Parts of the Sentence PACKET STUDENTS by F1A01P

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									Parts of the
 Sentence
                                  UBJECTS and                       REDICATES
 A sentence is a group of words with ____________________________: A complete _______________ and a
   complete __________________.
 COMPLETE SUBJECT
       o   Includes a ____________________ or ____________________ that names the person, place, or thing
           the sentence is about.
       o   NOTE: The complete subject usually goes from the ________________________ of the sentence up
           to the _______________; it _______________ includes the verb.
       o   EXAMPLES:
                     They were celebrating in the streets. (__________ tells who the sentence is about.)
                     The grand carnival marks the beginning of Lent. (__________ tells what the sentence is
                      about.)
 COMPLETE PREDICATE
       o   Includes a ____________________ or ____________________ that tells something about the complete
           subject.
       o   NOTE: The complete predicate usually goes from the __________ to the end of the sentence.
       o   EXAMPLES:
                     The pizza in the oven smells delicious! (__________ is the main verb in the sentence.)
                     The gifts in the dining room are for your cousin. (__________ is the main verb in the
                      sentence.)
                     Many people do not like driving in the snow. (__________ is the main verb phrase in the
                      sentence.)
 NOTE: A complete subject or predicate could contain __________ essential word (a __________ or
   __________ for the complete subject and a __________ for the complete predicate). Often, however, a
   complete subject or complete predicate includes many other words that _____________ the essential words.
 SIMPLE SUBJECT
       o   The essential ____________________ or ____________________ that cannot be left out of the
           complete subject.
       o   To find the simple subject, ask yourself ________ or ________ the sentence is about.
       o   EXAMPLES:
                               Gallons of sweet cider covered the table. (____________ is the main word that tells
                                what the sentence is about.)
                                   o   Notice the subject is “____________” and not “____________.” The object of a
                                       preposition can NEVER be a simple subject.
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                            Sally Jones of the Pittsburgh area has become the new governor.
                             (_______________tells whom the sentence is about)


 SIMPLE PREDICATE (also called the “verb” or “verb phrase”)
       o   The essential ____________________ or ____________________ that cannot be left out of the
           complete predicate.
       o   To find the simple predicate, ask yourself ____________________________________? or
           ____________________________________?
       o   EXAMPLES:
                  Louise had driven to Philadelphia last weekend for the Phillies game. (_________________ is
                   the main verb phrase in this sentence)
                  The cookies on the counter are for the bake sale. (________ is the main verb in the sentence)



                                      FINDING THE SUBJECT
 DIRECTIONS:

   1. Find the ___________________.

   2. Place the _________________________________ in parentheses (subject is NEVER in prepositional phrase)

   3. Say to yourself:

           
               ___________________________________________________________________________________
           
               ___________________________________________________________________________________
           
               ___________________________________________________________________________________


 EXAMPLE: Already running late, Jonathan quickly searched for his coat in the hall closet.

   1. Find the verb.

   2. Place prepositional phrase in parentheses.

   3. Say “Who/What” PLUS the verb PLUS and the rest of the sentence (including anything in parentheses)

       “Who searched for his coat in the hall closet?”   _______________________________



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                                                  PRACTICE!
In each sentence underline the complete subject once and the complete predicate twice.

1. The last essay question was really challenging.
2. Most of the students in my class study hard.
3. The player with the most points at the end of the game loses.
4. Weather forecasters predict another storm front from the west.
5. You may have a little trouble with the lock.


For the sentences below, circle S for each sentence and F for each fragment.
1. In spite of Susanna’s objections.                    S       F
2. Hot dogs and hamburgers were on the grill.           S       F
3. Amanda helped.                                       S       F
4. Throughout the summer.                               S       F
5. Inspector Smith followed his hunch.                  S       F


Draw a vertical line between the complete subject and complete predicate in each sentence. Then, underline
each simple subject once and each simple predicate twice.
1. Many of the photographs had become brittle with age.
2. We enjoyed the picnic in spite of the showers.
3. The organizers of the event were unhappy with the turnout.
4. The sound of emergency vehicles pierced the night.
5. All of the members of that group wear outrageous clothing.




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           OMPOUND                     UBJECTS and                   OMPOUND                   ERBS

 COMPOUND SUBJECTS
      o Two or more ________________________ in one sentence that have the same _____________________
          and are joined by a ______________________.
      o EXAMPLES:
                Clowns, balloons and pony rides were offered at the carnival.
                          What was offered? _______________, _______________ and _______________
                Flowers, fruits and vegetables are often used to decorate homes.
                          What are used? _______________, _______________ and _______________
 COMPOUND VERBS
      o Two or more ______________ in one sentence that have the same _________________ and are joined
          by a __________________.
      o EXAMPLES:
                Megan cheered and shouted for her team to win the tournament.
                          What did Megan do? _______________ and _______________
                The star signed autographs, smiled at her fans, and then departed in a limousine.
                          What did the star do? _______________, _______________ and _______________
 NOTE: A sentence may contain both _________________ _____________ and a ______________
   ________________.
      o   EXAMPLE: My brother and I stacked the old magazines and placed them in boxes.
                Compound subject: _________________, _________________
                Compound verb: _________________, _________________




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                                            PRACTICE!

Double underline the verb. Place any prepositional phrases (in parentheses). Underline the subject.

1. My friend (from school) met me (at the football game).

2. Nearsighted penguins mistake stones for their eggs.

3. Pigs always sleep on their right side.

4. The leaves from the tree in the backyard must be raked.

5. The tusks of an elephant grow throughout its lifetime.

6. Early settlers used acorns for food.

7. Hikers and cyclists often camp by the brook.

8. The gymnast jumped from the bar and bowed.

9. Neither Lauren nor Skylar can baby-sit for us.

10. Jeremy and Maggie wrote their reports but left them at home.

11. The best baseballs and footballs are made of leather.

12. The train departed on time but Jordan arrived ten minutes late.

13. Pure gold is soft and can be molded with the hands.

14. Insects and disease are the major enemies of trees.

15. Jessica and Chris arranged the flowers and Rachel set the table.

16. Brydon, Jamie, and Taylor will fly to Arizona next week.

17. Jeff, Chris, and Adam hired mules and rode through the Grand Canyon.

18. Jane, Jean, and Joan are forms of the same ancient name.

19. Andy and Brandon grabbed the rope and pulled the boat to shore.

20. Both basketball and volleyball were first played in Massachusetts.




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                                 HARD TO FIND SUBJECTS
                         Normally, the subject comes BEFORE the verb in a sentence.
                                    However, this is not always the case.

 SUBJECTS IN ORDERS AND DIRECTIONS
     o In sentences that give orders or directions, the subject is often understood to be ___________.
     o EXAMPLES:
               Dust the furniture and then wax the floor.
                       Who should dust and wax? _______________
               Kim, give me an apple.
                       Who should give me an apple? (THIS IS TRICKY!) _______________
                       Even when a person is addressed, the subject is still understood ____________.
 INSTRUCTIONS:
     1. Find the _________________.
     2. Place _____________________________________ in (parentheses).
     3. Say “who/what” and then the verb to find the ___________________.
                               OR
     1. Re-arrange the sentence to make more sense.

               EXAMPLE: Around the track ran the competitors.
                1. Verb = __________________
                2. Place ( ) around prepositional phrase
                3. “Who/What ran?” Subject = _______________
                            OR
                1. Re-arranged: The competitors ran around the track.       Subject = _____________________


 SUBJECTS IN INVERTED SENTENCES
     o In questions, the subject often follows the __________________.
     o An inverted question can begin with a verb, a helping verb, or one of the following words: ___________,
        ___________, ___________, ___________, ___________, ___________, or ___________.
     o To find the subject in an inverted question, ______________________ the question as a statement.
     o EXAMPLES:
               Are we ready?
                       Rephrased as a sentence: ______________________________________
               Where was the car parked?
                       Rephrased as a sentence: ___________________________________________________

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 SENTENCES BEGINNING WITH THERE OR HERE
       o The subject of a sentence is NEVER ________________ or ________________
       o When there or here begins a sentence, the subject usually follows the ________________. Simply
           rephrase the sentence to find the subject.
       o EXAMPLES:
                  There is my old, battered suitcase.
                          Rephrased: _______________________________________________________________
                  Here is the museum.
                          Rephrased: _______________________________________________________________
 NOTE: In the above sentences, there and here are adverbs: they modify the ________________ and tell
   where. Occasionally, there is merely used to help the sentence get started and does not modify the
   ________________. When there is used in this way, it is not an adverb but an _____________________.
       o   EXAMPLES:
                  There are many castles in England.
                          Question: What are? _____________________________ (this is the subject!)
                  There may not be any logical answer to that question.
                          Question: What may be? _____________________________ (this is the subject!)


 INVERTED ORDER FOR EMPHASIS
       o   In some sentences, the subject is placed _________________ the verb in order to receive greater
           emphasis.
       o   EXAMPLES:
                  Beneath the ruined temple waited the deadly cobra.
                   1. Find the verb
                   2. Place ( ) around prepositional phrase
                   3. “Who/What waited?” Subject = _______________
                           OR
                   1. Re-arranged: ________________________________________________________________
                           i. Subject = _______________________




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                                          PRACTICE!

                                   1. Double underline the verb
                                   2. Place prepositional phrases in (parentheses)
                                   3. Underline the subject

1.   There are a thousand millimeters (in a meter).

2.   Over the waves roared the speedboat.

3.   High on the mountain stood the hikers.

4.   Can you see Chris in the crowd?

5.   There goes the last hamburger.

6.   Why can’t Rebecca or AJ bring the CD’s?

7.   Here are the muffins and bagels.

8.   Did your teacher give you a choice?

9.   Around the track raced the motorcycle.

10. Between Las Vegas and Barstow lies a great desert.

11. There are my brother and sister.

12. Are your parents going to the open house at the school?

13. What did Jason tell you about the camp?

14. Amid the large crowd wandered a puppy.

15. Take the dog for a walk.

16. Lend me your notes from math class.

17. Dan, carry these packages for me.

18. Here comes dinner right now.

19. Get some milk at the store.

20. Leave the keys on the table.
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                                                omplements
 In addition to a VERB, a complete predicate may also have one or more _____________________________.
 A _____________________________ is a word or group of words that completes the meaning of the predicate
   of a sentence.
 The following are types of complements: __________________________, __________________________,
   __________________________, __________________________, and __________________________.



                              Direct Objects & Indirect Objects
 DIRECT OBJECTS
 A direct object is a ____________________ or ____________________ that receives the action of a
   _______________________ action verb. Answers the question “__________?” or “__________?” AFTER an
   action verb.
       o   FINDING A DIRECT OBJECT:
                  1. Find the _______________
                  2. Place ________________________________ in parentheses
                  3. Find the ____________________
                  4. Say the ________________, say the ______________, and then ask “________/___________?”
       o   EXAMPLE: A blanket of snow covered the pagoda.
                  1. Find the verb
                  2. Place prepositional phrases in parentheses
                  3. Find the subject
                  4. Say “__________________________ what?” Direct Object =
                            subject             verb
       o   EXAMPLE: John won tickets and backstage passes in the contest.
                  1. Find the verb
                  2. Place prepositional phrases in parentheses
                  3. Find the subject
                  4. Say “___________ _______________ what?” Compd Direct Object =
                             subject         verb
 NOTES:
       o   Transitive Verb: An _________________________ that HAS a direct object
                     The tidal wave sank the ship.
                     “wave sank what?” Direct Object =
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       o   Intransitive Verb: An _________________________ that DOES NOT have a direct object.
                    The wheels sank into the mud.
                    “Wheels sank what?”      Answer: none
       o   A direct object is NEVER the ________________ or ________________ at the end of a prepositional
           phrase.
                    We walked (with the children) (through the zoo).
                    “We walked what?”       Answer: none


 INDIRECT OBJECTS
 An indirect object is a ____________________ or ____________________ that appears with a direct object and
   names the person or thing that something is given to or done for. Comes _____________________ the verb
   and ____________________ the direct object
       o   FINDING AN INDIRECT OBJECT:
               1. Find the _______________
               2. Place ________________________________ in parentheses
               3. Find the ____________________
               4. Find the
               5. Say subject, say verb, say direct object, say “to/for whom” OR “to/for what”
       o   EXAMPLE: Liz promised her sister a book about Japan.
               1. Find the verb
               2. Place prepositional phrases in parentheses
               3. Find the subject = ____________________________
               4. Find the direct object =
               5. Say: “___________ ____________                        to/for whom?” Indirect Object:
                             subject       verb       direct object
       o   EXAMPLE: We should give Fred’s idea a chance.
               1. Find the verb
               2. Place prepositional phrases in parentheses
               3. Find the subject
               4. Find the direct object
               5. Say: “____ __________________                          to/for what?” Indirect Object:
                         subject       verb             direct object
 NOTES:
       o   Indirect Object or Direct Object?


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                   To avoid confusing an indirect object with a direct object, remember that an indirect object
                    almost always comes _________________ the verb and the direct object.
        o   Indirect Object or Object of a Preposition?
                   An indirect object is NEVER preceded by the words ___________ or ___________. Moreover, it
                    almost never follows a direct object.
                          EXAMPLES:
                                 o    Angela told the news (to her friends).
                                         sub   verb     d.o.   prep phrase

                                 o    Angela told her friends the news.
                                         sub   verb     i.o.       d.o


                                                      PRACTICE!
1. Double underline the verb                                   4. Box the direct object(s).
2. Place prepositional phrases in (parentheses).               5. Place a circle around the indirect object if there is
3. Underline the subject.                                         one.

1. A grapefruit tree can bear 1,500 pounds (of fruit) each year.

2. A small cave gave the hikers shelter from the storm.

3. Andy thanked his father for all of his help with the history project.

4. City Bank gives free investment advice to all its customers.

5. Did Ben give you his class dues?

6. Did you see her at the dance last night?

7. Ecuador gets its name from the equator.

8. Gorillas eat fruits and vegetables.

9. Have you ever had a parrot for a pet?

10. He bought two posters for his room and hung them up.

11. Heat may damage the film in a camera.

12. I ripped the wrapping paper off the box and slowly opened the lid.

13. Joel cut the apple into quarters and then ate it.

14. John emptied the contents of the box onto the floor.

15. Joseph sold four quarts of paint to Mr. Baum.
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                                    Objective Complements
 OBJECTIVE COMPLEMENTS
 An objective complement is an ____________________ or ____________________ that appears with a direct
   object and describes or renames it. If there isn’t a ___________________________, there will NOT be an
   ______________________________.
 Objective complements do not appear often. They are used with verbs such as ______________,
   ______________, ______________, ______________ and ______________.
       o   FINDING AN OBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT:
              1. Find the _______________
              2. Place ________________________________ in parentheses
              3. Find the _____________________________
              4. Find the
              5. Say the ________________, the ______________, the                                  and then
                  ask “__________?”
       o   EXAMPLES:
                 Ben called his dog Rover.
                 Say: “__________ ____________                       what?” Objective Complement:
                          subject        verb         direct object
                 The beautician made Ann’s hair short and curly.
                 Say: “__________ ____________                       what?” OCs:
                          subject        verb         direct object
       o   NOW YOU TRY!!!
                 Mr. Matsuto made his reply very short.     OC:
                 Limited spacing makes housing development difficult.       OC:




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                                                  PRACTICE!
In each sentence, double underline the verb, place the prepositional phrases in (parentheses), underline the subject,
box the direct object, and place a triangle around the objective complement.

    1. Track and field participants call the competitions meets.
    2. The track coach made Brian a sprinter in the track meet.
    3. He also called Brian his best distance runner.
    4. The sprint made Brian tired.
    5. The coach classifies Sue a high jumper.
    6. Sue made 6 feet the new school record in the high jump.
    7. The judges considered Sue a qualifier for the finals.
    8. Qualifying in the event made Sue happy.
    9. The coach made the last track meet Sunday.
    10. The newspaper named Joe Schmoe Coach of the Year.


Box the direct object and place a triangle around the objective complement in each sentence. In the space provided,
write N if the objective complement is a noun or ADJ if it is an adjective.

    1. The principal chose Jeff leader.                   __________
    2. We painted the poster green.                       __________
    3. Carefully label the box fragile.                   __________
    4. Do you also consider the painting unusual?         __________
    5. My father often calls my brother stubborn.         __________
    6. Surprisingly, I found the second volume dull.      __________
    7. The judge ruled the decision void.                 __________
    8. Do you think them unreasonable?                    __________
    9. We will make Charles the treasurer.                __________
    10. The council, after much consideration, named David president. __________




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                                     Subject Complements

 SUBJECT COMPLEMENTS
 A subject complement is a ____________________, ____________________ or ____________________ that
   appears ONLY with a _________________ verb and tells something about the subject of the sentence.



                                          MINI-REVIEW OF VERBS

                                             Linking vs. Action Verbs

    Action verbs show the action of a subject. (The monster appeared from the closet and scared the
     child)

    Linking verbs connect/link to a subject. They are often called state-of-being verbs because they help
     to describe the condition or state of being of a person or thing. (The monster appeared to be harmless)

                                             Common Linking Verbs

   BE VERBS: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, shall be, will be, can be, should be, would be, may be,
   might be, has been…etc

   OTHERS: appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn


 NOTES:
       o   Direct and indirect objects follow ________________verbs and describe the VERB.
       o   Subject complements follow ________________verbs.
       o   They are called subject complements because they rename or describe the ____________________.
       o   EXAMPLES:
                 Direct Object: I felt the sand. Sand tells what you felt [action verb].


                 Subject Complement: I felt ecstatic. Ecstatic describes how you, the subject, felt [linking verb].


                                               CHEAT SHEET

                                  Trans. Action Verb            Linking Verb


                               1. _______________            1. _______________


                               2. _______________            2. _______________


                               3. _______________
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                               Types of Subject Complements

 PREDICATE NOMINATIVE
 A predicate nominative is a ________________or ________________that appears with a
   ________________verb and renames, identifies, or explains the subject.
       o   NOTE: Find subject complements the way you would find a direct object
                  Say the subject, the verb, but only say “what?”
                  EXAMPLES:


                        The painting of the shoreline is a masterpiece.
                               o   “Painting is what?”  ___________


                        The new lifeguard may be either Sue or Celia.
                               o   “Lifeguard may be what?”  ____________, _____________
                               o   “Sue” and “Celia” are both ____________, that’s why they are predicate
                                   nominatives. Get it?
 PREDICATE ADJECTIVE
 A predicate adjective is an ________________that appears with a ________________verb and describes the
   subject of the sentence.
                  EXAMPLES:


                        A trip to the beach will be FUN.
                               o   “Trip will be what?” _________


                        My sunburn feels HOT and PAINFUL.
                               o   “Sunburn feels what?”  ____________, ____________
                               o   “fun,” “hot,” and “painful” are all ________________, that’s why they are
                                   predicate adjectives. Get it? Got it? Good!




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                                           PRACTICE!

         1.   Double underline the linking verb.
         2.   Underline the subject.
         3.   Sqwiggle the complement – the word that renames or describes the subject.
         4.   Circle PN for predicate nominative or PA for predicate adjective.

1.    The comforter was very warm.                                           PN     PA
2.    The Wrights will be our new neighbors.                                 PN     PA
3.    Beckie should have been the captain.                                   PN     PA
4.    The elephant is the only animal with four knees.                       PN     PA
5.    The light here should be brighter.                                     PN     PA
6.    In China the dragon is a symbol of good luck.                          PN     PA
7.    You might be the winner.                                               PN     PA
8.    Is the butter too hard?                                                PN     PA
9.    Some fish are smaller than ants.                                       PN     PA
10.   Sarah may be correct about the score.                                  PN     PA
11.   The winner of the first Super Bowl was the Green Bay Packers.          PN     PA
12.   No two fingerprints are exactly alike.                                 PN     PA
13.   That road may have been the turnoff to Route 6.                        PN     PA
14.   This holiday should be happy for everyone.                             PN     PA
15.   The inventor of the thermometer was Galileo.                           PN     PA
16.   The Taylors have been our neighbors for 15 years.                      PN     PA
17.   Would you be my lab partner?                                           PN     PA
18.   The largest desert in the world is the Sahara.                         PN     PA
19.   Baseball will always be my favorite sport.                             PN     PA
20.   Lincoln was the 16th president of the United States.                   PN     PA




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