This study is on SMS characteristics and how the new medium has changed
the speech written form at the university community. The study depends upon
three variables gender, specialization and qualification and their subdivisions.
They are correlated with the 54 linguistic and communicative categories.
The study came up with results concerning what SMS text looks like; it is a
written speech. SMS at the university community is considered a typical private
and personal medium by first person possessive pronoun affix 1- يsuch as in
كتابيand first affix of present tense affixed pronouns 1- اsuch as in .اكتبSMS
texts are also characterized by standard expressions avoidance by the standard
noun affixes; 8- كنsuch as in هن -01 , كتابكنsuch as in كما-11 , كتابهنsuch as in
هما -21 , كتابكماsuch as in , كتابهماand standard verb affixes; 8- ت نsuch as in
ت ان-11 , تكتبنsuch as in تكتبانand 12- ي انsuch as in يكتبانand demonstratives.
SMS texts limitation is presented by personal pronouns preference. SMS texts at
the university community are true or figuration and there is no space for false
quality. It is mainly used for salutary functions. University informants use the
strategy of long terminology avoidance in SMS messaging for many reasons
and this is done by standard expressions avoidance, long forms like relatives and
demonstratives, false sentences avoidance, practical arrangements, long social
arrangements avoidance, and detailed information avoidance. Nevertheless, the
sociolinguistic analyses results are:
In the communicative analysis the total number of the general informants
use SMS texts for 'salutary orientation'. The linguistic analyses show that the
general informants use the noun affix number one ' ' يand verb affix number
one ' ' اto reflect SMS text characteristics as private and personal medium. SMS
texting includes expressions which are adjacent to standard expressions, like
demonstratives and relatives they score the lowest averages of the informants
use. They are examples of the strategy of standard expressions avoidance
because the informants usually write SMS texts in a form of educated spoken
Arabic (ESA) more than standard Arabic. Moreover, the informants prefer to
use the personal pronouns more than any other form of pronouns; this is a
reflection of SMS text short form features. The personal pronouns reflect SMS
text language, and how a new form of language has been developed at the
SMS text form is a new form of discourse and the informants use the
conversational maxims spontaneously. SMS data of the universities as general
category is 'figuration' type of conversations because it is filled with
exaggeration and unreal expressions. Furthermore, they give more than one
piece of information in one sentence. They avoid any irrelevant information to
express the strategy of details prevention in certain indirect manner in a way of
verse and metaphor use.
According to gender analysis, the male and female variables are analyzed
according to the 54 linguistic options. The results show 'salutary orientation' as
the highest average used by both genders. Nevertheless, males use 'romantic
orientation' as the highest average too because men are the first to make
romantic move to start romantic relations more than women (See Byron, 2004).
Women's highest average reflects their tendency to maintain their social
The first person affixes يsuch as in كتاابand اsuch as in اكتاare used
more, by both of male and female, because they reflect SMS feature as personal
form of language use. So the informants tend to express themselves by these
affixes. Most of their SMS messages reflect the strategy of standards
The linguistic categories, which are short and limited, are used by both
genders to reflect the limited nature of SMS text, SMS texts distinctiveness as
short form of language and the strategy of long expressions avoidance. This
leads to the likelihood of males and females use of personal pronouns as referent
too. This is to save charge. The result of conversational maxims analysis shows
that females' SMS texts discourse is 'figurative'. This is different from males'
SMS texts discourse is 'true', because women exaggerate and men are more
specific on their language use.
Women were more informative in their language use, but men were
informative in their SMS texts. This is simply because women try to express
their innate knowledge more than men do (ibid). That is men tend t be reserved
more than women do. In addition, women and men were relevant on language
use. Their SMS text is presented by limited expressions because they try to be as
limited in words and expressions as possible. Women's SMS texts were indirect
and men's SMS texts were direct language. These are gender SMS texts
The specialization subdivisions 'humanistic and scientific' were analyzed
according to the 54 linguistic categories to find out the sociolinguistic analysis.
The communicative function analysis shows that the fourth function, which is
salutary information, is the highest average used by the humanistic and the
scientific specialization informants because of that, the salutary information
function is valid and significant to study. The first function is the lowest type of
use by both of the university specifications because SMS text is not the perfect
place for long practical arrangements, which need more time and speech.
Therefore, the preference is to do it by call or face-to-face interaction.
Linguistic comparisons between humanistic and scientific specializations
come up with particular results concerning SMS characteristics as personal and
private media. SMS text reflects the encoders' identity and it goes straightly to
the decoders or the intended person. This is reflected by the first affixes ( يsuch
as in )كتاابand verb affix number one ( اsuch as in )اكتاwhich are used by both
of the university specializations. The linguistic analyses reflect the standard
expression limitation at the university community. This is presented clearly at
verb affix number (7- ت ونsuch as in )تكتباننas valid to study in this context
ESA is in-between standard Arabic and the colloquial.
SMS texts characteristics of the humanistic and scientific university
informants are presented by the use of personal pronouns of reference and
referent than relatives and demonstratives. This is a reflection of SMS
characteristics as limited form of language. The university specializations
informants use these expressions rarely as a strategy of long items avoidance.
According to the Maxims, the humanistic SMS text conversation is
'figuration' and the scientific SMS text conversation is 'true', humanistic
discourse is more informative on language use than the scientific informants'
texts. This is the specialization effects on SMS language use. What is amazing is
that the humanistic specialization informants' discourse is indirect while the
scientific specialization informants' discourse is direct. Humanistic and scientific
specialization informants' discourse is relevant. This is the specialization
reflection in SMS language. The Scientifics are more specific, logical and direct
on their education background than what humanistic background knowledge.
Qualification, on the other hand, has three variables Bachelor, Master and
Ph.D. degree which were analyzed in comparison with the 54 linguistic options.
In this analysis, B informants use SMS messages for 'f4 salutary orientation'
more than M and Ph.D. informants do. M and Ph.D. informants use SMS texts
for 'practical arrangements', which is the point that Bs' lowest average of use is.
These analyses reflect the effect of qualification variable on SMS language. In
addition, it indicates Master and Ph.D. practical style of communication.
In the linguistic analysis, the noun affix ' يsuch as in 'كتابis used constantly
by B, M. And Ph.D. informants highest average of use is affix number 2- كsuch
as in .كتابك أنتThe reason behind this SMS is personal medium, since these
pronouns are the possessive pronouns of first person singular and second person
singular. They reflect the encoder and decoders' identity and personality. The
message encoder tends to speak for himself or the decoder more than for others.
In addition, affix 2- كsuch as in كتابكis high as a reflection to decoder identity.
These two affixes reflect SMS texts as encoder-decoder communication
medium. The lowest averages are for number 8- كنsuch as in كتابكن 9- همsuch
as in هن-01 كتابهمsuch as in كما-11 , كتابهنsuch as in . كتابكماEducated Arabic
speakers do not use these expressions. This is the approach of standard
expressions evasion. These expressions are standard and not used in educated
spoken Arabic (See Sharh Ibn Aqeel). Finally, B, M and Ph.D. informants also
use verb affix 1- اsuch as in اكتmore than any other type of verb affixes.
Syntax expresses SMS tendency to use the shortest of language forms.
Similarly, B, M and Ph.D. informants' highest average of use is of personal
pronoun which is the short form of language. The lowest is the longest forms
which are the relatives and the demonstratives.
Not only syntax examines SMS texts as a partial form of language but also
semantics does. B, M and Ph.D. informants use the personal as the highest
reference types, and the longest forms and the lowest types of pronoun use are
demonstratives and relatives. This reflects the idea that Q informants use the
shortest forms of pronouns in SMS messaging more than the long one.
Since the informants mentioned the referent pronoun previously on reference
position try to use the limited forms as possible to avoid repetition, B, M and
Ph.D. use the personal pronouns more than the long types which are the relatives
and demonstratives. Furthermore, this is the strategy of long expressions
avoidance, they use the shortest expressions to avoid long terms. Ph.D. degree
informants seem not to have clear SMS texts effect on their language use. That
is why, they do not seem to prefer SMS messaging in their communication with
others within their generation. They prefer other old kinds of media than SMS
B informants' SMS discourse is presented by ' figuration' and 'indirect' types
for literary SMS text, figuration, metaphoric expressions and poetry preference
to emphasis SMS uniqueness. ' true' and 'direct' SMS text are used by M and
Ph.D. degree informants. They are good expressions for the university
informants' innate knowledge. There is no false SMS message, since it is
personal and private type of language use. This is qualification reflection in
SMS language use. According to the quantity maxim Bs' highest average is
"more informative", M and Ph.D. informants SMS is "informative" and the
lowest average is "not informative". the informants try their best to use as much
information as possible in a limited sphere of language. So, they avoid any
unrelated information. In addition, this reflects that they are more specific and
practical in their messaging style.
In the qualification-specification analyses HB, SB, HM2, SM2, HPh.D. and
SPh.D. are analyzed according to the 54 linguistic and communicative
categories. HB, SB informants' highest average of communicative functions is
the ' salutary orientation'. SM2 CF informants' averages are equal. In addition,
HM2, SM2, HPh.D. and SPh.D. informants' highest averages are 'practical
Since SMS text is an individual form of language, HB, SB, SM2 and
SPh.D. share the same personal possessive affix and give it an average of use as
higher than any other noun affixes. HM2 is different in this context because
HM2 informants use 7- كمas in كتابكمas the highest average of use. HPh.D.
informants' highest average is 2- كsuch as in .كتابك أنتMoreover, the verb affixes
reflect SMS characteristic as a private form of language. Not only noun and verb
affixes reflect this fact, but also they reflect SMS informants' tendency to use
the spoken expressions which are away from standard Arabic for instance the
strategy of 8- كما كتابكما-11 ,هن كتابهن-01 ,هم كتابهم-9 ,كن كتابكنand, 12-هما كتابهما
avoidance. These expressions scored the lowest average of use by university QS.
SMS texting affects university community language by the use of shortest
forms of language categories by the use of personal pronouns in syntax. As well,
there is a valid relation between the QS with syntax in general.
Reference and referent in semantics reflect SMS distinguishing feature as
a short form of language in which the informants try to use the most limited type
of reference and referent pronouns types to express the innate knowledge.
Consequently, they use the shortest expressions for instance personal pronouns
are used more than any other types.
Finally, SMS discourse at the university community is presented by
'figuration' type. This is done by HB and SB informants, while HM2, SM2,
HPh.D. and SPh.D. informants discourse is 'true' and there is no false discourse.
Since the university HM2, SM2, HPh.D. and SPh.D. informants are more logical
than B degree informants are. Furthermore, HB and SB informants' discourse is
'more informative' while HM2, SM2, HPh.D. and SPh.D. informants' highest
average is 'informative'. In addition, university QS informants' SMS discourse is
'relevant'. University SMS follows irrelevant information avoidance. According
to HB and SB, discourse is 'indirect' because they use verse and poetry to
express their feelings, but HM2, SM2, HPh.D. and SPh.D. is 'direct'. The
university QS at B qualification is different from any other QS informants.
According to gender qualification (GQ) analyses, BF, BM, MF, MM, Ph.D.F
and Ph.D.M are examined and analyzed according to the selective 54 linguistic
categories. First of all, different functions and themes that are done by both
genders and from different qualifications for instance BF informants' SMS
communicative function is 'salutary', BM function is 'romantic', MF, Ph.D.M
and Ph.D.F as 'practical', and MM has no higher average of use because all the
averages are the same. In this analysis, B females characterize the women
identity and quality to maintain social relations more than men. M and Ph.D.
women are more practical and different on their way and style of social
relations. In addition, the first possessive affix '1- يsuch as in ' كتابis the most
frequently used by GQ informants in addition to '2- كsuch as in .'كتابك أنتGQ
informants' highest average of verb affix use is 1- اsuch as in .اكتUniversity
informants use pronouns as shortest expressions by both genders in SMS
texting. In addition, the personal pronoun is used as reference and referent by
both genders. Again, SMS discourse has quality quantity relation and manner
maxims to form and give an idea about university SMS characteristic in which
BF and BM SMS text discourse is 'figuration' type because they use verse and
poetry, which contains exaggeration, metaphor and personification. M and Ph.D.
informants' SMS texts of both genders are 'true'. Furthermore, BF and BM SMS
is 'more informative' because the informants tend to mention more information
in SMS short texts. MF, MM, Ph.D.F and Ph.D.M SMS is 'informative' because
the text is shorter than BF and BM. Generally, university SMS text information
is relevant, and direct except of B females and males informants.
Specialization and gender's (GS), four variables are humanistic females,
humanistic males, scientific females and scientific males are analyzed according
to the selected 54 categories. HF SMS text communicative function is the
'salutary orientation'. In addition, HM1, SM1 and SF SMS is the 'romantic
orientation'. This makes the relation between gender, communicative salutary
and romantic function valid to be studied because there is a significant relation
Moreover, humanistic male and female, scientific male and female use affix
number 1 of verb and noun affixes in which they are encoder and decoder
revealed identity. So, those affixes reflect SMS as a secretive form of language
use. In this context, personal pronouns are used in semantic reference and
referent by GS. They use the personal pronouns as the highest type used to
modify SMS texts limitation.
SMS conversational maxims characterize university community's SMS text.
For instance, humanistic and scientific female and humanistic male's SMS
discourse is figuration. The scientific males discourse is true because it is logical
on their education career. Again, humanistic and scientific female and
humanistic males' texts are more informative because they contain more than
one type of information while scientific male is informative in his discourse
style. The GS SMS text is the shortest and the more limited. In addition,
humanistic and scientific female and humanistic male SMS manner is indirect
because they use poetry and verse. The scientific males are different on their
SMS text style, they are direct on their SMS messaging. Finally, the university
messages are generally direct.
The last analysis is gender specialization and qualification GSQ. The
university variables like; HBF informants use SMS texts for f3 and f5 CF. SMM
informants use SMS text for f1 theme, HMF, SFPh.D., and SMPh.D. texts' are
f2 type, the SMS at HFPh.D. is f3 and SBF messages' themes are f4, HMM use
SMS for f2 and f4. SBM's SMS is f5. The linguistic analysis reflects the idea of
SMS as confidential language form by:
1. Affix يsuch as in .كتاب
2. HMF highest averages are 6- نااsuch as in كتابنااand 7- كامsuch as in
3. HMM highest average is 1- يsuch as in كتاابand 7- كامsuch as in
4. SMM highest average is 1- يsuch as in كتابand 6- ناsuch as in .كتابنا
5. HFPh.D. highest averages are 2- كsuch as in كتابك أنتand 4- ـهsuch as
in .كتابه هن
6. SFPh.D. and SMPh.D. did not score any average of noun affixes use.
11- كماsuch as in كتابكماand 10- هنsuch as in كتابهنare the lowest average of noun
This is the reflection of SMS text as a private form of language and the
informants' strategy of standard expressions avoidance. According to verb
affixes, the university GSQ uses verb affix number (1). It is a reflection to SMS
text characteristic as private form of communication. Not only is this but the
personal pronouns are used by all the university GSQ. It is a reflection of short
forms preference on SMS text. The reference and referent concepts reflect the
same idea in which they use the personal as reference and referents. This is the
strategy of avoidance and reflection to SMS undersized language preferences.
The lowest well-known pronoun is the demonstrative emphasizes this idea.
Finally, the university GSQ discourse quality generally is between 'figuration'
and 'true', and it is in-between more informative and informative and there is no
'not informative' scored. Moreover, SMS conversation is relevant and not
'irrelevant type'. The university SMS manner is direct but HBF, HBM and SBF
highest average is 'Indirect'.
5.1. Recommendations and Suggestions
SMS texting is a new form of language. Therefore, it is a fresh field of study
and research. In this context, the researcher can use more analysis and study
The above-suggested chart represents the mobile as a function channel
between SMS sender and receiver. This model of SMS message transformation
represents a linear model of communication in which the message encoder is the
one who uses language which transmitting the message that carries the SMS
function to others. The transmission will be in a text form, which consists of
computational, linguistic, sociolinguistic, and communicative functions. SMS
texting uses two channels one is the mobile phone of encoder while the other is
the mobile phone of decoder. The last step is the reception of message by the
decoder she/he understands the text completely hence it is suggested that the
interested researchers examine this chart to find out unlimited topics of study.
Also the experiment analysis contains a lot of analyses in which the
researcher can elaborate any one of our communicative or linguistic analysis.
Such study will be an analysis of how computer mediated communication CMC
has changed the ways of language use. The researcher can use this idea to
develop new languages of media to study like the language of internet, chat,
instant messaging, etc. Also, the interested researcher can use the questionnaire
adopted here to develop new ideas and analyses like those of age variety or and
language attitude. Moreover, a contrastive study can be conducted through SMS
language change among universities or colleges as well as others.
The present analysis of SMS could be as wide as the phenomenon of
language. It is wide because the researcher can employ any specific subject
matter to study SMS language or any other mediated languages. Sociolinguistic
concepts are worth investigating and analyzing. Computational linguistic
analysis can be very interesting subject in this respect. Finally, technical
researchers can use SMS texting to develop new spheres of communication,
using abbreviation in mobile keyboard.