A. Prehistory- time before written records 3000 B.C. and before by 826T9IJJ

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									Chapter 1 Section 1 Notes
CHAPTER
          The Peopling of the World,
 1        Prehistory–2500 B.C.



                           Chapter Overview

               Human beings first emerge in East Africa. As
               they evolve, they develop complex technology
               and spread over most of the world. In some
               areas, people develop agriculture and settled
               villages, some of which eventually grow into
               complex cities and develop the five traits of
               civilization.
 CHAPTER
              The Peopling of the World,
   1          Prehistory–2500 B.C.

                                           Time Line



   4,000,000 B.C. First             1,600,000 B.C.     8000 B.C..             2600 B.C.   City
                  hominids           Homo erectus      Neolithic Age                      of Ur
                  appear in          appears.          begins; first                      flourishes
                  Africa.                              agriculture takes                  in Sumer.
                                                       place

4,000,000                                                                                   2500
  B.C.                                                                                         B.C.




                     2,500,000 B.C..                       40,000 B.C..            3000 B.C.
                       Paleolithic Age begins            Cro-Magnons appear        Bronze Age
                                                                                   begins in
                                                                                   Mesopotamia.
1    Human Origins
     in Africa


                                     Section   1    Assessment

                  1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List
                  the advances, discoveries, and inventions of hominids.


    Australopithecines     Homo erectus            Neanderthals             Cro-Magnons



     Upright walking,     Toolmaking,              Burial rights, care    Advanced hunting
     opposable thumb      mastery of fire,         of their disabled,     and language skills
                          language                 building of shelters
I. Scientists Search for Human
            Remains
A. Prehistory- time before written
  records 3000 B.C. and before
B. History – time after written
           records
C. Archaeologists are scientists
who learn about early people by
 excavating and studying the
   traces of early settlements
D. Artifacts are remains , tools,
jewelry and other human-made
             objects

      This artifact from
      around 200,000 B.C.
      is a hand ax made of
      flint. An all-purpose
      tool, the hand ax
      was probably a
      hunting weapon,
      chopper, scraper,
      and slicer.
E. Anthropologists study culture
          of humans
F. Culture is, the unique way of
         life of people
G. Paleontologists study fossils.
II. Mary Leakey finds footprints
            Mary Leakey
            1913–1996
            Born in London, England, Mary
            Leakey left a remarkable legacy in the
            fields of archaeology and
            anthropology. “She was one of the
            world’s great originals,” said a
            scientist who worked with the Leakey
            family on fossil hunts. Mary earned
            respect for her excavations and well-
            documented findings.
            At 22, she made her first visit to East
            Africa. In her autobiography she
            reflected on her experiences there:
A. Mid 1970’s leads expedition
        into Tanzania
1. Find prehistoric footprints of
  human like creatures called
 austalopithecines, also called
           hominids
B. Donald Johanson discovers
   Lucy in Ethiopia in 1974
1. Lucy was an almost complete
  adult female hominid living
  around 3.5 million years ago
III. Progress during the Old Stone
                Age
A. Stone Age had two parts.
 1. Old Stone Age or Paleolithic
Age lasted from 2.5 million years
        ago to 8000 B.C.
a. Ice Age glaciers advanced and
 retreated as many as 18 times.
2. New Stone Age or Neolithic
Age began about 8000 B.C. and
   ended around 3000 B.C.
a. Polish stone tools
    b. Make Pottery
     c. Grow crops
 d.Domesticate animals
B. Homo Habilis: the first tool
 maker 2.5 million years ago
1. Means man of Skill
2. Discovered in Tanzania by the
            Leakeys
3. Made tools of lava.
  a. Cut meat
b.Crack bones open
    C. Homo Erectus is more
intelligent, 1.6 million years ago
  1. Upright man
2. Developed technlogy
a. Ways of applying knowledge
3. Skillful hunters
4. Tools for digging, scraping,
          and cutting
5. Began to migrate
6. First to use fire
7. First to use spoken language
8. May have named objects,
    plants, and animals
IV. The Dawn of Modern
        Humans
A. Homo Sapiens modern man,
        “wise man”
1. Larger brains
2. 1997 DNA testing indicated
    that Cro-Magnons and
Neanderthals were not ancestors
        of modern man
B. Neanderthals way of life
1. First found in Germany in a
     valley called Neander
2. Powerfully built
3. Lived between 200,000 and
       30,000 years ago
4. Tried to explain world
5. Developed religious beliefs
a. Held funeral for a man in
 Shanidar Cave, located in
       Northern Iraq
6. Made shelters wood and
      animal skins
7. Made tools
C. Cro-Magnons Emerge
1. Arrive about 40,000 years ago
2. Remains show that they were
  identical to modern humans
3. Planned hunts
4. Advanced spoken language
Time Line of Planet
Earth
Imagine the 102 stories of
the Empire State Building
as a scale for a time line
of the earth’s history.
Each story represents
about 40 million years.
Modern human beings
have existed for just a
tiny percentage of the life
of this planet.
1=C
      3=D




2=H

      4=G

								
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