and
serves. Although knowing the truth, the pedagogue patiently provides only the
requested information or activities in order to lead to exploration and discovery
on the part of the student” (Underwood 1989: 52). The role of the computer in
communication CALL could also be referred to by Higgins (1988: 4) computer –
as – pedagogue.

    The type of computer programs using a communication CALL could
include: game, simulation and word processors and the important systems can
be used are BASCAL and BASIC (Taylor & Perez, 1989: 8).


    The characteristics of communicative CALL can be summarized as follows:

1.It provides meaningful communicative interaction between the learning and
    the computer.

2.It promotes a positive self-image in the learning.

3.It motivates the learner to learn language.
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4. It uses the target language exclusively.

5. It focuses on language skills, allows for a variety of responses, and creates
   natural environment for the language.

6. It does not include overt error correction.

7. It teaches grammar implicitly rather then explicitly.


            (Chapell, 1997:21) and (Warschauere and Healy, 1998:57)


     Thus, this second stage of CALL was also rejected as Brussino (1999:415)
explained:


                    Through comment CALL was seen as an advance over
             behaviorists CALL, it too began to come under criticism, by Laye
             (1980) and early 1990s critics pointed out that the computer was
             being used in an ad hoc and disconnected fashion and thus finds itself
             making a greater contribution to marginal rather than to central
             elements of the language teaching process (kenning and Kenning,
             1990: 90). This corresponded to a broader reassessment of
             communicative language teaching theory and practice. Many
             teachers were moving away from a cognitive view of communicative
             teaching to a more social or social-cognitive view, which placed
             greater emphasis on language use in authentic social contexts. Task –
             based, project –based, and content –based approaches all sought to
             integrate the various skills of language learning and use.




     Ruschoff (1993:15) argues that the dividing line between Behaviouristic
and communicative CALL involves not only which software is used, but also
how the software is put to use by the teacher and students.
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2.4.3 Integrative CALL

       Integrative approaches to CALL are based on two important technological
developments of the last decade: Multimedia computers and the Internet Davies
(2001:1). He noticed the main advantage of multimedia packages "is that they
enable reading, writing, speaking and listening to be combined in a single
activity, with the learner exercising a high degree of control over the path that
she/he follows through the learning materials ".

     Davies (1997:3) clarified that the Internet builds on multimedia technology
and in addition enables both asynchronous and synchronous as communication
between learners and teachers.

      Unlike in the previous stage where the computer served in the role of
simulator of reality, in this stage, the computer is able to serve as generator of
reality (Philips, 1996: 18). He points out "the dichotomy of classroom versus real
world disappears as technology allows the real world to be brought into the
classroom. In this stage, the discrepancy disappears between the didactic
situations of the classroom. The computer allows classroom-based learners to
experience realities from outside of the classroom i.e. from the real world “.

     Warchauere (1996b:8) describes the Internet as follows:

                    The internet allows users to chare not only brief
               massages, but also lengthy (formatted or unformatted)
               documents—thus facilitating collaborative writing –and also
               graphics, sound, and video. Using the world wide web
               (www), students can search through millions of files around
               the world within minutes to locate and access authentic
               materials (e.g., newspaper and magazine articles, radio
               broadcasts, short videos, movie reviews, book excerpts)
               exactly tailored to their own personal interests. They can
               also use the web to publish their texts or multimedia
               materials to share with partner classes or with the general
               public.


      In this stage, the role of computer can be used as a messenger Warschaur
and Healy (1998:7), or as a facilitator of language acquisition (Higgins, 1988:5).
Backer (1995:28) indicates that the important system can be used in the
Multimedia technology (exemplified today by CD-ROM) are BASIC,
FORTRAN and VISUAL –BASIC. The types of computer programs using an
integrative CALL could be divided into: the multimedia programs (hypermedia
and authoring) and the Internet programs (electronic mail e-mail and MOOs)
(Bax, 2003:20).
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   The characteristics of integrative CALL can be summarized as follows, It:

   1. Emphasizes the process and not the product.

   2. Negotiates instructional goals and objectives.

   3. Represents the natural complexity of the real world.

   4. Focuses on knowledge construction, not reproduction.

   5. Provides for learner control; use errors as a mechanism to provide
      feedback on learners’ understanding.

   6. Uses a holistic approach.

   7. Enables context and content dependent knowledge construction.

   8. Emphasizes the importance of goal for learner, and the dichotomy
      between learner and teacher goal.

   ( Phillips,1996:9),( Warchauere ,1996b:15-17)and( Brussino ,1999:411-412)


     Thus, the present study depends on the third stage of CALL in particular
Multimedia Computer Assisted Language Learning and the researcher presents
all elements related with this stage "integrative CALL". For that reason, the
researcher has selected the “ Interactive English –CD” package because it is the
suitable package, more related with this stage and available in Iraq.

      For more description about three stages of CALL see figure (2).


       Stage                Pedagogy              Technology       Computer
                                                                     role
  Behavioristic            Behaviorisms           Mainframe         Tutor
                                                  computing
 Communicative            Communicative            Personal             Tool
                            (Cognitive)           computing
  Integrative             Constructivism           CD-ROM         Messenger
                         (Social-cognitive)         Internet

                                  Figure (2)
                         Historical Stages of CALL
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2.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of CALL for Language
    Learning and Teaching

2.5.1 Advantages

      The advantages can be summarized in the following points:

1. CALL is good for motivating students to study English. Students are anxious
   to use computers. Many students are tired of traditional English classes and
   are interested in a new style of learning. When they use a computer, they feel
   that they can master English.


2. Students can get different types of input using computer. Using multi- media
   materials, computers can display, write text and use sounds, pictures, and
   video. Students feel things are more real and more easily understood.


3. Learning can be individualized by using computers. Students can study
   material related to their individual goals and what they need or are interested
   in, with the appropriate difficulty level and at their own pace.


4. Students can use computers to build on the work they have done. For
   example, they can use a word processing program to write a composition, to
   edit it before they turn it into the teacher and then to change the composition
   based on their teacher’s comments.

5. CALL can overcome barriers of time and place. If a school has a satellites
   system of computer laboratories, students can study English at various places
   on campus at any time. If the school has a network of computer laboratories,
   students can use the same materials wherever they are working. Students can
   study at home if they have a computer that can connect to their schools
   computer. Teachers can get materials from commercial companies, net works,
   or databases, even from foreign countries and can send CD or discs of their
   material to the students through the post.

6.There are computer programs to check spelling and grammar. These allow
 students to avoid mechanical errors and pay more to more substantial letters.

         (Els,1984:293-294),(Ahmed,1985:5-6),(Phillips,1986:4-6)
               (Kitao,1993:6-8),and (Holmes,1996:1-3)
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2.5.2 Disadvantages

   The disadvantages can be summarized in the following points

1. CALL of course, requires computers and software as well as other equipment,
   all of which are expensive. A special classroom is also necessary.

2. No matter how simple computers and software are, students need to learn a
   great deal to use them. Just learning to use the computers and software often
   requires time and energy before students can even begin to use them to study
   a subject. Input is usually from a keyboard; so students need to learn to type
   fairly well before they can use computers effectively.

3. It is also necessary to train teachers. They need to understand the theory
   behind CALL as well as how to use computers. They have to learn the best
   methods for teaching classes with computers.

4. There are many limitations of equipment and facilities, and some teachers
   may not be able to do what they want to do. Once computer laboratories are
   established, it is not possible to re- equip them for several years. During that
   period, hardware and software developments will occur. It is necessary to
   make good decisions about what the computers will be used for and to buy
   the most appropriate hardware and software for those purposes, which
   preferably can be upgraded easily when technology changes.


   (Ahmed, 1985:6-9),(Kitao , 1993:6-8), (Holmose,1996:3-4)and
                      (chapelle ,2001 :15 )


2.6 Functions of Computer in CALL

         Warschauer and Healey (1998:3) indicate three functions of computer
   in CALL

1. The computer as a tutor: Early CALL developments in the 1960s and
    1970s were based on the technological possibility of programming
    computers to respond to user input. Put simply, computers could be
    programmed to ask questions , receive answers and tell the users whether the
    answer were right or wrong.
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2. The computer as a tool: Around the late 1970s, the development of personal
    computer applications, including games , simulation and word -processors
    opened up new technological possibilities for CALL . Language learning
    software applications modeled on games and simulations became popular
    and were often used as a stimulus for communicative language practice.
    Word processors and Disk -computing applications were essentially used as
    tools to support communicative language teaching activities.


3.The computer as a messenger: Since the advent of networks, CD _ ROM
   and the Internet in the early 1990s , the use of computers for authentic
   communication has become widespread in language teaching. This began with
   local networks for document sharing within class and expanded to the use
   of multimedia package (CD_ROM).Web browsing and authoring, email and
   chat are now widely used in language teaching often in the context of
   project work. In such projects, the computer tends to function as messenger
   communicating information to and from the learners and the computer acts
   as a facilitator of language acquisition.


 2.7 Feedback of Computer in CALL

         Bationo (1992:45) refers to feedback as “ the message that follows the
 response made by a learner in learning situations, or as an event that provides a
 learner with information as to the correctness of her answer”.

         According to Ellis (1984:215) feedback refers to communication with a
 learner that informs her of accuracy of a response to a question.

          Brandl (1995:196) states that feedback is “an essential component of the
 instructional process. Its most common mode of delivery is through teacher-
 students interaction in a classroom setting. This mode is a potentially personal
 means of delivering feedback, as the teacher knows the students on an
 individual bases, is able to analyze their response, and then provide feedback
 accordingly”.

        Wager and Wager (1986:3) define feedback in computer as “any message
 or display that the computer presents to the learner after a response”. Bationo
 (1992:50) considers feedback in technology-assist computer as information that
 is presented to the learner after any input with the process of shaping her
 perceptions.
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     In CALL, language learning is presently viewed from a more cognitive
aspect. According to cognitive learning models, learning can take place only
after comprehension, thus the need for corrective feedback. Feedback in CALL
is different from the feedback given in the traditional foreign language
classroom. While traditional classroom feedback is not very systematic or
immediate, CALL feedback is immediately provided for every incorrect
response by pictures, sounds, games, ect.




2.8 Classroom Management and CALL


      There are three possible ways of using CALL in the classroom
  according to classification of Walker (2003:14-16) , Jesson (1985:115) and
 ( Wellington ,1985:145).


   a. Whole –class work: a computer with a large display screen is used in
      front of the whole class.


   b. Individual resource: a corner of the classroom, or even a special room, is
      reserved for an individual, a pair or small group working on one computer.


   c. Microcomputer laboratory: this consists of several computers, possibly
      linked together, and is used in much the same way as the language
      laboratory, with pupils working alone or in pairs at individual machines.



      The way that a computer is used in a classroom will depend on several
factors: the habits and preferences of the teacher, the nature of the room itself,
the discipline and traditions of the school, the facilities (hardware and software)
available and the type of program can be used (this is regarded the most
important factor determining classroom management). For more description see
figure (3).
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2.9 The Different Types of Program in Three Stages of CALL

         The type of programs through three stages of CALL can be summarized
 as follows:

2. 9.1 Drill and Skill

      To Salt (1984:154) and Hicks and Hunka (1972:54) the characteristics of
this program are:

   a. It consists of stimulus, learner response and feedback to learner.

   b. It introduces vocabulary items; particular language structures and tests a
      particular skill, e.g. addition and spelling.

   c. It asks the pupil to memorize facts, or refine particular skills.


2.9.2 Tutorial Program


       According to Gordon (1986:23), Barker and Yeates (1985:76) and O’shea
  and Self (1983:115) there are three characteristics of this program, and they
  are as follows:

a. It provides to the student (useful presentation of information and followed by
  question).

b. It provides direct instruction in either factual knowledge a concept, or
  skill.

c. It involves breaking a learning task into a series of sub-tasks, sequencing
  these, and providing feedback.


2.9.3 Simulation program

      Higgins (1983:102) and Sharples (1983:53) indicate that CALL simulation
 has two possible interpretations:
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a. Programs which simulate a model of a situation, usually "real" but
   sometimes imaginary.

b. Programs, which contain substantial "game" elements, such as, program
   which no actual language stimuli. For instance, Harrison's "Town
   planning" game allows students to mark on a map of the town "features
   such as one-was streets, zebra-crossing" and so on, so that they can study
   the effects of their decisions on traffic and pedestrian flow "(Harrison
   1983:86)

      Johns (1983:91) refers to simulation,


              …. Allow the students to experience situations, which
            would be difficult or impossible to duplicate in a classroom
            setting, and they provide a means for personal and group
            involvement with a topic or theme or social situation.




 Any type of simulation includes the same characteristics and they are:

a. Using computer to stimulate discussion, asking questions, analyzing the
   user's responses and perhaps offering a device.

b. CALL simulations are difficult to write because they require an enormous
   data, but they can be fun.

c. A simulation can represent a scientific experiment; a commercial
   management exercises; a problem –solving task and a role –play.


              (Moss, 1985:97) and (Wellington , 1985:48).

2.9.4 Game program

        O'shea and Self (1983: 103) indicate that the term “computer game”
is a computer –based activity which leads to interesting teaching.

    Barker (1987:72-73) states that the important point to answer about
“How do computer games differ from other games?”
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1.Audio and visual effects are used to reward success and to present the game
  situation.

2.The game can increase in its ability to challenge the player; it needs not
  become boringly simple.

3.The computer can time the player's responses and calculate scores.



   Game program is characterized by the following points: -


1. The learning is less directed and more enjoyable.


2. The role of the learner in “game -player”.


3. It involves placing the learner is an imaginary situation.


4. It includes many language games e.g., Hangman, crossword puzzles, Jumbled
   sentence , jumbled texts, word sequencing and guess in game.


5. This program is widely used in primary school by children.


6. In this program, the computer attempts to guess what the player is thinking of
   by asking a series of questions. For instance, Ahl (1978:101) points out to
   “"Animal" as a famous computer game. The computer asks for the player to
   think of an animal and then tries to guess, "What it might be .It asks questions
   such as "Is it an insect"? "Is it a fish?” and soon. If it fails to make a correct
   guess the player is invited to type in a question it might have asked in order
   to arrive at the correct answer. The computer scores the question for future
   use, so that with each game; it is "taught" more by the players”.


             (Barker and Yeates, 1985:77) (Davies, 1985:139)
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2.9.5 Electronic mail (e-mail) program


     There are two characteristics related with this program and they are as
follows:


1.The electronic mail (e-mail) means computer-mediated communication, i.e.
  language learners can communicate directly, inexpensively, and conveniently
  with other learners or speakers of the target language 24 hours a day, from
  school, work or home (Warschauer, 1996b:23).


2.The communication can be asynchronous (not simultaneous) through tools (e-
  mail), which allows each participant to compose a message at their time and
  place, i.e.(this program enables asynchronous communication between learners
  and teachers) Fitzpatrick and Davies (2003:22).


2.9.6 MOOs Program

    MOOs program is characterized by the following points:


1.MOOs program: means ("Multiple –user-domains object oriented") i.e., it
  "allows for real time communication, simulation, and role-playing among
  participants throughout the world, and a special MOO has been set up for
  ESL teachers and students"(Warschauer, 1996b:23).


2.The communication can be synchronous (synchronous, "real time"), which
  allows people all around the world to have a simultaneous conversation by
  typing at their keyboards i.e. (this program enables synchronous
  communication between learners and teachers) Fitzpatrick and Davies
  (2003:21).


3.This program allows not only one-to-one communication, but also one-to-
 many, allowing a teacher or student to share a message with a small group, the
 whole class, a partner class, or an international discussion list of hundreds or
 thousands of people (Felix, 2001:8).

                                                                                 29


    To sum up, the program of the present study is (authoring or hypermedia)
program which the researcher explain it in the chapter three with the material
part.


    For more details about the connection between classroom use and type of
program see figure (4)



  Program
              Skill/Drill Simulation    Game     E-mail     Moos    Authoring
   Class
 Use
 Whole
 class             χ                     χ         χ         χ          


Individual                                                          χ


  Micro-
 computer         χ            χ          χ                            
laboratory




Key:         This way of using the computer has clear application in this
             form of class organization.

       χ     Less appropriate way of using the computer.


                                    Figure (4)
                      Types of Program and Classroom Use
                               (See Walker, 2003:16)

								
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