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					    Navigating the
Juvenile Justice System
          The Facts
Taxpayers save    $2 million for each child who is
prevented from beginning a life of crime
20% of teens live in poverty
50% of teens will witness a divorce
40% of teens grow up without a father
70% of long term prison inmates grew up in broken
It costs society $39,000/year to keep a youth in a
correctional center
Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death among teens
1 teen commits suicide every 100 minutes
70 percent of girls in the juvenile justice system have
histories of physical abuse
Girls under 18 are the fastest growing segment of the
juvenile justice population.

                               SOURCES: Vanderbilt University; the Office of Juvenile
                               Justice and Delinquency Prevention; American Youth Policy
                               Forum; and the Coalition for Juvenile Justice.

Young offenders will not be detained in a juvenile facility as long as
they meet regularly with a probation officer and live up to the terms of
their probation (e.g. avoid illegal conduct, attend school or hold down
a job). Probation typically lasts for a year, but can be longer
                       Intake Officer

An official who receives, reviews, and processes cases in which a
young person is alleged to have committed an offense. The
intake officer can recommend either handling the case informally
or scheduling the case for a hearing in juvenile court. The intake
officer may also provide referrals for juveniles and their families to
other community agencies.
                   Status offenders

Youth who engage in behavior—breaking curfew, running away
from home, truancy—which if committed by adults, would not be
considered criminal. In other words, it is the youth's minor status
which makes the action a violation of law.
                  C.H.I.P.S , J.I.P.S
Child in need of protection and services

Children can be found to be in need of supervision for behaviors such
as being out of control and truancy without necessarily committing a
delinquent act.
Children can be found to be in need of assistance if the child’s parents
or guardian’s are unable or unwilling to give necessary and proper care
to the juvenile
                        GUARDIAN AD LITEM

If a child is under 12 or the court has special reasons for concern about a
child, the court will
appoint a guardian ad litem (GAL) for the child. The GAL is a private
attorney who has contracted
with Dane County to serve as GAL in juvenile cases. The parents do not
have to pay for the GAL.
The GAL acts as a lawyer for the child, but instead of always advocating for
what the child wants, the
GAL advocates for what is best for the child.
             Detention Hearing
A hearing held if a juvenile is considered dangerous or his/her well-
being is threatened at which time the court decides whether the
juvenile should be detained or released from custody. Analogous to a
pre-trial release or bail hearing.
          Adjudicatory Hearing
A hearing held to determine whether or not the child will be
found to be delinquent. Analogous to an adult criminal trial.
         Disposition Hearing
If the juvenile is found to be delinquent, the judge will hold
this hearing to review the juveniles history and determine
what action the court will take. Analogous to adult criminal
             Deferred Disposition

If youth complete conditions for 6-12 months, all charges will be
Independence of a minor from his or her parents before reaching
age of majority (18).
Repetition of criminal behavior.
Removing a youth found to have committed an offense from the home and
placing him or her elsewhere for a specified period of time, such as in a
juvenile or other facility.
Control, supervision, and care exercised over youth after they leave
community-based programs or are released from juvenile
facilities. Aftercare may include probation, counseling, enrollment in
a community program, or other forms of treatment. Aftercare
services are designed to support young people's return to their
families and communities and to lessen the chance that they will get
in trouble again.
Juvenile vs. Adult
Juvenile Justice System   Adult System

Delinquent Act             Crime
Adjudication Hearing       Trial
Found Delinquent           Convicted/Guilty
Disposition                Sentencing
Detention                  Jail
Runaway, Abuse, or   Emergency
Neglect                Shelter                                                         State Juvenile
                                             Release                                      Facility

  Youth Arrested           Intake    Detention         Adjudicatory      Disposition
   Or Detained             Officer    Hearing            Hearing          Hearing

    Step 1               Step 2      Step 3             Step 4           Step 5

                                                                                The steps can end at
                                                                                any time once a teen
                                                                                     is released
  Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act
Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders. This requirement specifies that non-secure alternatives
must be found for juveniles who are charged with or who have committed acts that would not be
against the law if committed by an adult.

Sight and Sound Separation. This requirement states that juveniles being securely detained must
be “sight and sound” separate from adult detainees (including trusties).

Jail Removal. This requirement stipulates that no juvenile shall be detained or confined in any adult
jail or lockup. The following exceptions are made:
Juveniles accused of a crime may be held for up to six hours for processing.
Juveniles awaiting a court hearing may be locked up to 6 hours prior to and up to 6 hours after the
hearing to facilitate the hearing process and transport to placement.
Juveniles waived to adult court may be detained because they are no longer under the jurisdiction of
the JJDP Act.

Disproportionate Minority Confinement. If the number of juveniles from minority groups who are
confined in secure detention facilities exceeds the proportion such groups represent in the general
population, then such confinements should be addressed .
               Mental Health Programs
Every day only 1/3 of youth who need         Between 50 to 75 percent of incarcerated
mental health interventions receive          youth have diagnosable mental health
them.                                        problems.
                                             Youth suicides in juvenile detention and
Twenty percent of all youth experience       correctional facilities are more than four times
mental health problems to varying            greater than youth suicides in the general
degrees during childhood.                    public.

Suicide is the third leading cause of        Incarcerated African American youth are less
death for 15-to-24-year-olds.                likely than their white peers to have previously
                                             received mental health services.
Every year, mental health disorders cost     Nearly 60 percent of female juvenile offenders
the United States more than $150 billion     had symptoms that were diagnosed as an
for treatment, social services, disability   Anxiety Disorder, as compared to 32 percent
payments, lost productivity and              among boys.
premature mortality
                          Facts to Consider

Latinos represent the country’s largest minority   •Delinquent girls have often experienced physical,
group. With a population over 35 million, they     emotional and sexual abuse, as well as have family
                                                   problems. Many suffer from physical and mental
comprise 12.5% of the national population.
                                                   disorders and/or endure academic failure.
                                                   •Forty to 73 percent of girls in the juvenile court
Currently, 35% of Latinos are under age 18. They   system have been physically abused. In the
comprise 17% of the national youth population.     general United States population, 26 percent of
                                                   teenaged girls report physical abuse.
Twenty-one percent of married Latinos with         •Girls are three times more likely than boys to be
children lived in poverty in 1997, compared with   sexually abused, and sexual abuse has been
six percent of white and nine percent of black     recognized as a cause of mental health disorders.
families.                                          Sexual abuse is also related to increased truancy,
                                                   prostitution and violence, among other destructive
More Latino youth (11.4%) ages 12-17 use illicit
drugs than their white (10.9%) or black (10.7%)    •In early adolescence, the incidence of depression
peers                                              rises significantly among girls, but not among boys;
                                                   depression is a much stronger predictor of
                                                   delinquency for girls than boys.

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