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									Brown Paper
Process Mapping

Gemini Skills Workshop

July 1998
Outline of Session

• Purpose of a Brown Paper

• Elements of a Brown Paper

• Building a Brown Paper

• Appendix
   – What to include
   – Practical hints
   – Preparing for presenting at a Brown Paper Fair




                                Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential   -2-
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PURPOSE OF A BROWN PAPER

The Brown Paper helps identify and gain support for
Opportunities

The Brown Paper...
         ...describes the process as it works today from start to end
         ...may be used to describe the process as it should be
         ...shows the big picture
         ...is high touch, low-tech
         ...identifies strengths and opportunities
         ...captures the complexity and disconnects of operational issues
         ...quantifies elements of timing, volume, resource requirement
         ...develops enthusiasm and ownership of issues
         ...builds project momentum
         ...is self-explanatory

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 PURPOSE OF A BROWN PAPER



 Why Do We Use Brown Papers?

               For Gemini...                                                           . . . and the Client
The Gemini Team . . .                                          The Brown Paper map . . .

 • . . . often has limited time to gather                          • . . . describes the process as they
   information                                                       use it today and identifying who
                                                                     gets involved, how, and where
 • . . . understands the “generic
                                                                   • . . . identifies strengths and
   process”, but not the process
                                                                     opportunities as they see them
   specific to the client
                                                                   • . . . provides the basis for further
 • . . . has hypotheses of potential
                                                                     data gathering / studies
   opportunities - based on limited data
   and past experience, which need to                              • . . . helps to mobilise the client and
   be tested                                                         allows them to focus on the
                                                                     opportunities without blame
 • . . . needs to surface the politics
   and emotions involved in the current
   situation


           The technique is superb at breaking down hierarchical boundaries and
           developing broad client ownership

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   ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER



   What Does a Brown Paper Process Map Look Like?
                                                   Title

                                             Brown Paper
                                                                                                                        • xxxxxx
                                                                                                                        • xxxxxx
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                                  xxxxxxxxxxxxxx                                                                        • xxxxxx
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  xxxx
  xxx
  xx




     Task      Strength           Live              Red Flags     Link to Another            Summary
Sign-in       (Typically      Documents            Highlighting      Process                    of
Sheet           Green)                          Key Opportunities                 Summary Strengths
       Decision     Clarification      Opportunity                                   of
                      (Typically        (Typically                              Opportunities
                       Yellow)            Pink)


             But for every standard there are exceptions — check what’s preferred by the
             client or the project manager!

                                            Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential                        -5-
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ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER

Use the following symbols for activity, decision and
link to another process
                        •   Describes activity/task performed
                        •   Starts with an action verb
        Task            •   Use few words (less than 5)
                             – e.g. “Receive order”, “Dispatch sales person”, “Give feedback to
                               customer” etc.
                        •   Include organisation unit/person who does the task today
                             – Both official and daily life names


                  Yes
                  xx%   •   Describe decision as a yes/no question
     “Question”              – e.g. “Fault found in local loop?”, “Found OK?”etc
                             – Write English translation in brackets underneath
                        •   Quantify outcome (volume, percentage)
     No
    xx%




        “Process
         Name”          •   Link to another process flow outside this Brown Paper
      • Comments        •   Describe required input/output



                                  Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential        -6-
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ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER

Use the following symbols for comments and to flag an
opportunity
                        •   Comment on activity, process flow etc.
            Comment     •   Include valuable information, e.g:
                             –   man-years used for activity
                             –   number of iterations (rework)
                             –   dwell times
                             –   etc.


  Flag an
  Opportunity

      “#”
                        •   Highlights an opportunity to improve
                        •   Number flag to reference it




         Name of       •    Shows that an information system is involved
        IT system
                       •    Include valuable information, e.g:
                             –   name of systems
                             –   responsible persons
                             –   link to other IT support system s
                             –   etc.

                                    Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential   -7-
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ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER



Connect activities with lines and arrows

                        • Standard activity connection with flow direction




                        • Indicates that flow lines cross each other




                        • Indicates telephone or other electronic
                          transmission


            Draw the lines on the brown paper itself - first with a pencil (draft), then with
            a thick black pen

                                  Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential      -8-
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ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER



Placement of Panels on Brown Paper
To the far left: introduction to the                                                                                                                           To the far right: summary of
BP, who made the BP and sign in                                                                                                                                findings, strengths and
sheet.                                                                                                                                                         opportunities
            PANELS ATTACHED TO BROWN PAPER

                                                                                                                                                                                         BRO W N PAPER STANDARDS


            Process Name
            Start point:
                                                                                                                                                                                         Findings
            End Point:
            Assumptions:                                                                                                                                                                                  Finding one
            Created By:                                                               Organisation/ Unit:   Phone:
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Finding twoFindings
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fin…
                                                                                                                                                                                                          …          (Flagged)
                                                                                                                                                                                                          etc.
              Location:                                                             Date:

                        PROSJEKT ‘98                                                                                                                                                                     O    T
                                                                                                                                                                                                       PR SJEK ‘ 98
            19:09
            20-10-94    T ools - (042) Brown Paper Standards                                                     - 34 -                                                                  4 : 3 1 a m
                                                                                                                                                                                                        T
                                                                                                                                                                                         1 9 / 1 0 / 9 4 o o l
                                                                                                                                                                                                             s   -   ( 0 4 2 )   Br o wn   Pa p e r   St a n d a r d s   - 15 -




             PANELS ATTACHED TO BROWN PAPER
                                                                                                                                                                                         BRO W N PAPER STANDARDS


             What is a Brown Paper?
                                                                                                                                                                                         Strengths
                        Brown Pape rs are use d to illustrate process flows in a
                        high - touch, low - te ch way. By incorporating the v ie ws
                        of a broad cross-section of e mploye e s who participate
                                                                                                                                                                                         • Strength one
                        or are affe cte d by the proce sses, Brown Pape rs prov ide
                        insights into stre ngths and opportunitie s, and highlight
                        focus areas for improv e me nt
                                                                                                                                                                                         • Strength two
              YOUR PARTICIPATION                                                                                                                                                         • Str…
              Please add your

                        •
                        •
                                   Red
                                   Green
                                                           Highlights an opportunity to improve
                                                           Highlights a strength to be preserved
                                                                                                                                                                                         •…
                        •          Yellow                  Comments on process flow

              Please sign the list below when you have gone through the Brown Paper                                                                                                      • etc.
              THANKS FOR YOUR HELP!

             19:12
             20-10-94
                            PROSJEKT ‘98
                            T ools - (042) Brown Paper Standards                                                     - 35 -                                                              4 : 3 1 a m
                                                                                                                                                                                                        T
                                                                                                                                                                                                         OStrengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                       PR SJEK ‘ 98
                                                                                                                                                                                         1 9 / 1 0 / 9 4 o o l
                                                                                                                                                                                                             s
                                                                                                                                                                                                              T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -   ( 0 4 2 )   Br o wn   Pa p e r   St a n d a r d s   - 15 -




                                                                                                                                                                                         BRO W N PAPER STANDARDS




                                                                                                                                                                                         Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                         • Opportunity one
                                                                                                                                                                                         • Opps two
                                                                                                                                                                                         • Opp…
                                                                                                                                                                                         •…
                                                                                                                                                                                         • etc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         O    T
                                                                                                                                                                                                       PR SJEK ‘ 98
                                                                                                                                                                                         4 : 3 1 a m
                                                                                                                                                                                         1 9 / 1 0 / 9 4 o o l
                                                                                                                                                                                                        T    s   -   ( 0 4 2 )   Br o wn   Pa p e r   St a n d a r d s   - 15 -




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ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER



Use different coloured “Post-it” notes for comments


         Red                • To point out an area of improvement




        Green               • To point out a strength




                            • To comment on process flow
        Yellow                 – e.g. disagreement with the way the process has been
                                 mapped


                                 Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential   - 10 -
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BUILDING A BROWN PAPER

The “Brown Paper process” includes more than the
actual mapping of the process flow
              Plan                                  Do                                     Review


     Prepare             Logistics                   Build                            Review        Analyse


• Hypothesize      • Invite the     • Map the “As                          • Invite people     • Analyse for
  about todays       “right” people   Is” process                            to give             root causes
  process            to build the     flow                                   comments to
                     process flow                                            the Brown         • Try to
                                    • Gather as                              Paper               understand
• Think about      • Logistics        much                                                       costs, cost
  what                                information                          • Validate the        drivers and
  information                         around the                             Brown Paper         key
  you need to                         process as                             with staff and      performance
  validate                            possible                               management          indicators
  hypothesis
                                                                           • Arrange
                                                                             Brown Paper
                                                                             Fairs




                                Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential                       - 11 -
                                                      BP process v3.ppt
BUILDING A BROWN PAPER



How do I start?

Prepare
• Be clear about the objective and scope
• Hypotheses about the process today
     – and about benefits, opportunities, data

• Create a draft of the process
• Decide appropriate level of detail
     – given the potential opportunities and time constraints


Set-Up Logistics
• People to make it (owner, credible experts & users, facilitator/helper)
• Prepare materials (cut/taped brown paper, post-it’s, icons)
• Location (wall space, strong wall-paper)
• Time contract


                                   Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential   - 12 -
                                                         BP process v3.ppt
BUILDING A BROWN PAPER



How do I create a Brown Paper?

Build the Brown Paper

• Reiterate objectives and expectations

• Clarify scope - start and end points, interfaces

• Provide some guidance on level of detail

• “Just-do-it” — it’s easy to course correct, but it’s painful to procrastinate

• Identify where you need further details and arrange next steps to get them

• Capture strengths and opportunities as you progress

• Ask the participants at the end what they think the key opportunities
  and concerns are

• Allow time for client to air complaints and frustrations



                          Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential   - 13 -
                                                BP process v3.ppt
BUILDING A BROWN PAPER



What do I do next?

 Review
 • Follow-up next steps
 • Smarten up the paper as necessary
 • Capture/review builds from review group(s)
 • Highlight and validate key strengths and weaknesses
 Analyse
 • Design necessary in-depth studies
 • Identify “Early Wins”
 • Identify root causes
 • Look at the process from a customers point of view
 • Use the BP as a starting point to understand costs, cost drivers and key
   performance indicators


                           Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential   - 14 -
                                                 BP process v3.ppt
Appendix
  – What to include
  – Practical hints
  – Preparing for a Brown Paper Fair




                      Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential   - 15 -
                                            BP process v3.ppt
WHAT TO INCLUDE

The Brown Papers should include facts to enable a
comprehensive evaluation of the process

• Person/function carrying out each activity (who does what)
• How many people involved
• How much time is spent in the process/activity (man years used)
• Volumes, Values of flows
• Backlogs
• Touch times
• Time in system
     – elapsed time, cycle time

• Dwell times & reasons
     – e.g. “rest” time on a desk before being processed

• Errors
     – how often


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WHAT TO INCLUDE

The Brown Papers should include facts to enable a
comprehensive evaluation of the process (cont.)
 (Cont:)
• Rework - Nº of iterations
• Checking
     – when, by whom, how much time, why

• Approval points & funding gates
• Authority level needed to take decision, sign document etc.
• Interface traffic & hand offs
     – mail, telephone, office system, E-mail etc.

• Input/output that are required
• Duplication of work at boundaries
• Information about the IT systems used in the process




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WHAT TO INCLUDE

Get as much written information around the process as
possible

• Attach copies of actual documentation used, e.g. forms

• Obtain copies of all working documents

• Get documents/reports describing process

• Get information on past and present initiatives that address the
  process
     – Project Plan
     – Names, org. unit and phone numbers of key persons involved in the initiative
     – Preliminary reports etc.

• IT systems supporting the process should be clearly shown on the
  Brown Paper
     – indicate along the process where the different IT systems are used (e.g. use different icons for
       different systems)
     – have a separate section on the Brown Paper describing the different IT systems


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PRACTICAL HINTS



Some practical hints

• Have complete supply kit
     – Keep a spare set of icons - you never have enough

• Strengthen the edges of the Brown Paper with tape
• Use yellow or white “Post-it” notes first for each activity/task before
  rewriting them on white rectangles
• Make sure hand-written text is easy for others to read
• Draw connections with a soft pencil first, to enable adjustments
• Initially attach papers in a way that they are easy to move around
     – Don´t glue down any papers until the Brown Paper has been reviewed

• Make sure you use glue that will last

• Tape “post-its” on with small tape



                                 Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential   - 19 -
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PRACTICAL HINTS



Some process hints

• Prepare a rough draft (high level flow)
     – Based on preliminary discussions and knowledge on a separate sheet and integrate with
       content experts

• Clearly define the start and stop points in the process
• Manage the scope
     – Do not try to depict a lengthy/complex process Flow in a single session

• Clear objectives
• Get “creators” to do the work while joint team member “facilitates”
     – When they get involved they will really feel ownership for the outcome

• Focus on what really happens - not what is supposed to happen
• Keep participants focused on the “As Is” - not the “To Be”
• To maintain continuity try to have a team of people that can be there
  for the whole session when constructing the Brown Paper



                                  Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential     - 20 -
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PRACTICAL HINTS



Some process hints (cont.)


• Continue probing, what else?, what happens next?, how often?
• Keep them moving; don´t let them deliberate too much (maintain
  focus)
• Remember the 80:20 rule when driving the detail
• Integrate “presenting back” what is on paper
    – This helps clarify the process and facilitates knowledge transfer

• Never leave the Brown Paper to be done by people who do not have
  the proper training
• Always ask: who else should see this, or who else is involved in the
  process?




                                  Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential   - 21 -
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  PREPARE FOR A BROWN PAPER FAIR



  How Do I Prepare for a Brown/White Paper Fair
1. Schedule Time(s)                                                    3. Communicate Expectations
    – There will never be a perfect time - be                             & Promote the Event
      brave and pick one - with interest, people                                – Use all available methods of communication
      will make time                                                              (meeting cascade, E-mail, 1-2-1’s)
    – May need a few events e.g. night shifts;                                  – If necessary create concern / intrigue to
      different sites/offices; management &/or                                    ensure participation
      others                                                                    – Pre-position key clients to be there
                                                                                  and be interested
2. Plan the Logistics                                                           – Discuss behavioural norms
    – Client owner / champion - at /near ‘the top’
                                                                       4. Prepare the Papers
    – Coordinator with time and
      accountability(client & Gemini involvement                                – . . . And prepare the people to ‘man’ them
      needed)                                                                   – Too perfect and people won’t want to
                                                                                  criticise
    – Agenda
    – Room & layout                                                    5. Do It
    – Appropriate running order of the papers                                   – Welcome and ‘sign-in’ at entrance
    – Extraordinary needs - popcorn in America,                                 – Keep the atmosphere up beat
      Oompah bands in Europe!                                                   – Role-model listening and post-it issues
    – Launch / instructions by a (client) leader                                  capture, and coach people to do it
    – Hand-out for guidance and to collect                             6. Follow-up
      feedback
                                                                                – Expect, plan for, and fulfill/manage the
                                                                                  expectations that are generated
                                     Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential                          - 22 -
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PREPARE FOR A BROWN PAPER FAIR



How do I Present the Brown Paper?
• Define the work process flow:
    – Purpose of the flow
    – Legend describing brown paper icons
• Describe the client involvement:
    – Participation from people in various functions
• Describe the process analyzed:
    – Identify the process
    – Describe the beginning and end point of the process
    – Describe major blocks of activity in the process
• Describe activities and decisions
    – Capture vital details (ratio, # of times, etc.)
    – Understand decision dynamics
       • Made alone/group
       • Importance/frequency
       • Individuals involved
• Describe overall strengths and opportunities:
    – Key comments and anecdotes made by client participants
    – Solicit input from the audience
    – Summarize strengths and opportunities


          Presentation of the process can be anywhere from five minutes to one hour
          depending on the objectives of the presentation.

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