ch7 progressives b by US8mod


   Fighting Corruption
         a. What is corruption?
             Dishonest or illegal actions
             Ex: governor takes “government” plane to a vacation
             Ex: town councilman takes a bribe and votes to build a highway
         b. What are political machines?
             Powerful organizations linked to political parties
             Controlled local government (city council, mayor etc…)
             Controlled who got government jobs

        c. Who is Boss Tweed?
             William Tweed who controls NYC Democratic Party
        Political Machines                           Thomas Nast
          & Boss Tweed

• William M. Tweed ran New York City’s     • Newspaper cartoonist exposes
    Democratic Party political machine         corruption in NYC in the paper
• The Tweed Ring controlled the city’s     • Tweed is investigated, arrested,
    police, courts and some newpapers          found guilty and sent to prison
•Collected millions of dollars in bribes   • Cities across the nation attempt to
                                              end corruption
Spoils System
            Spoils System                              Pendelton Act

• Andrew  Jackson formalized practice of      • President Arthur signs bill that
    patronage that gives supporters jobs in       establishes the Civil Service
    government                                    Commission
• Many people who get jobs are                • Applicants for federal government
    unqualified                                   jobs must pass examination
• President Hayes and Garfield attempt to        demonstrating the skills necessary
    end the system                                for the job
What company?
              Monopoly                            Sherman-Anti Trust Act

• Trusts
       and monopolies controlled certain   • In
                                              early, 1900s, the law is used to break
     key industries (oil, steel etc…)      up monopolies

• Many believed they had too much money    •Most famous monopoly broken up was the
    and power                              Standard Oil Trust

                                           • T. Roosevelt was known as the “trust

              Oligopoly                                       ICC

• A few companies controlled prices of   • In   1887, Interstate Commerce Act passed
railroads in the entire industry
                                         • Required railroad companies to charge
                                         and publish “reasonable and just” rates

                  Food                            Mukrakers &
                                            Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
• “Horrors” of the meatpacking industry
                                          • Muckrakers are reporters who expose
                                              corruption in society
                                              (muck = dirt = corruption)

                                          • Upton Sinclair writes a book about the
                                              meat packing industry shocking people

                                          • Congress passes the Meat Inspection
                                             Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act

a. Who where the Muckrakers? How did they
  expose problems in America?
 Muckrakers are reporters who expose corruption in
  society (muck = dirt = corruption)
    Ida Tarbell = exposed unfair practices of Standard Oil
    Upton Sinclair = “horrors” food industry
    Robert La Follette = encouraged direct primary elections
   What were three causes “women” fought
    for to improve America?
       Suffrage – “woman’s vote”
       Charities and Community Organization –
        settlement houses and libraries
       Prohibition – banning alcohol
   What three presidents are known as
    “progressive presidents”? List one cause that
    they helped reform.
       Theodore Roosevelt - conservation
       William Howard Taft – anti-trusts & worker safety
       Woodrow Wilson – tariff reform
Roosevelt’s Square Deal
   “Fair and equal treatment for all citizens”
   Proposed an active role for FEDERAL
    GOVERNMENT to balance problems
    between “big business” and “labor”
         Treated labor unions as equals (miner’s strike)
         Uses Sherman Anti-Trust Act – against trusts
         Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act –
          safer food by inspection
         Antiquities Act – president controls “public lands”
    “Progressive” Amendments

   16th Amendment – Income Tax
    (allows for tariff reform and prohibition of liquor)

    17th Amendment – Direct Election of Senators
    (more democracy – people vote)
   18th Amendment – Prohibition of Liquor
    (no making, transporting, buying or selling of liquor)

   19th Amendment – Women’s Right to Vote
    (allows for women to vote in all elections)

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