FW exam KEY by HC121001075612

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									Name TEACHER                                       Date             j


           Fish and Wildlife Resources—ANSWER KEY
                                  Exam (50 points possible)

Matching: Match terms in Column A with definitions in Column B. (1 point per question)

Column A                      Column B
h___1. Game species              a. The number of species an environment can support
j___2. Home range                b. Water is impounded behind a dam built across a watercourse
c___3. Feral species             c. A once domesticated species that lives in the wild
a___4. Carrying capacity         d. The actual number of individuals in an area
e___5. Excavated pond            e. Made by digging a pit below the surrounding ground level
b___6. Embankment pond           f. An area that an animal actively defends
g___7. Domestic species          g. Animal species under human control
d___8. Population density        h. Animal species that is hunted
f___9. Territory                 i. The land that drains into a particular body of water
i___10.Watershed                 j. The area an animal normally occupies
                                 k. A nonnative species

Column A                      Column B
b___11. Lacey Act (1900)         a. Provided federal land for use as waterfowl feeding areas to
                                    lure birds from private cropland
e___12. Migratory Bird Act       b. Made it a federal offense to transport illegally taken wildlife
(1929)                              across state boundaries
d___13. Migratory Bird           c. Allowed states to place an excise tax on guns, ammunition,
Hunting Stamp Act (1934)            and fishing tackle.
a___14. Lea Act (1948)           d. Raised revenue for acquiring lands for migratory game birds
c___15. Pitman-Robertson &       e. Provided refuges for migratory birds
Dingell-Johnson Act (1950)




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Zones of a lake: Use the diagram to answer questions 16-17. (1 point per line)




                               Zone 1

                                  Zone 2

                                     Zone 3




16. Which zone is the: limnetic zone? ___2_____________
                     littoral zone? _1_______________
                     profundal zone? _3_______________

17. Where would you find: rooted vegetation? _1_______________
                            many bacteria? __3______________
                            most of the fish? _2_(and 1 is okay)______________
                            many plankton? _1,2_______________

Multiple Choice: Circle the best answer. (1 point each)

   18. One of the major impacts that humans have had on ecosystems is to decrease the
       population of large carnivores like bears, mountain lions, and wolves. How does this
       usually affect ecosystems?
          a. It causes a massive increase in smaller carnivore populations like foxes and
              coyotes.
          b. It often leads to an increase in populations of large herbivores, like elk and
              bison.
          c. It leads to disease epidemics in plant populations.
          d. It causes many pioneer (new) species to move into the ecosystems.

   19. Which factor has not contributed to the increased rates of extinction?
         a. Invasive species outcompete native species
         b. Climate change
         c. Increased regulation on game species
         d. Overhunting
         e. Human population growth


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   20. Which of the following is not one of the four basic elements of a habitat?
          a. Macronutrients
          b. Space
          c. Cover
          d. Food
          e. Water

   21. What of the following are the most ideal temperature and PH for most fish production?
         a. 65°F, 8.0
         b. 55°F, 5.5
         c. 55°F, 9.0
         d. 65°F, 4.0
         e. 55°F, 7.5


Short answer: Answer each of the following questions using complete sentences.

   22. Briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of hunting? (2 points)
       Hunting controls population levels of wildlife, but overhunting in areas can lead to population
       declines.

   23. Describe the habitat requirements of two of the following fish: largemouth bass, bluegill, and
       channel catfish. (2 points)
       Bass: eat aquatic insects, fish, crayfish, frogs; adapted to ponds, spawn in shallow water, nest
       when water temperatures are 60 to 65°F.
       Bluegill: eat plankton when young; feed on aquatic insects, small fish, small crayfish, snails; nest
       when the water is 70-75°F.
       Channel catfish: feed on a variety of food from aquatic plants to fish; catfish young and eggs will
       be eaten in clear ponds.

   24. Identify two positive and two negative values associated with wildlife. (2 points)
       Positive: Aesthetics, recreational, ecological, educational/scientific, utilitarian, commercial
       Negative: Automobile collisions, attacks, crop and livestock damage, disease reservoirs

   25. What is the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and what are the positive and negative effects of it?
       (3 points)
       The purpose of Endangered Species Act is to protect endangered wildlife. Positive: Several
       species have recovered and removed from the Endangered Species List (American alligator,
       peregrine falcon, bald eagle, brown pelican, gray wolf, gray whale. Negative: Landowners may
       remove potential habitat to prevent an endangered species from moving in; landowners thus
       avoid having to deal with conservation measures.

   26. Identify an endangered species discussed in class and describe how it became endangered and
       what is being done to conserve it. (2 points)
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27. Discuss four of the six common methods of managing game. (4 points)

    1. Game refuges—land is set aside for the protection of wildlife species. The first state refuge
       was in 1870 in California. A refuge only protects wildlife while the wildlife remain within the
       boundaries of the refuge. Refuges protect against hunters not natural enemies.
    2. Habitat development and improvement—fencerow plantings and woodland management are
       most common, also grazing, logging, fire, and nest boxes. Grazing should not be eliminated
       from woodlands if the goal is to increase game populations.
    3. Coordination with other resource—working with farmers to leave small portions of crops as
       food supply.
    4. Hunting regulations—Bag limits, hunting season, and closed seasons for a given game
       species vary from year to year in response with the current population size of that species.
    5. Predator control—controlling predator populations can control prey populations. Predator
       control practices can keep the prey species in healthier condition as weak and sick
       individuals are killed off.
    6. Artificial stocking—introducing a new species to an area or increasing populations of game
       in an area. Must carefully consider present population density in relation to the carrying
       capacity.

28. Why do wildlife need space? (2 points)

    Wildlife need room for breeding and nesting, to reduce disease transmission, and
    because of social intolerance. Wildlife also need enough space to forage or hunt for food.

29. Describe four common fish sampling methods. (4 points)
    1. Nets—small nets are used to catch fish
    2. Spot poisoning—killing the fish in a small area with poison that quickly becomes nontoxic as
       it dilutes in the water
    3. Shocking—using an electric current to stun or kill the fish immediately around the boat.
    4. Angling—fishing with bait and hook to catch fish for study

30. Explain a) what you would fertilize a pond with, b) why you would want to fertilize a pond, and
    c) what problems could arise from this? (3 points)

        a. You would fertilize a pond with nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium or lime.
        b. You would fertilize a lake to increase plankton production (food for fish).
        c. The results can be unpredictable. Sometimes this can result in excess growth of
           vegetation. This results in increased dead organic matter. Microbes that decompose this
           material use of oxygen and release toxins. This increases the incidence of winterkill.




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