GREENHOUSE EFFECT Have you ever heard the term greenhouse effect? a. What is the greenhouse effect?? The greenhouse effect is the process of warming in the atmosphere caused by greenhouse gases trapping solar radiation, the actual existence of this gas does not pose a problem as long as still within normal limits. Problems will arise, if there are certain gases that disrupt the balance. The sun's rays are not absorbed by the earth's surface will be reflected back from Earth's surface into space. Having reflected back turned into a long wave in the form of thermal energy. But some of the heat energy can not penetrate or pass back out into space, because the layer of atmospheric gases are disturbed composition. As a result of heat energy that should freelance keangkasa (stratosphere) to be radiated back to the earth's surface (the troposphere) or the presence of additional heat energy back to earth over a period of time, so that more than normal, the greenhouse effect is exaggerated because of the composition of the coating greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is disturbed, resulting trigger a rise in the average temperature of the surface of the earth. Greenhouse Effect is necessary for life on Earth. As explained previously, the panel of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere capture the sun's heat so as not to entirely separated space. This is exactly what causes the condition of the earth is warm, not cold and frozen. However, if the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is rising excessively, blocking the sun's heat will be released, so the temperature at the earth's surface will rise and feel the heat in the earth's surface. This is called global warming (to be discussed in a separate chapter) The term greenhouse gases and the greenhouse effect refers to the nature of the process of trapping sunlight on the application of greenhouse technology in high-latitude countries. In the area of greenhouse made to create an atmosphere like the tropics with the temperature and humidity are maintained (Focus Group discussions, BMKG, 2011). The flow of the greenhouse can be described as follows: 1. Solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface, some is absorbed by the Earth's surface and memanasinya, 2. Some solar radiation reaching the earth's surface, is reflected back by the atmosphere, 3. The earth's surface memantulokan infrared radiation (long-wave energy is hot) out atmosphere, 4. The reflected radiation from the Earth's surface is mostly retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases and is reflected back to earth permukaam (causing the earth's surface temperature rise) (Source: BMKG) b. Effect of GHG Against Global Warming Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions contribute to global warming. 1. What is Global Warming Global warming is the trend of rising temperatures on the surface of the earth and lower atmosphere layers over time, due to the greenhouse effect (green house effect). This condition causes the earth warmer so the change cycle of rain, the water level rise and the impact on survival lau living things. Global warming is a global phenomenon that is caused by human activities around the world, population increase, and the growth of technology and industry. The phenomenon of global warming is happening more due to the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Global warming is an increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and is projected to continue. According to the Fourth Assessment Report by the IPCC in 2007, global surface temperature increased by 0.74 ± 0:32 0C (1.33 ± 0:32 0F) during the 20th century. The majority of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG), which is caused by human activities such as burning fossil fuels and the reduction of forest land. 2. Symptoms of Global Warming Global warming has the following symptoms: • massive forest fires • archaeological site quickly broken • The height of the mountain is reduced • Satellites move faster • Only the Strongest that Survived • Melting Wholesale • anomalies in the Arctic Region • Plant Blossoms in the Arctic • Habitat Living Moving to a Higher Plain • Increased Cases of Allergy • 3. Activity Occurrence Causes Global Warming • People often considered indirectly responsible for global warming. Here are some human activities that cause global warming consists of: • a. Consumption of fossil fuel energy. • The industrial sector is the largest contributor to carbon emissions, while transportation second. According to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (2003), the consumption of fossil fuel energy consuming as much as 70% of total energy consumption, while electricity takes second place with 10% of total energy consumption. From this sector, Indonesia emit greenhouse gases at 24.84% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. • Indonesia is the largest energy consuming country in Asia after China, Japan, India and South Korea. Large energy consumption is obtained due to the large population using fossil fuels as an energy source, although in the calculation of energy use per person in the developing world, is not as energy use per person in the developed world. According to Prof. Emil Salim, USA CO2/orang emit 20 tons per year with a population of 1.1 billion people, China CO2/orang emits 3 tons per year by the number of 1.3 billion people, while India emits 1.2 tonnes CO2/orang by the number 1 billion people. • Thus, the amount of greenhouse gases discharged into the atmosphere from this sector is related to lifestyle and population. USA is a country with a population that has a very extravagant lifestyle, the consumption of energy derived from fossil fuels, in contrast to a number of developing countries that emit greenhouse gases, due to the accumulation of large population. b. Trash Waste methane gas (CH4). An estimated 1 ton of solid waste produces 50 kg of methane gas. Garbage is a major problem faced by cities in Indonesia. According to the Ministry of Environment in 1995 the average person in urban areas in Indonesia produce waste as much as 0.8 kg / day in 2000 and continued to increase to 1 kg / day. On the other hand the population continues to increase, it is estimated, by 2020 the waste produced 500 million kg / day or 190 thousand tons / year. With this amount the waste will emit methane gas by 9500 tons / year. Thus, urban waste is a potential sector, accelerate the process of global warming. c. Damage to forests One of the functions of plants that absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), which is one of the greenhouse gases, and turn it into oxygen (O2). Currently in Indonesia has been known to severe deforestation. The rate of forest destruction in Indonesia, according to data from Forest Watch Indonesia (2001), about 2.2 million / year. In 2010 0.5 million / year (FAO). Damage caused by forest fires, land-use change, among others, changes in forest into plantations with a single crop on a large scale, such as palm oil, as well as damage caused by forest concession holders (HPH) and Industrial Forest Plantation (HTI). With damage as mentioned above, of course, the process of absorption of carbon dioxide can not be optimal. This will speed up global warming. According to data from the Rainbow Foundation, in 1990, CO2 emissions released by the forestry sector, including changes in land use, reaching 64% of total CO2 emissions of Indonesia reached 748.61 kilotons. In 1994 there was an increase to 74% of carbon emissions. d. Agriculture and livestock This sector contributed to the increase in greenhouse gas emissions through flooded rice fields that produce methane gas, fertilizer use and agricultural practices, the burning of crop residues, and decaying remnants of agriculture, and livestock manure decomposition. This sector generated greenhouse gases are methane (CH4) gas and dinitro oxide (N20). In Indonesia, agriculture and livestock sector accounts for emissions of greenhouse gases by 8:05% of the total greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere.