Using an iTouch to Increase Sight Word Accuracy
Mary Beth Pummel, William R. Jenson, Daniel Olympia, Lora Tuesday Heathfield, Kristi Hunziker
Department of Educational Psychology
Method Summary of Results
Abstract Time-delay taped-words interventions have been shown to effectively
The current study utilized a time-delay taped-words intervention to Participants
Participants were recruited during the 2010-2011 school year from an increase reading fluency and sight word recognition. The current study examined the
increase sight word fluency of second grade students at risk for reading effectiveness of using an iTouch to deliver the intervention to students who were at
difficulties. An iTouch delivered the taped-words intervention at three elementary school in Utah. The entire second grade was screened using
AIMSweb® oral reading fluency probes. General education students who scored in risk for reading difficulties. Second grade students (N=4) completed the intervention
different time-delays and provided participants with immediate and which consisted of baseline, intervention, and generalization data.
corrective feedback. Participants were encouraged to “beat” the iTouch by the bottom 25th percentile were recruited to participate. Students who received
permission to participate and who scored 50% or below on an initial list of 32 sight During each intervention session, participants completed one list of words at
reading the list of words faster than the iTouch. Baseline and intervention each of three different time-delays. The iTouch provided immediate and corrective
data are reported based on percentage of words read correctly within two words were eligible to participate. Four students (3 boys) met criteria and
participated in the study. feedback by presenting the words at the corresponding time-delay. Percentage of
seconds, which demonstrates mastery. words read correctly was recorded for each time-delay. Participants were required to
Sight words were obtained from the New Instant Word List (Fry, 1980). demonstrate mastery on version C before continuing onto the next word list.
Review of the Literature Three worksheets (A, B, C) were constructed for each of the 20 lists. The order of Results indicated that all participants increased their sight word fluency from
Reading is an essential skill that students must acquire to be the words was randomized on each worksheet. An iTouch with prerecorded tracts baseline to intervention. At baseline, Participant 1 scored an average of 51% of the
successful in school and beyond. Beginning readers rely on letter-by-letter was used to deliver the time-delay taped-words intervention. Each version (A, B, C) words read correctly. Participant 1 obtained an average of 94% words read correctly
decoding. Repeated association with a word’s pronunciation and visual was recorded at one of three differing time-delays (1s, 4s, 2s). during the intervention phase. Participant 2 scored an average of 40% correct during
representation leads the reader to process letter clusters and entire words Dependent Measures baseline. She scored an average of 81% words read correctly across the intervention
as units that eventually become automatically recognized as “sight words”. Percentage of words correct served as the dependent variable. To be scored phase. Participant 3 scored an average of 38% at baseline and an average of 56%
Proficient reading requires decoding, fluency and comprehension (Rathvon, as correct the participant must have read the word aloud within the 2s time-delay words read correctly during the intervention. Participant 4 read 33% of words
2008). Fluency, the ability to accurately and quickly recognize frequently before the word was presented by the iTouch. By reading the word aloud within 2s correctly at baseline and increased to 75% words read correctly at intervention.
used words, is an important skill for early readers to accomplish and is the participant demonstrated automaticity of the written word. Participants 1, 2, and 4 increased their sight word fluency by 43%, 41%, and 42%
critical for reading comprehension (The University of Texas, 2004; Shapiro, respectively. Participant 3 increased his sight word fluency by 18%. Oral reading
2004.) To achieve success in fluency students must have repeated fluency probes were also administered at baseline and at the end of the intervention
Procedures to show generalization across oral reading fluency measures. Results showed that all
opportunities to practice while receiving corrective feedback (Shapiro, 2004;
Design participants increased their oral reading fluency.
Nist & Joseph, 2008; Burns, VanDerHeyden, & Boice 2008).
The study was conducted in a multiple baseline design yoked across This intervention used the most current technology to effectively and
Research has consistently shown that time-delay taped-words
participants. During baseline, students were given a worksheet with 15 sight words efficiently provide participants with immediate and corrective feedback. Results
procedures increase reading fluency and sight word recognition (e.g.
and the number of correct responses was recorded. During each intervention indicated the time-delay taped-problems intervention using an iTouch was effective
Sterling, Robinson, & Skinner, 1997; Bliss, Skinner, & Adams, 2006; Belfiore,
session participants were given one list of words presented at three different time- at increasing participants’ sight word fluency. Moreover, increases generalized to
Skinner, & Ferkis, 1995). In addition, these procedures minimize student
delays. Participants were instructed to read the words aloud with the goal of other oral reading fluency probes. This suggests that the intervention may also be
errors because correct feedback is immediately provided (Stevens &
reading the word before they heard it on the iTouch. Version A, presented with a 1s effective at increasing a subject’s ability to read connected text and thus increase
Schuster, 1999). However, time-delay taped-words research has primarily
time-delay, was intended to prevent errors by providing the participant with the comprehension.
focused on the use of the intervention for students with learning disabilities,
correct pronunciation of the word almost immediately. Version B, presented with a
behavior disorders, and intellectual disability. It has neglected to research its
4s time-delay, was intended to allow the subject more time to respond and
utility with students who are at risk for learning deficits. Therefore, the
promote independence. Lastly, the participant completed version C, presented at a
current intervention is targeted towards students who are in need of
2s time-delay and intended to increase automaticity. Participants were required to
academic support at the Tier 2 and Tier 3 levels of a response to intervention
demonstrate mastery by obtaining 80% accuracy on version C before continuing
model. Furthermore, the use of an iTouch utilizes the most current
onto a new word list at the next intervention session.
technology to deliver the intervention efficiently and effectively.
Data Collection and Analysis
Participants collected their own data by marking responses on the
corresponding worksheet. Although the intervention was self-administered, the
experimenter was present at each session to ensure reliability of the data. Words
read correctly were converted into percent correct and compared to the percent
correct obtained at baseline. Prior to the start of the intervention and at the
conclusion of the intervention participants were screened using oral reading
fluency probes to assess the generalizability of results.