Chinese Dynasty Overview - PowerPoint by 13ZgpL

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									Classical Civilization 1: China

      Shang - Han Dynasties
        AP World History
          Chinese Dynasty Song
Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han        shang, joe, chin, hahn
Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han

Sui, Tang, Song              sway, tang, soong
Sui, Tang, Song

Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic   yooan, ming, ching, Republic
Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic

Mao Zedong                   mou dzu dong
Mao Zedong
 From Ancient to Classical Civ
• Most ancient river valley civs declined after 1200 B.C.E.
• The classical civilizations, which began to emerge around 1000
  B.C.E., were measurably different than their river valley
  predecessors.
• They grew noticeably larger through trade and conquest.
• Classical civilizations developed in China, India, Greece, and
  Rome. China was the 1st and the largest of the classical civs.
• Though all the classical civilizations had declined by 500 C.E.,
  they left an indelible mark on world civilization. Their impact
  endures to the present.
• Great developments in philosophy, politics, and art in classical
  civilizations formed the foundation for subsequent civilizations.
• Patriarchal culture prevailed in each of the classical civilizations.
 Ancient Chinese Civilization
• Chinese civilization along the Huanghe
  (Yellow River) developed in relative
  isolation, save for some overland
  trading with India and the Middle East.
• By around 1500 B.C.E. a line of kings
  called the Shang ruled over the
  Huanghe valley. They began the
  dynastic cycle that would endure until
  the 20th century.
           Dynastic Cycle
• Dynastic cycle lasted from 1700 BCE
  until the early part of the 20th century.
• Dynasty=family of kings.
• 3 Dynasties of classical China: Zhou,
  Qin, and Han.
      Shang (1700 - 1027 BCE)
•   First recorded Dynasty
•   Ruled by a belligerent aristocracy
•   First Chinese cities, center of court life
•   Villages organized by clans, not nuclear
    families.
•   Cast bronze, created silk
•   Developed writing. Ideas through
    pictographs. Thousands of characters.
•   Honored ancestors, used oracle bones
•   Shang tyrant emperor overthrown by
    Zhou, who ushered in the 2nd dynasty.
Shang Bronzes
                    Dao
• Early Chinese philosophy stressed the basic
  harmony of nature: every feature is balanced
  by an opposite (yin and yang). For hot there
  is cold, for male, female.
• Forms basis for Daoism, a philosophy by
  which a individual seeks a way, called Dao, to
  relate to this harmony, avoiding excess and
  appreciating balance of opposites.
  Zhou (Chou) (1027 - 250 BCE)
• Longest lasting Chinese Dynasty.
• First classical era dynasty.
• First period of territorial expansion (complicated
  problems of central rule).
• Featured decentralized politics but important cultural
  innovations incl. Confucianism, Mandate of Heaven,
  and Chinese language.
• Est system of currency
• China’s feudal period (rulers gave land to their
  supporters in exchange for defense).
Zhou Coins - bronze
  Zhou (Chou) (1027 - 250 BCE)
• Zhou rulers claimed direct links to the Shang rulers.
• Also asserted that heaven had transferred its
  mandate to rule China to the Zhou emperors-
  Mandate of Heaven.
• Mandate of Heaven remained a key justification for
  Chinese imperial rule in all subsequent dynasties
  (think Divine Right).
• Promoted linguistic unity via a standard spoken
  language (Mandarin Chinese). Largest single group
  of people speaking the same language in the world at
  this time.
                    Confucius
• As a wondering scholar-philosopher in Zhou China,
  Kung Fuzi (Confucius) undertook a quest to become
  chief advisor to a ruler who possessed the wisdom to
  restore centralized control, peace, and order in his
  realm (like Aristotle philosopher-king).
• Though he never fulfilled this goal in his lifetime, his
  students preserved, spread, and debated his
  teachings after his death in the early 5th c B.C.E., and
  compiled his teachings in the Analects. (Consider
  Greek philos, the Buddha, and Jesus’ disciples).
• His social and political teachings formed the basis for
  one of humanity’s greatest and most enduring civs.
551 – 479 B.C.E.

Born in the feudal
state of Liu.

Became a teacher
and editor of books.
           Confucianism 101
• Idealized strong rulers and consolidation of polit
  power.
• Advocated rule by highly educated, exclusively male
  elite (think Aristotle).
• Began as an ethical rather than religious system.
• Est norms for all aspects of Chinese life, from familial
  relationships, filial piety, ancestor veneration, and
  male authority.
• Est norms for etiquette of rulers and scholar
  bureaucrats.
• Influenced art, music, calligraphyI
• Formed basis of Chinese philosophical and religious
  beliefs for more than 2000 years.
• Confucianism waxed and waned during
  subsequent dynasties, but continues to
  influence Chinese culture today.
• Also exerted influence on other Asian
  societies incl Japan and Korea.
 Zhou (Chou) (1027 - 250 BCE)

• The breakdown of the Zhou dynasty’s
  ability to control its vassals in the 8th c
  B.C.E. led to a long period of political
  conflict (i.e. land-owning aristocrats
  solidified their own power base and
  disregarded the central govt.)
• Internal conflicts left China vulnerable to
  outside invaders btwn 8th-3rd c B.C.E.
       Qin (221 - 207 BCE)
• By 221 BCE, warrior Shi Huangdi
  brought an end to the years of civil strife
  and disunity, ushering in the Qin
  Dynasty.
• Shi Huangdi vanquished all his rivals
  and founded a new imperial court.
• But Shi Huangdi proved to be a tyrant,
  so the Qin Dynasty ended shortly after
  his death in 210 BCE.
           Qin (221 - 207 BCE)
• Self appointed title Qin Shi
  Huangdi , meaning First
  Emperor.
• The name Qin conferred on
  the whole country its name
  of China.
• Brutal yet effective.
  Organized China into large
  provinces ruled by
  bureaucrats.
• Shi Huangdi appointed
  officials from nonaristocratic
  groups, so that they would
  not dare to develop their own
  independent bases of power.
           Qin (221 - 207 BCE)
• For defense, built first Great Wall (Ming
  built other part later), extending 3000+
  miles. Largest construction project in
  human hist.
• Adopted Legalism: only way to achieve
  order was to pass strict laws and
  impose harsh punishments. (Hanfeizi)
• Ordered natl census, standardized
  currency, weights measurements,
  laws, and unified written script
  throughout the realm.
• Banned Confucianism, burned books.
  Attacks on intellectuals and high taxes
  made him fiercely unpopular.
     Han (202 BCE - 221 CE)
• After Shi Huangdi’s death, massive peasant revolts
  broke out. Two peasants led a revolt against Qin
  oppression, toppling the dynasty, giving rise to the
  Han dynasty.
• Lasted for 400+ years. Most effective, & most
  enduring bureaucracy in the preindustrial world.
• Legalism replaced by Confucianism
• Introduced civil service examination (process of
  selecting govt officials based on merit rather than
  noble birth). Ltd. power of emperor (checks &
  balances)
• Expanded Chinese territory into Korea, Indochina,
  and central Asia. Silk Roads developed, opens trade
     Han (202 BCE - 221 CE)
• Peace brought great prosperity.
• Wu Ti erected shrines to Confucius, and he was
  established as a god. Official state philosophy.
• Buddhism introduced, paper invented
• Great increase in population
• Govt sponsored public works projects incl complex
  irrigation & canal systems (compare to Rome)
• Not highly militaristic.
Decline
• Nomadic raiders
• Corruption, weak leaders
             221 - 581 (CE)
• Han dynasty overturned by a nomadic tribe,
  the Huns
• Warlords control china - no centralized gov’t
• Non-Chinese nomads control much of China
• Buddhism becomes popular - Confucianism
  failed
• (Invaders like Huns might topple a dynasty,
  but they couldn’t devise a better system to
  run the country, so the system & its
  bureaucratic administrators normally
  endured).
                 Religion
•   Confucianism
•   Daoism
•   Buddhism
•   Confucianists & Daoists tolerated each
    other. You could be politically a
    Confucianist & spiritually a Daoist.
            Economy & Society
• Considerable gap btwn landed elite and the masses (peasant
  farmers). Strength of agrarian base allowed China to carry about
  1/5 of the total human population from the last centuries BCE to
  the present day.
• Slavery waned after the Zhou dynasty.
• 3 main social groups:
   – Landowning aristocracy (educated bureaucrats or mandarins)
   – Laboring masses (peasant farmers, urban artisans)
   – Mean people (unskilled laborers, performing artists). Required to wear
     green scarves for identification. Punished for crime more harshly.
• According to Confucianism, men superior to women, old
  superior to young, etc.
• “There are no wrongdoing parents.” Courts didn’t prosecute
  parents who injured or killed children, but would punish a
  disobedient child.
• Strict control over one’s emotions.
       Economy & Society
• Trade became important during Zhou &
  Han. Focused on luxury items: silk,
  porcelain.
• Confucian emphasis on learning and
  political service led to scorn of lives
  devoted to moneymaking. Therefore,
  wealthy merchants had low prestige in
  social hierarchy.
           Economy & Society
• Chinese civ evolved with very little outside contact. Most saw
  China as an island of civilization in a sea of barbarians with
  nothing to offer except threat of invasion. They saw no need to
  learn from other societies.
• Spread of Buddhism is exception to this rule, b/c it came from
  India during & after the Han decline.
• Chinese pioneered technologies that were later disseminated
  over much of Eurasia & northern Africa: paper & compasses.
• Asian nomads disseminated these inventions over much of the
  globe, contributing to tech transformations in Japan, Rome, Mid
  East, & Eng.
• China’s silk became valued in Mide East & Roman Empire.
  Trade of silk and other luxury products generated a network of
  roads thru ctrl Asia known as the Silk Road. Han actively
  encouraged Silk Road trade.

								
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