TRAINING METHODS FOR NON MANAGERIAL EMPLOYEES ON-THE-JOB TRAINING (OJT) Most of organizations will practices this type of training for non managerial employees. By some estimates, 80-90 percent of employee learning occurs via on-the-job training. On-the- job training is a method by which employees are given hands-on experiences with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer. (Bohlender & Snell, 2012) OJT is one of the best methods because it is planned, organized, and conducted as the employee’s worksite. OJT will generally be the primary method used for broadening employee’s skills and increasingly productivity. It is particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee’s jobs, especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally-owned equipment and facilities. (“On-the-job training,” 1998) Besides that, OJT is employee training at the work place while he or she is doing their job their bean assist or advice or trained by the supervisor, professionals or an expert employee on that field of work. (On the job,”) As an example, Renasas Electronics America Inc. is a premier supplier of advanced semi-conductor solutions including microcontrollers, SoC solutions and broad range of analog and power devices, as well as LcD modules. (“About Renesas,”) In order to maintain number one supplier of microcontrollers, Renesas practices OJT as the senior or expert employee on handling the machine such as the engineer will assist and train the new employee to sharpen the skills of employee on handling the facilities machine. On OJT, typically included verbal and hands-on practices and imitation, furthermore, OJT is a process of passing knowledge and skills on to a novice employee, thus it still the predominant form of jobs training in the United States particularly for no managerial employee. (Kucera) The main methods of on-the-jobs training are. Firstly, demonstration or instruction. (Study notes: People,”). This mean, showing the trainee or the employee how to do the jobs by giving instruction or show them practically how to do the jobs or show the workers what they required to do and demonstrate how to complete the work. This training concluded the subject to be covered, numbers of hours spent to teach the trainee, estimated completion date and method by which the training will be evaluated. As an example, Visual Print International (VPI) is an organization who managed tax document or form from Lembaga Hasil Dalam Negeri such as Form J and OG, in order to manage the tax form or document, the employee need to safely protect the old form which are old and easily break, moreover they need to carefully choose and pick the important form only, but the problem happen where there are thousands of different form and they didn’t know which one the important one and witch one is the scrap one, so at this level of problem the organization practices on-the-job training with the expert or professional employee will teach, monitored, instructed the trainee on how to managed the form and how to choose the important document only. Secondly methods are, coaching. Coaching is more intensive method of training that involves a close working relationship between an experienced employee and the trainee. (Study notes: people,”) Usually this type of methods being practiced into organization that related to handling the facilities such as complex machine, as an example Honda. They implement this type of methods as usually the trainee doesn’t have the skill or knowledge on handling the machine such as the chip board, so the expert will coaching them until they have the skill and knowledge on the fields of job. Lastly are, job rotation. (Study notes: people,”) The trainee is given several jobs successions, to gain experiences of a wide range of activities as an example, graduate management trainee might spend periods in several different department, as a closer look, in food industry such as hotel, the trainee might ask to join several department such as, kitchen, pastry, butcher, cold kitchen and banquet kitchen. At this rate, let the worker perform the required task and the expert provide feedback, informing workers of what they have done right and what they have done wrong. OJT has the advantage of providing hands-on experience under normal working conditions and an opportunity for the trainer a manager or senior employee to build good relationship with new employees. OJT is viewed by some potentially the most effective means of facilitating learning in the workplace (Bohlender & Snell, 2012) Besides that, the other example of on-the-job training is fast food such as Kentucky Fried Chicken. In order to make a burger, they need to practices on job training such as the discipline and the practical on how to make the burger, as example at what temperature needed to heat the meat, how long does it take to bake the bread and others. This technique of training also done by other organizations such as McDonald and many more. It is proven that, this technique give most effectiveness mean of facilitating learning in the workplace. Usually for non managerial training, it more toward the skill and knowledge of the employee. This mean, OJT is more on to effectiveness, strengthen, and sharpen the skill of the employee. METHODS OF TRAINING FOR MANAGERIAL EMPLOYEES SEMINARS OF CONFERENCES Seminars and conferences are useful for bringing groups of people together for training and development. In term of developing managers, seminars and conferences can be used to communicate ideas, policies, or procedures, but they are also good for raising points of debate or discussing issues, usually with the help of a qualified leader that have no set answer or resolutions. For this reason, seminars and conferences are often used when attitude change in goal. (Bohlender & Snell, 2012) Example of an organization who practices this type of training methods is, GE Healthcare, NASA, Nokia, Stanford and the U.S Army. Some example on seminars and conferences made are, Clarity Seminars’ corporate stress management training to their employees. Through this program, participant will understand and communicate more effectively with co-workers, manage challenging work situations with greater calmness and clarity of mind, dramatically reduce stress with clinically-proven technique that can be done in a few moments, achieve significant relief from chronic pain, high blood pressure, and insomnia and enhance personal productivity. Examples of organizations that join these seminars are, Hiltons Hotels, Yahoo, University of Texas, U.S Post Offices and many more. (David & Gamow, 1996) Usually, for managerial employee, seminars and conferences are more toward their interpersonal skills such as, leadership skill, communication skill, critical thinking skill and many more. As an example, in the seminars, they will be assigned a task or case study so that they can strengthen their interpersonal skill, with the case study the managerial employee will use their brain to start thinking on solving the problem. Moreover, there are also some seminars who being joined by several CEO of giant company such as Apple, Yahoo, NASA, Nokia and many more, together they will shared their opinion, skill, information and many more. CONCLUSION Non managerial employees are different from managerial employee in term of training methods. Managerial employee are more toward their interpersonal skills such as communication, thinking, decision making, leader ship and many more as they are the employee who managed the organization as the first, second and top manager in the organization. This is different from non managerial employee as they are the people who get the this done, they are the people or group of individuals who completed the job so their method of training are different with the managerial employee, for non managerial their training output or objective are more toward the skill, productivity, knowledge and many more in term of field that related to their field of work. For non managerial employee, there are several methods of training such as, on-the-job training, apprenticeship training, cooperative training, internships, and governmental training, classroom instruction and many more. Besides that, for managerial employee method of training are, on- the-job experiences, seminars and conferences, case studies, management game and simulations and many more. This type of method will give output is term of managerial interpersonal skill, while for non managerial employee will give impact on their strengthen, knowledge, skill and their productivity. All of the methods have their own advantages and disadvantages, and it is up to the organization to decide which type of methods is suitable to the employee. Human resources management need to keep up to date training for the benefit of organization and also for the employe.
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