_20_ Climate Change in Indonesia by naufalyodya


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									Climate Change in Indonesia

Climate Change

Climate change is something that is difficult to avoid and give effect to the various aspects of life.
The impact of extreme climate change is primarily the increase in temperature as well as the shift of
seasons. Rising temperatures cause ice and glaciers in the North and South Poles melts. This event
led to the expansion of ocean water masses and sea level rise. This will decrease the production of
fish and shrimp ponds and threaten the lives of coastal communities.
Global climate change caused by rising concentrations of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere as greenhouse
gases (greenhouse), industrial activities, resource use petroleum and coal, and forest fires as the
largest contributor of CO2 emissions in the world that lead to changes in the environmental and
land-use ( landuse), due to an imbalance between energy received by the energy released into the
air and a change order to the atmosphere that can affect the cycle becomes unbalanced in nature,
resulting in a very significant temperature changes in the atmosphere.

a. Understanding Climate Change
Climate change is a change in both the pattern and intensity of climatic elements in the comparable
period of time (usually for an average of 30 years). Climate change may be a change in average
weather conditions or a change in the distribution of weather events on average conditions. For
example, more frequent extreme weather events or reduced, changing weather patterns and the
increasing extent of drought-prone areas. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few
decades (eg, 30 years), such as El Niño, can not be said to be climate change.

Climate change can be caused by internal processes (natural) or changes from the outside (external
forcing), may also be due to changes in atmospheric composition or land use. Changes in
atmospheric composition is related to human activity (anthropogenic).
Climate change is an indirect impact of global warming that involves elements of human activities
and natural. Natural events that influence both positive and negative effects on global warming are
volcanic eruptions, climate dynamics in the atmosphere and oceans as well as the influence of
extraterrestrial cosmic phenomenon and the explosion in the sun. Factors affecting the climate can
be caused by human activities that cause an increase in global surface temperature of the earth is
known as the phenomenon of global warming (global warming) that is especially the case during the
last 150 years. (Module 1 BMKG understanding of climate-change climate, 13,062,011)

b. Identification of Climate Change in Indonesia
Genesis global warming not only has affected global climate, but also affect the climate in Indonesia.
Here are some of the data and the facts of climate change in Indonesia.

• Changes in sea surface temperature (SST)
Can be seen in Figure 8 Temperature comparison Advance Luat Indonesia 2010 and 1998. Detection
of global warming South China Sea (0 - 5N, 105E - 110E). The increase in SST in this area is 0.0208 º
C. In a hundred years (2105) was estimated at 31.3 º C.
• Changes in rainfall
Climate change can be seen with the change in extreme rainfall events opportunities in various areas
in Indonesia. In West Java, Banten, and Jakarta, the chances of extreme rainfall intensity of 500 mm
/ month during the period from 1970 to 1999 increased by 13%. In fact, during the period 1900 -
1929, the chances of extreme rainfall events in these three areas is only 3%.
Prediction of Future Changes in the Distribution of Rainfall Indonesia
In the year 2015-2039 is estimated lakes in Indonesia have a shortage of water during the rainy
season, especially in the areas of Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara.

• Shifting the season Java
Climate change occurs can also be seen from the shift of seasons. In Indonesia, the shift both in the
early season and long season. Such shifts occur in the dry season and the rainy season, either
forward or backward. Shifting seasons in Indonesia has been observed in several regions such as
Sumatra, Java, and South Sulawesi based on observational data for 30 years ie the period 1971-2000
and the period 2001-2010.

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