Signs, Symbols, and
A sign primarily signifies an object, like an
abbreviation, trademark, or product name;
signs carry meaning based on common usage
and society’s intent.
$ is the sign for a dollar
Letters are signs that make up words
“A term, name, or even a picture that may be
familiar in daily life, yet that possesses specific
connotations in addition to its conventional
and obvious meaning” (Jung).
A four-leaf clover can mean good luck
Symbolism: The Natural Cycle
Day to Night=light (goodness) to dark (evil)
Spring to Winter=spring (hope) to winter
Youth to Old Age=girl (innocence) to crone
(evil knowledge, impending death)
An original model after which other similar things are
patterned; from the Greek word arkhetupos meaning
Examples: wicked witch, the enchanted prince, the
sleeping beauty, the fairy godmother
Alternative definition-- a term that accepts Carl
Jung’s idea of recurring patterns of situation,
character, or symbol existing universally and
instinctively in the collective unconscious of man.
Historically believed as coming from outside
source, as in visitations from the gods and that
dreams carried messages from the gods.
Insight into our present lives
Predictions for the future
Dreams to Motifs to Archetypes
Jung believed that dreams contain basic
patterns that contain messages carried from
our subconscious mind to our conscious
mind. Each symbol in a dream is called a
motif; these symbols or motifs have two
1. A personal meaning for the dreamer
2. A collective meaning called archetypes
Common themes that show up in every culture
of the world. Archetypes appear and reappear
in world myths, legends, and themes in
literature as well as in our dreams.
Archetypes are stored in a collective
unconscious that is the part of the mind that
retains and transmits the common
psychological inheritance of mankind.
Types of Archetypes
Death and Rebirth
Nature Vs. Mechanistic World
Battle Between Good and Evil
The Un-healable Wound
The Magic Weapon
Seven Major Archetypes
Wise Old Man or Woman
The Shadow (Doppelganger—German for
The Devine Child
The Anima and Animus
The Great Mother
Light Vs. Darkness
Water Vs. Desert
Heaven Vs. Hell
Innate Wisdom Vs. Educated Stupidity
Haven Vs. Wilderness
Fire Vs. Ice
Young Man from the Provinces
Hunting Group of Companions
The Evil Figure with the Ultimately Good Heart
The Creature of Nightmare
The Earth mother
Damsel in Distress
The Hero’s Call
Joseph Campbell author of The Hero with a
Thousand Faces, believed that everyone has a hero;
someone who has sacrificed himself for the greater
good and is often admired by others for an
accomplishment. Similarly, he believed that everyone
has, within himself or herself, the capacity to be a
The hero, regardless of who he is, where he came
from, or what language he speaks, must successfully
pass through several stages in his quest to accomplish
something for the greater good.
Jung’s Process of Individualization
The source of our dreams
The seat of our creative power
The Greeks called it the “daimon”
The Egyptians called it the “Ba-Soul”
The Romans called it “genius”
Three Stages of Growing Up
Initiation--Teen and Adulthood
Transcendence --Old Age
Three Stages of Hero’s Journey
Separation or Departure
Departure Steps or Factors
Call to Adventure
Refusal of the Call
A Supernatural Tool
Crossing the Threshold
The Belly of the Whale
Initiation Series or Steps
The Road of Trials
The Meeting with the Goddess
The Woman as the Temptress
Atonement with the Father
The Ultimate Boon
May or may not happen
The greater change is not only good for the
hero, but for the people around him.
Symbolic of every person’s quest for
recognition and heroism.
Types of Heroes
Epic Hero—A figure of national importance
Tragic Hero—Must arouse pity and fear—neither
thoroughly good or evil—fall is due to “hamartia,”
tragic flaw (often hubris—pride)
Romantic Hero—Sees the world idealistically, loyal
to king and country, pursues love and fights for love,
admired by others for bravery and cleverness
1. What is a term, name, or even a picture that
may be familiar in daily life, yet that
possesses specific connotations in addition to
its conventional and obvious meaning?
2. Who believed that as a human race, we have a
collection of experiences and memories that
make up a collective unconscious?
3. What is an original model after which other
similar things are patterned?
4. Name the three types of archetypes.
5. Give an example of each of these types.
6. Who is the author of The Hero with a
7. What are the three stages of growing up?
8. What was the name for the “self” or
“organized center for the Romans?
9. Name the three types of heroes.
10. What are the three stages of the hero’s