Climate Change in Indonesia Climate Change Climate change is something that is difficult to avoid and give effect to the various aspects of life. The impact of extreme climate change is primarily the increase in temperature as well as the shift of seasons. Rising temperatures cause ice and glaciers in the North and South Poles melts. This event led to the expansion of ocean water masses and sea level rise. This will decrease the production of fish and shrimp ponds and threaten the lives of coastal communities. Global climate change caused by rising concentrations of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere as greenhouse gases (greenhouse), industrial activities, resource use petroleum and coal, and forest fires as the largest contributor of CO2 emissions in the world that lead to changes in the environmental and land-use ( landuse), due to an imbalance between energy received by the energy released into the air and a change order to the atmosphere that can affect the cycle becomes unbalanced in nature, resulting in a very significant temperature changes in the atmosphere. a. Understanding Climate Change Climate change is a change in both the pattern and intensity of climatic elements in the comparable period of time (usually for an average of 30 years). Climate change may be a change in average weather conditions or a change in the distribution of weather events on average conditions. For example, more frequent extreme weather events or reduced, changing weather patterns and the increasing extent of drought-prone areas. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades (eg, 30 years), such as El Niño, can not be said to be climate change. Climate change can be caused by internal processes (natural) or changes from the outside (external forcing), may also be due to changes in atmospheric composition or land use. Changes in atmospheric composition is related to human activity (anthropogenic). Climate change is an indirect impact of global warming that involves elements of human activities and natural. Natural events that influence both positive and negative effects on global warming are volcanic eruptions, climate dynamics in the atmosphere and oceans as well as the influence of extraterrestrial cosmic phenomenon and the explosion in the sun. Factors affecting the climate can be caused by human activities that cause an increase in global surface temperature of the earth is known as the phenomenon of global warming (global warming) that is especially the case during the last 150 years. (Module 1 BMKG understanding of climate-change climate, 13,062,011) b. Identification of Climate Change in Indonesia Genesis global warming not only has affected global climate, but also affect the climate in Indonesia. Here are some of the data and the facts of climate change in Indonesia. • Changes in sea surface temperature (SST) Can be seen in Figure 8 Temperature comparison Advance Luat Indonesia 2010 and 1998. Detection of global warming South China Sea (0 - 5N, 105E - 110E). The increase in SST in this area is 0.0208 º C. In a hundred years (2105) was estimated at 31.3 º C. • Changes in rainfall Climate change can be seen with the change in extreme rainfall events opportunities in various areas in Indonesia. In West Java, Banten, and Jakarta, the chances of extreme rainfall intensity of 500 mm / month during the period from 1970 to 1999 increased by 13%. In fact, during the period 1900 - 1929, the chances of extreme rainfall events in these three areas is only 3%. Prediction of Future Changes in the Distribution of Rainfall Indonesia In the year 2015-2039 is estimated lakes in Indonesia have a shortage of water during the rainy season, especially in the areas of Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara. • Shifting the season Java Climate change occurs can also be seen from the shift of seasons. In Indonesia, the shift both in the early season and long season. Such shifts occur in the dry season and the rainy season, either forward or backward. Shifting seasons in Indonesia has been observed in several regions such as Sumatra, Java, and South Sulawesi based on observational data for 30 years ie the period 1971-2000 and the period 2001-2010.
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