Most of organizations will practices this type of training for non managerial employees.

By some estimates, 80-90 percent of employee learning occurs via on-the-job training. On-the-

job training is a method by which employees are given hands-on experiences with instructions

from their supervisor or other trainer. (Bohlender & Snell, 2012) OJT is one of the best methods

because it is planned, organized, and conducted as the employee’s worksite. OJT will generally

be the primary method used for broadening employee’s skills and increasingly productivity. It is

particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee’s jobs,

especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally-owned equipment and

facilities. (“On-the-job training,” 1998) Besides that, OJT is employee training at the work place

while he or she is doing their job their bean assist or advice or trained by the supervisor,

professionals or an expert employee on that field of work. (On the job,”) As an example, Renasas

Electronics America Inc. is a premier supplier of advanced semi-conductor solutions including

microcontrollers, SoC solutions and broad range of analog and power devices, as well as LcD

modules. (“About Renesas,”) In order to maintain number one supplier of microcontrollers,

Renesas practices OJT as the senior or expert employee on handling the machine such as the

engineer will assist and train the new employee to sharpen the skills of employee on handling the

facilities machine. On OJT, typically included verbal and hands-on practices and imitation,

furthermore, OJT is a process of passing knowledge and skills on to a novice employee, thus it

still the predominant form of jobs training in the United States particularly for no managerial

employee. (Kucera)
       The main methods of on-the-jobs training are. Firstly, demonstration or instruction.

(Study notes: People,”). This mean, showing the trainee or the employee how to do the jobs by

giving instruction or show them practically how to do the jobs or show the workers what they

required to do and demonstrate how to complete the work. This training concluded the subject to

be covered, numbers of hours spent to teach the trainee, estimated completion date and method

by which the training will be evaluated. As an example, Visual Print International (VPI) is an

organization who managed tax document or form from Lembaga Hasil Dalam Negeri such as

Form J and OG, in order to manage the tax form or document, the employee need to safely

protect the old form which are old and easily break, moreover they need to carefully choose and

pick the important form only, but the problem happen where there are thousands of different

form and they didn’t know which one the important one and witch one is the scrap one, so at this

level of problem the organization practices on-the-job training with the expert or professional

employee will teach, monitored, instructed the trainee on how to managed the form and how to

choose the important document only. Secondly methods are, coaching. Coaching is more

intensive method of training that involves a close working relationship between an experienced

employee and the trainee. (Study notes: people,”) Usually this type of methods being practiced

into organization that related to handling the facilities such as complex machine, as an example

Honda. They implement this type of methods as usually the trainee doesn’t have the skill or

knowledge on handling the machine such as the chip board, so the expert will coaching them

until they have the skill and knowledge on the fields of job. Lastly are, job rotation. (Study notes:

people,”) The trainee is given several jobs successions, to gain experiences of a wide range of

activities as an example, graduate management trainee might spend periods in several different

department, as a closer look, in food industry such as hotel, the trainee might ask to join several
department such as, kitchen, pastry, butcher, cold kitchen and banquet kitchen. At this rate, let

the worker perform the required task and the expert provide feedback, informing workers of

what they have done right and what they have done wrong.

OJT has the advantage of providing hands-on experience under normal working conditions and

an opportunity for the trainer a manager or senior employee to build good relationship with new

employees. OJT is viewed by some potentially the most effective means of facilitating learning

in the workplace (Bohlender & Snell, 2012)

       Besides that, the other example of on-the-job training is fast food such as Kentucky Fried

Chicken. In order to make a burger, they need to practices on job training such as the discipline

and the practical on how to make the burger, as example at what temperature needed to heat the

meat, how long does it take to bake the bread and others. This technique of training also done by

other organizations such as McDonald and many more. It is proven that, this technique give most

effectiveness mean of facilitating learning in the workplace. Usually for non managerial training,

it more toward the skill and knowledge of the employee. This mean, OJT is more on to

effectiveness, strengthen, and sharpen the skill of the employee.


       Seminars and conferences are useful for bringing groups of people together for training

and development. In term of developing managers, seminars and conferences can be used to

communicate ideas, policies, or procedures, but they are also good for raising points of debate or

discussing issues, usually with the help of a qualified leader that have no set answer or

resolutions. For this reason, seminars and conferences are often used when attitude change in

goal. (Bohlender & Snell, 2012) Example of an organization who practices this type of training

methods is, GE Healthcare, NASA, Nokia, Stanford and the U.S Army. Some example on

seminars and conferences made are, Clarity Seminars’ corporate stress management training to

their employees. Through this program, participant will understand and communicate more

effectively with co-workers, manage challenging work situations with greater calmness and

clarity of mind, dramatically reduce stress with clinically-proven technique that can be done in a

few moments, achieve significant relief from chronic pain, high blood pressure, and insomnia

and enhance personal productivity. Examples of organizations that join these seminars are,

Hiltons Hotels, Yahoo, University of Texas, U.S Post Offices and many more. (David &

Gamow, 1996) Usually, for managerial employee, seminars and conferences are more toward

their interpersonal skills such as, leadership skill, communication skill, critical thinking skill and

many more. As an example, in the seminars, they will be assigned a task or case study so that

they can strengthen their interpersonal skill, with the case study the managerial employee will

use their brain to start thinking on solving the problem. Moreover, there are also some seminars

who being joined by several CEO of giant company such as Apple, Yahoo, NASA, Nokia and

many more, together they will shared their opinion, skill, information and many more.

Non managerial employees are different from managerial employee in term of training methods.

Managerial employee are more toward their interpersonal skills such as communication,

thinking, decision making, leader ship and many more as they are the employee who managed

the organization as the first, second and top manager in the organization. This is different from

non managerial employee as they are the people who get the this done, they are the people or

group of individuals who completed the job so their method of training are different with the

managerial employee, for non managerial their training output or objective are more toward the

skill, productivity, knowledge and many more in term of field that related to their field of work.

For non managerial employee, there are several methods of training such as, on-the-job training,

apprenticeship training, cooperative training, internships, and governmental training, classroom

instruction and many more. Besides that, for managerial employee method of training are, on-

the-job experiences, seminars and conferences, case studies, management game and simulations

and many more. This type of method will give output is term of managerial interpersonal skill,

while for non managerial employee will give impact on their strengthen, knowledge, skill and

their productivity. All of the methods have their own advantages and disadvantages, and it is up

to the organization to decide which type of methods is suitable to the employee. Human

resources management need to keep up to date training for the benefit of organization and also

for the employe.

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