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									                 SUMMARY OF STANDARDS OF AUDITING (SA)
                APPLICABLE FOR THE FINANCIAL YEAR 2011-12

STANDARDS ON QUALITY CONTROL (SQCS)

SQC 1: Quality control for firms that perform audits and reviews of historical financial information,
and other assurance and related services engagements

Objective of SQC–1 is to provide the firm with reasonable assurance that its personnel comply with
applicable professional standards as well as regulatory and legal requirements, and that reports issued by
the firm or engagement partner(s) are appropriate in the circumstances

Elements of System of Quality Control

        1 Leadership responsibilities for quality within the firm

               The firm should establish policies and procedures designed to promote an internal culture
                based on recognition that quality is essential in performing engagements. Such policies
                and procedures should require the firm’s chief executive officer (or equivalent) or, if
                appropriate, the firm’s managing partners (or equivalent), to assume ultimate
                responsibility for the system of quality control

               Any person or persons assigned operational responsibility for the firm’s quality control
                system by the chief executive officer or managing board of partners should have
                sufficient and appropriate experience and ability, and the necessary authority, to assume
                that responsibility

        2 Ethical requirements

               The firm should establish policies and procedures designed to provide it with reasonable
                assurance that the firm and its personnel comply with relevant ethical requirements

               The firm’s policies and procedures should emphasize the fundamental principles, which
                are reinforced in particular by (a) the leadership of the firm, (b) education and training, (c)
                monitoring, and (d) a process for dealing with non–compliance

        3 Acceptance and continuance of client relationships and specific engagements

               The acceptance and continuance of Quality Control policies are designed to provide the
                firm with reasonable assurance that it will undertake or continue relationships and
                engagements only where it: (a) has considered the integrity of the client and does not
                have information that would lead it to conclude that the client lacks integrity; (b) is
                competent to perform the engagement and has the capabilities, time and resources to do
                so (c) can comply with the ethical requirements. The Firm should obtain such information
                as it considers necessary before accepting an engagement with a new client; when
                deciding whether to continue an existing client relationship and/or engagement; and
                when considering acceptance of a new engagement with an existing client. Where issues
                have been identified, and the firm decides to accept or continue the client relationship or
                a specific engagement, it should document how the issues were resolved

               Where the firm obtains information that would have caused it to decline an engagement if
                that information had been available earlier, policies and procedures on the continuance of
                the engagement and the client relationship should be considered

        4 Human resources

               The Firm’s policies and procedures should be designed to provide it with reasonable
                assurance that it has sufficient personnel with the capabilities, competence, and
                commitment to ethical principles necessary to perform its engagements in accordance
                with professional standards and regulatory and legal requirements to enable the Firm or
                engagement partners to issue reports that are appropriate in the circumstances

               Policies and procedures related to human resources normally address the personnel
                issues like Recruitment, Performance evaluation, Capabilities, Competence, Career
                development, Promotion, Compensation, the estimation of personnel needs,
                Engagement performance

        5 Monitoring

               The firm should establish policies and procedures designed to provide it with reasonable
                assurance that the policies and procedures relating to the system of quality control are
                relevant, adequate, operating effectively and complied with in practice. Such policies and
                procedures should include an ongoing consideration and evaluation of the firm’s system
                of quality control, including a periodic inspection of a selection of completed
                engagements. The purpose of monitoring compliance with quality control policies and
                procedures is to ensure

                     o   Adherence to professional standards and regulatory and legal requirements

                     o   Appropriate designing and effective implementation of quality control system

                     o   That the firm’s quality control policies and procedures have been appropriately
                         applied

STANDARDS FOR AUDITS AND REVIEWS OF HISTORICAL FINANCIAL INFORMATION

SA 200: Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance
with Standards on Auditing

This Standard establishes the independent auditor’s overall responsibilities when conducting an audit of
financial statements in accordance with SAs

       Ethical Requirements Relating to an Audit of Financial Statements — The auditor should
        apply the following fundamental principles of professional ethics relevant when conducting an
        audit of financial statements; (a) Integrity; (b) Objectivity; (c) Professional competence and due
        care; (d) Confidentiality; and (e) Professional behaviour

       Professional Skepticism— Professional skepticism includes being alert to, for example; (a)
        Audit evidence that contradicts other audit evidence obtained;
        (b) Information that brings into question the reliability of documents and responses to inquiries to
        be used as audit evidence; (c) Conditions that may indicate possible fraud; (d) Circumstances
        that suggest the need for audit procedures in addition to those required by the SAs

       Professional Judgment— Professional judgment is necessary in particular regarding decisions
        about:
        (a) Materiality and audit risk; (b) The nature, timing, and extent of audit procedures used to meet
        the requirements of the SAs and gather audit evidence; (c) Evaluating whether sufficient
        appropriate audit evidence has been obtained, and whether more needs to be done to achieve
        the objectives of the SAs and thereby, the overall objectives of the auditor; (d) The evaluation of
        management’s judgments in applying the entity’s applicable financial reporting framework; (e)
        The drawing of conclusions based on the audit evidence obtained, for example, assessing the
        reasonableness of the estimates made by management in preparing the financial statements

       Sufficient Appropriate Audit Evidence and Audit Risk— To obtain reasonable assurance, the
        auditor shall obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence to reduce audit risk to an acceptably low
        level and thereby enable the auditor to draw reasonable conclusions on which to base the
        auditor’s opinion

Ø Sufficiency and Appropriateness of Audit Evidence — Audit evidence is necessary to support the
auditor’s opinion and report. It is cumulative in nature and is primarily obtained from audit procedures
performed during the course of the audit. Sufficiency is the measure of quantity of audit evidence
whereas appropriateness is the measure of quality of audit evidence

Ø Audit Risk — Audit risk is a function of the risks of material misstatement and detection risk. The risks
of material misstatement may exist at two levels:
(a) The overall financial statement level; and (b) The assertion level for classes of transactions, account
balances, and disclosures. For a given level of audit risk, the acceptable level of detection risk bears an
inverse relationship to the assessed risks of material misstatement at the assertion level

       Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with SAs — The auditor shall comply with all SAs relevant
        to the audit. An SA is relevant to the audit when the SA is in effect and the circumstances
        addressed by the SA exist. The auditor shall have an understanding of the entire text of an SA,
        including its application and other explanatory material, to understand its objectives and to apply
        its requirements properly. The auditor shall not represent compliance with SAs in the auditor’s
        report unless the auditor has complied with the requirements of this SA and all other SAs relevant
        to the audit

SA 210: Agreeing the Terms of Audit Engagements

       Auditor and client should agree on terms of engagement. Agreed terms would need to be
        recorded in an audit engagement letter or other suitable form of contract

       The form and content of audit engagement letter may vary for each client, but would generally
        include reference to (a) objective and scope of the audit of financial statements; (b)
        responsibilities of the auditor; (c) responsibilities of management; (d) Identification of applicable
        financial reporting framework for the preparation of financial statements; and (e) Reference to the
        expected form and content of any reports to be issued by the auditor and a statement that there
        may be circumstances in which a report may differ from its expected form and content. Other
        matters as per the circumstances should also be included

       In case of recurring audits, auditor should consider whether circumstances require the terms of
        engagement to be revised

       Where the terms of engagement are changed, auditor and client should agree on the new terms.
        If auditor is unable to agree to a change of engagement and is not permitted to continue the
        original engagement, the auditor should consider withdrawing from the engagement and
        determine whether there is any obligation, either contractual or otherwise, to report the
        circumstances to other parties, such as those charged with governance, owners or regulators

SA 220: Quality Control for an Audit of Financial Statements

       Quality control policies and procedures should be implemented at both level — of audit firm and
        on individual audits

       To implement quality control policies and procedures designed to ensure that all audits are
        conducted in accordance with Standards of Auditing

       Objectives of quality control policies to be adopted will incorporate Professional Requirements,
        Skills and Competence, Assignment, Delegation, Consultation, Acceptance and Retention of
        Clients, Monitoring

       To be communicated to its personnel in a manner that provides reasonable assurance that the
        policies and procedures are understood and implemented

       To implement those quality control procedures which are, in the context of policies and
        procedures of the firm, appropriate to individual audit. To consider professional competence of
        assistants performing work delegated to them when deciding extent of direction, supervision and
        review appropriate for each assistant. Assistants to whom work is delegated need appropriate
        direction, supervision and review of audit work performed by them

SA 230: Audit Documentation
      Audit documentation that meets the requirements of this SA and the specific documentation
       requirements of other relevant SAs provides (a) evidence of auditor’s basis for a conclusion about
       the achievement of overall objective of audit; and (b) evidence that the audit was planned and
       performed in accordance with SAs and applicable legal and regulatory requirements

      Audit Documentation refers to the record of audit procedures performed, relevant audit evidence
       obtained, and conclusions the auditor reached. Preparing sufficient and appropriate audit
       documentation on a timely basis helps to enhance the quality of audit and facilitates effective
       review and evaluation of audit evidence obtained and conclusions reached before finalizing
       auditor’s report

      To document discussions of significant matters with management, those charged with
       governance, and others, including the nature of significant matters discussed and when and with
       whom the discussions took place

      Auditor may consider preparing and retaining a summary (Completion Memorandum) that
       describes significant matters identified during the audit and how they were addressed. SA 220
       requires auditor to review audit work performed through review of audit documentation.
       Standards on Quality Control (SQC) 1 require firms to establish policies and procedures for timely
       completion of assembly of audit files. An appropriate time limit within which to complete the
       assembly of final audit file is ordinarily not more than 60 days after the date of auditor’s report.
       SQC 1 requires firms to establish policies and procedures for retention of engagement
       documentation

      Retention period for audit engagements ordinarily is no shorter than ten years from the date of
       auditor’s report, or, if later, the date of group auditor’s report

SA 240: The Auditor’s Responsibilities Relating to Fraud in an Audit of Financial Statements

      Auditor is concerned with fraud that causes a material misstatement in financial statements

      Two types of intentional misstatements are relevant — misstatements resulting from fraudulent
       financial reporting and misstatements resulting from misappropriation of assets

      Primary responsibility of prevention and detection of frauds is of the management as well as
       those charged with governance. It is important that management, with oversight of those charged
       with governance; place a strong emphasis on fraud prevention which may reduce opportunities
       for fraud to take place and act as a deterrent

      Auditor is responsible for obtaining reasonable assurance that financial statement taken as a
       whole are free from material misstatement, whether caused by fraud or error. While auditor may
       be able to identify potential opportunities for fraud to be perpetrated, it is difficult for him to
       determine whether misstatements in judgment areas such as accounting estimates are caused by
       fraud or error

      Risk of auditor not detecting a material misstatement resulting from management fraud is greater
       than for employee fraud, because management is frequently in a position to directly or indirectly
       manipulate accounting records, present fraudulent financial information or override control
       procedures designed to prevent similar frauds by other employees. Auditor is responsible for
       maintaining an attitude of professional skepticism throughout the audit, considering the potential
       for management override of controls and recognizing the fact that audit procedures that are
       effective for detecting error may not be effective in detecting fraud

      Auditor shall identify and assess risks of material misstatement due to fraud at financial statement
       level, and at assertion level for classes of transactions, account balances and disclosures. Auditor
       must make appropriate inquiries of the management. Auditor must discuss with those charged
       with governance as they have oversight responsibility for systems for accounting risk, financial
       control and compliance with the law

      When auditor identifies a misstatement, s/he should consider whether such a misstatement may
       be indicative of fraud and if there is such an indication, s/he should consider the implications of
       misstatement in relation to other aspects of the audit, particularly the reliability of management
       representations

      When the auditor identifies a misstatement resulting from fraud, or a suspected fraud, s/he should
       consider auditor’s responsibility to communicate that information to management, those charged
       with governance and, in some circumstances, when so required by laws and regulations, to
       regulatory and enforcement authorities also

      To obtain written representations from management

      To document the understanding of entity and its environment and the assessment of risks of
       material misstatement, responses to assessed risks of material misstatement and
       communications about fraud made to management, those charged with governance, regulators
       and others

SA 250: Consideration of Laws and Regulations in an Audit of Financial Statements

      To recognise that non–compliance by entity with laws and regulations may materially affect
       financial statements. It is management’s responsibility to ensure that entity’s operations are
       conducted in accordance with laws and regulations

      Auditor is not responsible for preventing non–compliance. The auditor is responsible for obtaining
       reasonable assurance that the financial statements, taken as a whole, are free from material
       misstatement, whether caused by fraud or error

      Risk of non detection of material misstatements is higher with regard to material misstatements
       resulting from non–compliance with laws and regulations due to various factors. To obtain a
       general understanding of legal and regulatory framework applicable to the entity and how it is
       complying with that framework

      After obtaining general understanding, auditor should perform procedures to identify instances of
       non–compliance with these laws and regulations where non–compliance should be considered
       when preparing financial statements. Further, auditor should obtain sufficient appropriate audit
       evidence about compliance with those laws and regulations generally recognised by Auditor to
       have an effect on determination of material amounts and disclosures in financial statements

      To obtain written representations that management has disclosed all known actual or possible
       non–compliance with laws and regulations whose effects should be considered when preparing
       financial statements. This SA does not apply to other assurance engagements in which auditor is
       specifically engaged to test and report separately on compliance with specific laws and
       regulations. Whether an act constitutes a non–compliance can be determined only by a court of
       law

      The Standard envisages "engaging a legal advisor to assist in monitoring legal requirements"
       instead of "establishing a legal department" as one of the policies to ensure compliance with laws
       and regulations. The Standard, in larger entities, also envisages existence of a separate
       "compliance function" in addition to internal audit function and audit committee to supplement
       policies and procedures for ensuring compliance with laws and regulations

SA 260: Communication with those Charged with Governance

      To communicate with those charged with governance, auditor’s responsibilities in relation to
       financial statements audit, an overview of planned scope and timing of audit and significant
       findings from the audit

      Such matters include: Overall scope of audit; selection of/ changes in significant accounting
       policies; potential effect on financial statements of any significant risks and exposures, such as
       pending litigation; adjustments to financial statements arising out of audit that have a significant
       effect on entity’s financial statements; material uncertainties related to events and conditions that
       may cast significant doubt on entity’s ability to continue as a going concern, disagreements with
       management about matters that could be significant to entity’s financial statements or auditor’s
       report; expected modifications to auditor’s report. Auditors should communicate matters of
       governance interest on timely basis

      Auditor’s communication may be made orally or in writing. In case of oral communication, auditor
       should document their oral communications and response thereof

SA 265: Communicating Deficiencies in Internal Control to those Charged with Governance and
Management

      The objective of the auditor is to communicate appropriately to those charged with governance
       and management deficiencies in internal control that the auditor has identified during the audit
       and that, in the auditor’s professional judgment, are of sufficient importance to merit their
       respective attentions

      The auditor shall determine whether, on the basis of the audit work performed, the auditor has
       identified one or more deficiencies in internal control. If the auditor has identified one or more
       deficiencies in internal control, the auditor shall determine, on the basis of the audit work
       performed, whether, individually or in combination, they constitute significant deficiencies.

SA 299 (AAS 12): Responsibility of Joint Auditors

      Joint auditors should, by mutual discussion, divide audit work. Division of work would usually be
       in terms of audit of identifiable units or specified areas. Division of work may be with reference to
       items of assets or liabilities or income or expenditure or with reference to periods of time

      If a Joint auditor comes across matters which are relevant to areas of responsibility of other joint
       auditors and which deserve their attention, or which require disclosure or discussion with, or
       application of judgment by, other joint auditors, he should communicate the same to all other joint
       auditors in writing prior to finalisation of audit

      Certain areas of work, owing to their importance or owing to the nature of work involved, would
       often not be divided and would have to be covered by all joint auditors

      Each joint auditor is responsible only for the work allocated to them, whether or not s/he has
       prepared a separate report on work performed by them

      All joint auditors are jointly and severally responsible in respect of the audit work which is not
       divided amongst them, for the appropriateness of decisions taken by them concerning the nature,
       timing or extent of the audit procedures to be performed by any of the joint auditors, for examining
       that the financial statements of the entity comply with disclosure requirements of relevant statute,
       for ensuring that audit report complies with the requirements of relevant statute and in respect of
       matters which are brought to the notice of joint auditors by any one of them and on which there is
       an agreement among joint auditors

      Each joint auditor is entitled to assume that other joint auditors have carried out their part of audit
       work in accordance with generally accepted audit procedures. Normally, joint auditors are able to
       arrive at an agreed report. However, where the joint auditors are in disagreement with regard to
       any matters to be covered by the report, each one of them should express his own opinion
       through a separate report

SA 300: Planning an Audit of Financial Statements

      Planning an audit involves establishing the overall audit strategy for the engagement and
       developing an audit plan. The objective of auditor is to plan the audit so that it will be performed in
       an effective manner

      Once the overall audit strategy has been established, an audit plan can be developed to address
       various matters identified in the overall audit strategy, considering the need to achieve the audit
       objectives through efficient use of auditor’s resources

      To consider various matters in developing the overall plan like: terms of engagement; nature and
       timing of reports; applicable legal or statutory requirements; accounting policies adopted by the
       client; identification of significant audit areas; setting of materiality levels, etc.

      To obtain a level of knowledge of client’s business that will enable them to identify events,
       transactions and practices that, in their judgment, may have a significant effect on financial
       information. Audit plan is more detailed than overall audit strategy that includes the nature, timing
       and extent of audit procedures to be performed by engagement team members

      Engagement partner and other key members of engagement team shall be involved in planning
       the audit, including planning and participating in the discussion among engagement team
       members so as to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of planning process

      To plan the nature, timing and extent of direction and supervision of engagement team members
       and review of their work. Auditor shall document overall audit strategy, audit plan and any
       significant changes made during audit engagement to the overall audit strategy or audit plan, and
       reasons for such changes

      Audit planning ideally commences at the conclusion of previous year’s audit, and along with
       related programme, it should be reconsidered for modification as the audit of their compliance
       and substantive procedures progress. For an initial audit, auditor may need to expand the
       planning activities because the auditor does not ordinarily have previous experience with the
       entity that is considered when planning recurring engagements

SA 315: Identifying and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement through Understanding the
Entity and its Environment

      To provide a basis for identification and assessment of risks of material misstatement at the
       financial statement and assertion levels, the auditor shall perform risk assessment procedures.
       Thus procedures shall include: Inquiries with management; Analytical Procedures; Observation
       and Inspection

      Where Auditor has performed other engagements with the entity, auditor shall consider whether
       information obtained is relevant for identifying the risk of material misstatement. If Auditor intends
       to use his/her previous experiences with the entity, he shall determine whether changes have
       occurred since previous audit that may affect its relevance on current audit

      To obtain an understanding of the following: Industry, regulatory and other external factors;
       Nature of entity; Selection and application of accounting policies; Objectives and strategies and
       related business risks; Measurement and review of entity’s financial performance; Internal control

      SA 315 sets out five components of Internal control: Control environment; Entity’s risk
       assessment process; the information system, including related business processes, relevant to
       financial reporting and communication; Control activities relevant to audit; Monitoring of controls

      Usually, those controls which pertain to entity’s objective of preparing financial statements are
       subject to risk assessment procedures

      Obtaining an understanding of entity and its environment including entity’s internal control is a
       continuous, dynamic process of gathering, updating and analyzing information throughout the
       audit

      To identify and assess risks of material misstatement at financial statement level, and at assertion
       level for classes of transactions, account balances and disclosures

      Auditors are required to: Relate identified risks to what can go wrong at assertion level; Consider
       potential magnitude of risks in the context of financial statements; Consider the likelihood that
       risks could result in a material misstatement of financial statements

      Documentation should cover: Discussion among engagement team; Key elements of
       understanding obtained; Sources of information; Risk assessment process; the identified and
       assessed risks; Significant risks evaluated; Risks evaluated for which substantive procedures
       done
       Auditor uses professional judgment to determine the extent of understanding required. Auditors
        primary consideration is whether the understanding that has been obtained is sufficient to meet
        the objective stated in the SA

SA 320: Materiality in Planning and Performing an Audit

       SA 320 deals with the auditor’s responsibility to apply the concept of materiality in planning and
        performing an audit of financial statements

       In planning the audit, the auditor makes judgments about the size of misstatements that will be
        considered material

       These judgments provide a basis for:

• Determining the nature, timing and extent of risk assessment procedures;

• Identifying and assessing the risks of material misstatement; and

• Determining the nature, timing and extent of further audit procedures

       For purposes of the SAs, performance materiality means the amount or amounts set by the
        auditor at less than materiality for the financial statements as a whole to reduce to an
        appropriately low level the probability that the aggregate of uncorrected and undetected
        misstatements exceeds materiality for the financial statements as a whole. If applicable,
        performance materiality also refers to the amount or amounts set by the auditor at less than the
        materiality level or levels for particular classes of transactions, account balances or disclosures

       The auditor shall revise materiality for the financial statements as a whole (and, if applicable, the
        materiality level or levels for particular classes of transactions, account balances or disclosures)
        in the event of becoming aware of information during the audit that would have caused the auditor
        to have determined a different amount (or amounts) initially

       The audit documentation shall include the following amounts and the factors considered in their
        determination:

                • Materiality for the financial statements as a whole

                • If applicable, the materiality level or levels for particular classes of transactions, account
                balances or disclosures

                • Performance materiality and

                • Any revision of above as the audit progressed

SA 330: The Auditor’s Responses to Assessed Risks

       The objective is to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence about assessed risks of material
        misstatement, through designing and implementing appropriate responses to those risks

       Auditor shall design and implement overall responses to address assessed risks of material
        misstatement at financial statement level. To design and perform further audit procedures whose
        nature, timing and extent are based on and are responsive to assessed risks of material
        misstatement at assertion level

       In designing further audit procedures to be performed, the auditor shall:

a) Consider reasons for the assessment given to risk of material misstatement at the assertion level for
each class of transactions, account balance, and disclosure
b) Obtain more persuasive audit evidence – the higher the auditor’s assessment of risk

       When the auditor obtains audit evidence about operating effectiveness of controls during an
        interim period, the auditor shall:

a) Obtain audit evidence about significant changes to those controls subsequent to the interim period;
and

b) Determine additional audit evidence to be obtained for the remaining period

       Based on the audit procedures performed and audit evidence obtained, auditor shall evaluate
        before conclusion of audit whether assessments of risks of material misstatement at assertion
        level remain appropriate

       Auditor shall conclude whether sufficient appropriate audit evidence has been obtained. In
        forming an opinion, auditor shall consider all relevant audit evidence, regardless of whether it
        appears to corroborate or contradict assertions in financial statements

       If the auditor has not obtained sufficient appropriate audit evidence as to a material financial
        statement assertion, the auditor shall attempt to obtain further audit evidence. If the auditor is
        unable to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence, auditor shall express a qualified opinion or
        a disclaimer of opinion

       If Auditor plans to use audit evidence about operating effectiveness of controls obtained in
        previous audits, auditor shall document conclusion reached about relying on such controls that
        were tested in a previous audit

SA 402: Audit Considerations Relating to an Entity Using a Service Organisation

       This SA specifically expands on how the user auditor applies SA 315 and SA 330

       The objectives of the auditor are (a) To obtain an understanding of the nature and significance of
        services provided by the service organisation and their effect on the user entity’s internal control
        relevant to the audit, sufficient to identify and assess the risks of material misstatement; and (b)
        To design and perform audit procedures responsive to those risks

       The user auditor should obtain an understanding of the services provided by a service
        organization, including internal control

       The user auditor shall modify the opinion in the user auditor’s report in accordance with SA 705 if
        the user auditor is unable to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence regarding the services
        provided by the service organization relevant to the audit of the user entity’s financial statements

       The user auditor shall not refer to the work of a service auditor in the user auditor’s report
        containing an unmodified opinion unless required by law or regulation to do so. If such reference
        is required by law or regulation, the user auditor’s report shall indicate that the reference does not
        diminish the user auditor’s responsibility for the audit opinion

       If reference to the work of a service auditor is relevant to an understanding of a modification to
        the user auditor’s opinion, the user auditor’s report shall indicate that such reference does not
        diminish the user auditor’s responsibility for that opinion

SA 450: Evaluation of Misstatements Identified during the Audit

       The objective of the auditor is to evaluate the effect of identified misstatements on the audit and
        the effect of uncorrected misstatements, if any, on the financial statements

       To accumulate misstatements identified during the audit, other than those that are clearly trivial

       To determine whether the overall audit strategy and audit plan need to be revised if the nature of
        identified misstatements and the circumstances of their occurrence indicate that other
       misstatements may exist that, when aggregated with misstatements accumulated during the
       audit, could be material or the aggregate of misstatements accumulated during the audit
       approaches materiality determined in accordance with SA 320 (Revised)

      To communicate on a timely basis all misstatements accumulated during the audit with the
       appropriate level of management, unless prohibited by law or regulations. To request
       management to correct those misstatements

      Prior to evaluating the effect of uncorrected misstatements, the auditor shall reassess materiality
       determined in accordance with SA 320, to confirm whether it remains appropriate in the context of
       the entity’s actual financial results

      To communicate with those charged with governance uncorrected misstatements and the effect
       that they, individually or in aggregate, may have on the opinion in auditor’s report, unless
       prohibited by law or regulation. Auditor’s communication shall identify material uncorrected
       misstatements individually. Auditor shall request correction of uncorrected misstatements. Auditor
       shall also communicate with those charged with governance the effect of uncorrected
       misstatements related to prior periods on the relevant classes of transactions, account balances
       or disclosures, and the financial statements as a whole

      To request a written representation from management and, where appropriate, those charged
       with governance whether they believe the effects of uncorrected misstatements are immaterial,
       individually and in aggregate, to the financial statements as a whole. A summary of such items
       shall be included in or attached to the written representation

      The audit documentation shall include the amount below which misstatements would be regarded
       as clearly trivial, all misstatements accumulated during the audit and whether they have been
       corrected and the auditor’s conclusion as to whether uncorrected misstatements are material,
       individually or in aggregate, and the basis for that conclusion

SA 500: Audit Evidence

      Auditor is required to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence to enable them to draw
       reasonable conclusions on which they can base their opinion on financial information

      Auditor normally relies on evidence that is persuasive rather than conclusive in nature. Auditor
       may obtain evidence on a selective basis by way of either judgmental or statistical sampling
       procedures. Evidence is obtained through performance of compliance and substantive
       procedures

      Compliance procedures are tests designed to obtain reasonable assurance that internal controls
       on which audit reliance is placed are in effect. Substantive procedures are designed to obtain
       evidence as to completeness, accuracy and validity of data produced by accounting system

      Obtaining audit evidence from compliance procedures is intended to reasonably assure the
       auditor in respect of assertions of existence, effectiveness and continuity. Obtaining audit
       evidence from substantive procedures is intended to reasonably assure the auditor in respect of
       assertions of existence, rights and obligations, occurrence, completeness, valuation,
       measurement, presentation and disclosure

      To test the reliability, few generalisations are useful such as external evidence is more reliable
       than internal evidence, written evidence is more reliable than oral evidence and self obtained
       evidence is more reliable than obtained through the entity

      Auditor gains increased assurance when audit evidence obtained from different sources is
       consistent. Various methods for obtaining audit evidence include inspection, observation, inquiry
       and confirmation, computation and analytical review

      Emphasis is to be laid on considering relevance and reliability of audit evidence obtained during
       the course of audit, and focus is to be laid on designing and performing audit procedures to
       obtain relevant and reliable audit evidence
SA 501: Audit Evidence — Specific Considerations for Selected Items

      This Standard on Auditing (SA) deals with specific considerations by the auditor in obtaining
       sufficient appropriate audit evidence in accordance with SA 330, SA 500 (Revised) and other
       relevant SAs, with respect to certain aspects of inventory, litigation and claims involving the entity,
       and segment information in an audit of financial statements

      Inventories: Management ordinarily establishes procedures under which inventory is physically
       counted at least once in a year to serve as a basis for preparation of financial statements or to
       ascertain reliability of perpetual inventory system. When inventory is material to financial
       statements, auditor should obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence regarding its existence
       and condition by attendance at physical inventory counting unless impracticable. If unable to
       attend physical inventory count on the date planned due to unforeseen circumstances, auditor
       should take or observe some physical counts on an alternative date and where necessary,
       perform alternative audit procedures to assess whether changes in inventory between date of
       physical count and period end date are correctly recorded

      Litigation and Claims: The auditor shall design and perform audit procedures in order to identify
       litigation and claims involving the entity which may give rise to a risk of material misstatement,
       including:

               (a) Inquiry of management and, where applicable, others within the entity, including in–
               house legal counsel;

               (b) Reviewing minutes of meetings of those charged with governance and
               correspondence between the entity and its external legal counsel;

               (c) Reviewing legal expense accounts

      Segment Information: Auditor considers segment information in relation to financial statements
       taken as a whole, and is not required to apply auditing procedures that would be necessary to
       express an opinion on segment information standing alone. Audit procedures regarding segment
       information ordinarily consist of obtaining an understanding of the methods used by management
       in determining segment information and performing analytical procedures and other audit tests
       appropriate in the circumstances

SA 505: External Confirmations

      External confirmation is the process of obtaining and evaluating audit evidence through a direct
       communication from a third party in response to a request for information about a particular item

      Before making use of external confirmations, auditor should consider materiality, the assessed
       level of inherent and control risk, and how the evidence from other planned audit procedures will
       reduce audit risk to an acceptably low level

      To employ external confirmation procedures in consultation with the management. External
       confirmations are mostly sought for account balances and their components but they are not to
       be restricted to these items only

      The use of confirmation procedures may be effective in providing sufficient appropriate audit
       evidence when auditor determines higher level of assessed inherent and control risk

      The request for confirmations is to be made either at the date of financial statements or at a date
       close to it. Requests are to be designed to specific audit objectives

      Auditor’s understanding of client’s arrangements and transactions with third parties is important in
       determining the information to be confirmed. Auditor may use positive or negative external
       confirmation requests or a combination of both

      To consider whether there is any indication that external confirmations received may not be
       reliable. To evaluate the conformity between results of external confirmation process together
       with results from any other procedures performed. If Auditor seeks for an external confirmation
       and management requests the auditor not to do so, auditor should consider whether there are
       valid grounds for such a request and obtain evidence to support validity of management’s
       requests

SA 510: Initial Audit Engagements – Opening Balances

      In conducting an initial audit engagement, the auditor should obtain sufficient appropriate audit
       evidence that closing balances of preceding period have been correctly brought forward to
       current period or when appropriate, any adjustments have been disclosed as prior period items in
       the current year’s Statement of Profit and Loss, the opening balances do not contain
       misstatements that materially affect financial statements for the current period and appropriate
       accounting policies are consistently applied

      To consider whether accounting policies followed in preceding period, based on which opening
       balances have been arrived at, were appropriate and that those policies are consistently applied.
       If the auditor concludes that the accounting policies have not been consistently applied or
       properly accounted for, the auditor has to express either a qualified or adverse opinion, as may
       be appropriate

      Ordinarily, current auditor can place reliance on closing balances contained in financial
       statements for preceding period, except when during performance of audit procedures for current
       period the possibility of misstatements in opening balances is indicated

      When financial statements of preceding period were not audited, auditor must adopt other
       procedures such as for current assets and liabilities. Some audit evidence can ordinarily be
       obtained as part of audit procedures performed during the current period and for non–current
       assets and liabilities such as fixed assets, investments and long–term debt, the auditor could
       ordinarily examine records underlying the opening balances

      To evaluate matters giving rise to modifications in prior period’s financial statements for
       assessing the risk of material misstatement. If the prior period’s financial statements were audited
       by a predecessor auditor and there was a modification to the opinion, the auditor shall evaluate
       the effect of the matter giving rise to the modification in assessing the risks of material
       misstatement in the current period’s financial statements in accordance with SA 315

SA 520: Analytical Procedures

      The objectives of the auditor are: (a) To obtain relevant and reliable audit evidence when using
       substantive analytical procedures; and (b) To design and perform analytical procedures near the
       end of audit that assist the auditor when forming an overall conclusion as to whether the financial
       statements are consistent with auditor’s understanding of the entity

      Auditor should apply analytical procedures at overall review stages of audit as well as while
       applying substantive procedures

      Application of analytical procedures is based on the expectation that relationships among data
       exist and continue in absence of known conditions to the contrary. Presence of these
       relationships provides audit evidence as to completeness, accuracy and validity of data produced
       by the accounting system. However, reliance on results of analytical procedures will depend on
       auditor’s assessment of the risk that analytical procedures may identify relationships as expected
       when, in fact, a material misstatement exists

      When analytical procedures identify significant fluctuations or relationships that are inconsistent
       with other relevant information or that deviate from predicted amounts, the auditor should
       investigate and obtain adequate explanations and appropriate corroborative evidence

SA 530: Audit Sampling

      The auditor should design and select an audit sample, perform audit procedures thereon, and
       evaluate sample results so as to provide sufficient appropriate audit evidence
      The objective of the auditor when using audit sampling is to provide a reasonable basis to draw
       conclusions about the population from which the sample is selected

      When designing an audit sample, auditor should consider the objectives of the audit procedure
       and characteristics of the population when designing an audit sample. To assist in efficient and
       effective design of sample, stratification may be appropriate. Stratification is the process of
       dividing a population into sub–populations

      When determining sample size, auditor should consider sampling risk, tolerable error, and
       expected error. Tolerable error is the maximum error in population that the auditor would be
       willing to accept and still conclude that the result from sample has achieved audit objective

      If Auditor expects error to be present in the population, a larger sample needs to be examined to
       conclude that actual error in the population is not greater than planned tolerable error. Auditor
       should select sample items in such a way that the sample can be expected to be representative
       of the population

      This requires that all items in the population have an opportunity of being selected. After having
       carried out those audit procedures on each sample item that are appropriate to particular audit
       objective, auditor should analyse any errors detected in the sample, project the errors found in
       the sample to the population and reassess sampling risk

      Auditor should investigate the nature and cause of any deviations or misstatements identified,
       and their possible effect on the objective of the particular audit procedure or other areas of audit.
       In order to conclude that a misstatement or deviation is an anomaly, the auditor is required to
       obtain a high degree of certainty that the misstatement or deviation is not representative of the
       population

SA 540: Auditing Accounting Estimates, Including Fair Value Accounting Estimates, and Related
Disclosures

      Auditor should obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence regarding reasonableness of
       accounting estimates including fair value accounting estimate and related disclosure in financial
       statements are adequate

      Accounting estimate means an approximation of a monetary amount in absence of a precise
       means of measurement. Determination of an accounting estimate may be simple or complex,
       depending upon the nature of item. Auditor should adopt one or a combination of following
       approaches in the audit of an accounting estimate:

               (a) review and test process used by management to develop the estimate;

               (b) use an independent estimate for comparison with that prepared by management; or

               (c) review subsequent events which confirm the estimate made

      Auditor should make a final assessment of reasonableness of estimate based on auditor’s
       knowledge of the business and whether the estimate is consistent with other audit evidence
       obtained during audit. When there is a difference between auditor’s estimate of the amount best
       supported by available audit evidence and the estimated amount included in financial statements,
       auditor should consider whether the amount requires adjustment and report accordingly

      Auditor should adopt a risk–based approach to the responsibilities regarding accounting
       estimates, including fair value accounting estimates and related disclosures. A difference
       between the outcome of an accounting estimate and amount originally recognized or disclosed in
       financial statements does not necessarily represent a misstatement of financial statements

      Auditor should review the outcome of accounting estimates included in prior period financial
       statements. Auditor should obtain written representations from management whether
       management believes significant assumptions used by it in making accounting estimates are
       reasonable
       Audit documentation should include the basis for auditor’s conclusions about reasonableness of
        accounting estimates and their disclosure that give rise to significant risks; and Indicators of
        possible management bias, if any

SA 550: Related Parties

This Standard on Auditing (SA) deals with the auditor’s responsibilities regarding related party
relationships and transactions when performing an audit of financial statements

       Auditor has a responsibility to perform audit procedures to identify, assess and respond to the
        risks of material misstatement arising from the entity’s failure to appropriately account for or
        disclose related party relationships, transactions or balances in accordance with the framework

       To perform procedures to obtain information relevant to identifying the risks of material
        misstatement associated with related party relationships and transactions

       The auditor shall inquire of management regarding: (a) The identity of entity’s related parties,
        including changes from prior period (b) The nature of relationships between the entity and these
        related parties; and (c) Whether the entity entered into any transactions with these related parties
        during the period and, if so, the type and purpose of the transactions

       To maintain alertness for related party information when reviewing records or documents

       To respond to the risks of material misstatement associated with related party relationships and
        transactions

       To Identify significant related party transactions outside the Entity’s normal course of business

       To evaluate that related party transactions were conducted on terms equivalent to those
        prevailing in an Arm’s Length Transaction

       To ensure that the accounting and disclosure of identified related party relationships and
        transactions are correct

       To obtain written representation from management for related party transactions

       Auditor shall communicate with those charged with governance significant matters arising during
        the audit in connection with the entity’s related parties

       Auditor shall include in the audit documentation, names of identified related parties and nature of
        related party relationships

SA 560: Subsequent Events

       Subsequent events are significant events occurring between balance sheet date and the date of
        auditor’s report. Auditor should consider effect of subsequent events on financial statements and
        on auditor’s report. Auditor should perform procedures designed to obtain sufficient appropriate
        audit evidence that all events up to the date of auditor’s report that may require adjustment of, or
        disclosure in financial statements have been identified

       Procedures to identify events that may require adjustment of, or disclosure in financial statements
        would be performed as near as practicable to the date of auditor’s report

       When Auditor becomes aware of events which materially affect financial statements, the auditor
        should consider whether such events are properly accounted for in financial statements

       When the management does not account for such events that auditor believes should be
        accounted for, auditor should express a qualified opinion or an adverse opinion, as appropriate

SA 570: Going Concern
      Going concern assumption is a fundamental principle in the preparation of financial statements.
       Management should assess entity’s ability to continue as a going concern even if the applicable
       financial reporting framework does not include an explicit requirement

      Auditor should evaluate appropriateness of management’s use of going concern assumption in
       preparation of financial statements and conclude whether there is a material uncertainty about
       entity’s ability to continue as a going concern that need to be disclosed in financial statements

      When planning and performing audit procedures and in evaluating the results thereof, auditor
       should perform further audit procedures when events or conditions are identified that cast
       significant doubt on the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. Indications of risk that
       continuance as a going concern may be questionable could come from financial statements,
       operational activities or from other sources

      These may be financial indicators, operating indicators or other indicators. If, on the presence of
       such indication, a question arises regarding appropriateness of going concern assumption,
       auditor should gather sufficient appropriate audit evidence to attempt to resolve, to the auditor’s
       satisfaction, the question regarding entity’s ability to continue in operation for foreseeable future

      After procedures considered necessary have been carried out, all information required has been
       obtained, and effect of any plans of management and other mitigating factors have been
       considered, auditor should decide whether the question raised regarding going concern
       assumption has been satisfactorily resolved

      Auditor, on the basis of his/her judgment and audit evidence will report, as deemed appropriate.
       In case where use of going concern assumption is appropriate but a material uncertainty exists,
       then (i) if adequate disclosure is made in financial statements, auditor should express an
       unmodified opinion but include an Emphasis of Matter paragraph in the auditor’s report; (ii) if
       adequate disclosure is not made in financial statements, auditor should express a qualified or
       adverse opinion, as appropriate. In case where entity will not be able to continue as a going
       concern, auditor should express an adverse opinion if financial statements have been prepared
       on a going concern basis

      Auditor should communicate with those charged with governance when there are identified
       events or conditions that may cast significant doubt on the entity’s ability to continue as a going
       concern

SA 580: Written Representations

      Written representations are written statements used to corroborate the validity of the premises,
       relating to management’s responsibilities, on which an audit is conducted; and other audit
       evidence obtained with regard to specific assertions in financial statements

      Written representations in this context do not include financial statements, the assertions therein,
       or supporting books and records

      To request written representations from management with appropriate responsibilities for financial
       statements and knowledge of matters concerned

      To request management to provide a written representation that it has fulfilled its responsibility for
       the preparation and presentation of financial statements as set out in the terms of the audit
       engagement; and in accordance with applicable financial reporting framework; designing,
       implementing and maintaining of adequate internal control system; and completeness of
       information made available to the auditor

      To determine relevant parties from whom general and specific written representations are to be
       requested

      To evaluate the reliability of written representations and in case of doubt, should reconsider the
       reliability of other written representations and, take appropriate action. A management
       representation letter should be addressed to the auditor containing relevant information and be
       appropriately dated and signed

      A management representation letter should ordinarily be signed by members of management
       who have primary responsibility for the entity and its financial aspects, e.g., Managing Director,
       Finance Director. Auditor should disclaim an opinion on financial statements when the requested
       general written representations are not provided or are unreliable, and the auditor is unable to
       obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence

SA 600 (AAS 10): Using the work of Another Auditor

(Revised SA 600 on Special considerations – Audits of Group Financial Statements (Including the Work
of Component Auditors) is under consideration of the Board)

      When the principal auditor uses the work of another auditor, the principal auditor should
       determine how the work of other auditor will affect the audit

      Auditor should consider professional competence of other auditor in the context of specific
       assignment if the other auditor is not a Chartered Accountant. Auditor should inform other auditor
       of matters such as areas requiring special consideration, procedures for identification of inter–
       component transactions and significant accounting, auditing and reporting requirements

      Auditor should consider significant findings of other auditor. There should be proper co–ordination
       and communication between the two auditors

      When the principal auditor concludes that work of other auditor cannot be used and s/he has not
       been able to perform sufficient additional procedures regarding financial information of the
       component audited by other auditor, s/he should express a qualified opinion or disclaimer of
       opinion because there is a limitation on the scope of audit

      The principal auditor would not be responsible in respect of the work entrusted to other auditors

SA 610: Using the work of Internal Auditors

      This SA deals with the external auditor’s responsibilities regarding the work of internal auditors
       when the external auditor has determined, in accordance with SA 315, that the internal audit
       function is likely to be relevant to the audit

      The objectives of the external auditor, where the entity has an internal audit function that the
       external auditor has determined is likely to be relevant to the audit, are to determine whether, and
       to what extent, to use specific work of the internal auditors and if so, whether such work is
       adequate for the purposes of the audit

      External auditor should determine whether and to what extent to use the work of the internal
       auditors. In determining whether the work of the internal auditors is likely to be adequate for
       purposes of the audit, the external auditor shall evaluate the objectivity of the internal audit
       function, the technical competence of the internal auditors, whether the work of the internal
       auditors is likely to be carried out with due professional care and whether there is likely to be
       effective communication between the internal auditors and the external auditor

      In order for the external auditor to use specific work of the internal auditors, the external auditor
       shall evaluate and perform audit procedures on that work to determine its adequacy for the
       external auditor’s purposes

      To determine the adequacy of specific work performed by the internal auditors for the external
       auditor’s purposes, the external auditor shall evaluate whether the work was performed by
       internal auditors having adequate technical training and proficiency, the work was properly
       supervised, reviewed and documented, adequate audit evidence has been obtained to enable the
       internal auditors to draw reasonable conclusions, conclusions reached are appropriate in the
       circumstances and any reports prepared by the internal auditors are consistent with the results of
       the work performed and any exceptions or unusual matters disclosed by the internal auditors are
       properly resolved
      When the external auditor uses specific work of the internal auditors, the external auditor shall
       document conclusions regarding the evaluation of the adequacy of the work of the internal
       auditors, and the audit procedures performed by the external auditor on that work

SA 620: Using the Work of an Auditor’s Expert

      This SA deals with the auditor’s responsibilities regarding the use of an individual or
       organization’s work in a field of expertise other than accounting or auditing, when that work is
       used to assist the auditor in obtaining sufficient appropriate audit evidence

      The auditor has sole responsibility for the audit opinion expressed, and that responsibility is not
       reduced by the auditor’s use of the work of an auditor’s expert

      The objectives of the auditor are to determine whether to use the work of an auditor’s expert and
       if using the work of an auditor’s expert, to determine whether that work are adequate for the
       auditor’s purposes

      If expertise in a field other than accounting or auditing is necessary to obtain sufficient
       appropriate audit evidence, the auditor shall determine whether to use the work of an auditor’s
       expert

      The nature, timing and extent of the auditor’s procedures with respect to the requirement of this
       SA will vary depending on the circumstances. In determining the nature, timing and extent of
       those procedures, the auditor shall consider matters including the nature of the matter to which
       that expert’s work relates, the risks of material misstatement in the matter to which that expert’s
       work relates, the significance of that expert’s work in the context of the audit, the auditor’s
       knowledge of and experience with previous work performed by that expert and whether that
       expert is subject to the auditor’s firm’s quality control policies and procedures

      The auditor shall evaluate whether the auditor’s expert has the necessary competence,
       capabilities and objectivity for the auditor’s purposes. In the case of an auditor’s external expert,
       the evaluation of objectivity shall include inquiry regarding interests and relationships that may
       create a threat to that expert’s objectivity

      The auditor shall agree, in writing when appropriate, on the following matters with the auditor’s
       expert:

           o   The nature, scope and objectives of that expert’s work;

           o   The respective roles and responsibilities of the auditor and that expert;

           o   The nature, timing and extent of communication between the auditor and that expert,
               including the form of any report to be provided by that expert; and

           o   The need for the auditor’s expert to observe confidentiality requirements

      The auditor shall evaluate the adequacy of the auditor’s expert’s work for the auditor’s purposes,
       including:

           o   The relevance and reasonableness of that expert’s findings or conclusions, and their
               consistency with other audit evidence;

           o   If that expert’s work involves use of significant assumptions and methods, the relevance
               and reasonableness of those assumptions and methods in the circumstances; and

           o   If that expert’s work involves the use of source data that is significant to that expert’s
               work, the relevance, completeness, and accuracy of that source data

      The auditor shall not refer to the work of an auditor’s expert in an auditor’s report containing an
       unmodified opinion unless required by law or regulation to do so. If such reference is required by
       law or regulation, the auditor shall indicate in the auditor’s report that the reference does not
       reduce the auditor’s responsibility for the audit opinion

SA 700 (Revised): Forming an Opinion and Reporting on Financial Statements (April 1, 2011)

      Auditor should form an opinion on the financial statements based on an evaluation of the
       conclusions drawn from the audit evidence obtained; and express clearly that opinion through a
       written report that also describes the basis for the opinion

      The auditor shall express an unmodified opinion when the auditor concludes that the financial
       statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with the applicable financial
       reporting framework

      If the auditor concludes that, based on the audit evidence obtained, the financial statements as a
       whole are not free from material misstatement; or is unable to obtain sufficient appropriate audit
       evidence to conclude that the financial statements as a whole are free from material
       misstatement, the auditor shall modify the opinion in the auditor’s report in accordance with SA
       705

      Auditor’s report includes basic elements such as Title, Addressee, Opening or introductory
       paragraph, Management’s Responsibility for the Financial Statements, Auditor’s Responsibility,
       Auditor’s Opinion, Other Reporting Responsibilities, Signature of the Auditor, Date of the Auditor’s
       Report and Place of Signature. If the auditor is required by any law or regulation to use a specific
       layout or wording of the auditor’s report, the auditor’s report shall refer to SA only if the auditor’s
       report includes, at a minimum, each of the elements prescribed in this SA

      If an auditor is required to conduct an audit in accordance with the SAs issued by the ICAI, but
       may additionally have complied with the International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) in the conduct
       of the audit, the auditor’s report may refer to ISAs in addition to the national auditing standards
       only if conditions specified in this SA are complied with

SA 705 (Issued): Modification to the opinion in the Independent Auditor’s Report (April 1, 2011)

      Auditor is responsible to issue an appropriate report in circumstances when, in forming an opinion
       in accordance with SA 700 (Revised), the auditor concludes that a modification to the auditor’s
       opinion on the financial statements is necessary

      The objective of the auditor is to express clearly an appropriately modified opinion on the financial
       statements that is necessary when the auditor concludes, based on the audit evidence obtained,
       that the financial statements as a whole are not free from material misstatement; or the auditor is
       unable to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence to conclude that the financial statements as
       a whole are free from material misstatement

      The auditor shall express a qualified opinion when the auditor, having obtained sufficient
       appropriate audit evidence, concludes that misstatements, individually or in the aggregate, are
       material, but not pervasive, to the financial statements; or the auditor is unable to obtain sufficient
       appropriate audit evidence on which to base the opinion, but the auditor concludes that the
       possible effects on the financial statements of undetected misstatements, if any, could be
       material but not pervasive

      The auditor shall express an adverse opinion when the auditor, having obtained sufficient
       appropriate audit evidence, concludes that misstatements, individually or in the aggregate, are
       both material and pervasive to the financial statements

      The auditor shall disclaim an opinion when the auditor is unable to obtain sufficient appropriate
       audit evidence on which to base the opinion, and the auditor concludes that the possible effects
       on the financial statements of undetected misstatements, if any, could be both material and
       pervasive

      When the auditor modifies the opinion on the financial statements, the auditor shall, in addition to
       the specific elements required by SA 700 (Revised), include a paragraph in the auditor’s report
       that provides a description of the matter giving rise to the modification
      When the auditor expects to modify the opinion in the auditor’s report, the auditor shall
       communicate with those charged with governance the circumstances that led to the expected
       modification and the proposed wording of the modification

SA 706 (Issued): Emphasis of Matter Paragraphs and Other Matter Paragraphs in the Independent
Auditor’s Report (April 01, 2011)

      The objective of the auditor, having formed an opinion on the financial statements, is to draw
       users’ attention, when in the auditor’s judgment it is necessary to do so, by way of clear additional
       communication in the auditor’s report, to a matter, although appropriately presented or disclosed
       in the financial statements, that is of such importance that it is fundamental to users’
       understanding of the financial statements; or as appropriate, any other matter that is relevant to
       users’ understanding of the audit, the auditor’s responsibilities or the auditor’s report

      If the matter refers to information presented or disclosed in the financial statements, the auditor
       shall include an Emphasis of Matter paragraph (immediately after the Opinion paragraph) in the
       auditor’s report provided the auditor has obtained sufficient appropriate audit evidence that the
       matter is not materially misstated in the financial statements

      If the auditor considers it necessary to communicate a matter other than those that are presented
       or disclosed in the financial statements that, in the auditor’s judgment, is relevant to users’
       understanding of the audit, the auditor’s responsibilities or the auditor’s report and this is not
       prohibited by law or regulation, the auditor shall do so in a paragraph in the auditor’s report, with
       the heading "Other Matter", or other appropriate heading

      If the auditor expects to include an Emphasis of Matter or an Other Matter paragraph in the
       auditor’s report, the auditor shall communicate with those charged with governance regarding this
       expectation and the proposed wording of this paragraph

SA 710 (Revised): Comparative Information– Corresponding Figures and Comparative Financial
Statements (April 1, 2011)

      The objectives of the auditor are to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence about whether the
       comparative information included in the financial statements has been presented, in all material
       respects, in accordance with the requirements for comparative information in the applicable
       financial reporting framework; and to report in accordance with the auditor’s reporting
       responsibilities

      The frameworks and methods of presentation that are referred to in this SA are corresponding
       figures where amounts and other disclosures for preceding period are included as an integral part
       of current period financial statements and Comparative Financial Statements where amounts and
       other disclosures for preceding period are included for comparison with financial statements of
       current period

      Auditor should obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence that the comparative information meet
       the requirements of relevant financial reporting framework. This involves verifying whether
       accounting policies used for corresponding figures are consistent with those of current period and
       whether corresponding figures agree with amounts and other disclosures presented in prior
       period

      If the financial statements of the prior period were audited by a predecessor auditor and the
       auditor is permitted by law or regulation to refer to the predecessor auditor’s report on the
       corresponding figures and decides to do so, the auditor shall state in an Other Matter paragraph
       in the auditor’s report that the financial statements of the prior period were audited by the
       predecessor auditor; the type of opinion expressed by the predecessor auditor and, if the opinion
       was modified, the reasons therefore; and the date of that report. When auditor’s report on prior
       period, as previously issued, included a qualified opinion or a disclaimer of opinion or an adverse
       opinion and concerned matter is not resolved, auditor’s report should also be modified regarding
       corresponding figures

      When prior period financial statements are not audited, incoming auditor should state the fact in
       auditor’s report in an Other Matter paragraph

      When comparative financial statements are presented, the auditor’s opinion shall refer to each
       period for which financial statements are presented and on which an audit opinion is expressed

SA 720: The Auditor’s Responsibility in Relation to Other Information in Documents containing
Audited Financial Statements

      The objective of the auditor is to respond appropriately when documents containing audited
       financial statements and auditor’s report thereon include other information that could undermine
       the credibility of those financial statements and auditor’s report

      The auditor is not required to give his/ her opinion on other information, not having any
       responsibility of determining whether or not other information is properly stated, if there is no
       separate requirement in particular circumstance of the engagement. However, the auditor reads
       other information because the credibility of audited financial statements may be undermined by
       material inconsistencies between audited financial statements and other information and if found,
       to determine whether the audited financial statements or other information needs to be revised

      To make appropriate arrangements with management or those charged with governance to
       obtain the other information prior to the date of the auditor’s report. If material inconsistencies are
       identified prior to the date of the auditor’s report, and the revision of audited financial statement is
       necessary and the management refuses to make the revision, auditor is required to modify his/
       her opinion. Further, if revision of other information is necessary, and management refuses to
       make the revision, auditor is required to communicate the matter to those charged with
       governance and also provide paragraph in the auditor’s report on other matter; or withdraw from
       the engagement, if permitted by laws or regulations

      If material inconsistencies are identified subsequent to the date of the auditor’s report, and
       revision of audited financial statement is necessary, the auditor is required to perform the
       procedures given in SA 560, "Subsequent Events". If, on reading other information for the
       purpose of identifying material inconsistencies, auditor becomes aware of an apparent material
       misstatement of fact, auditor should discuss the matter with management and if the management
       refuse to correct it, communicate the same to those charged with governance and take further
       appropriate actions

SA 800: Special Considerations — Audits of Financial Statements Prepared in Accordance with
Special Purpose Frameworks (April 1, 2011)

      The objective of the auditor, when applying SAs in an audit of financial statements prepared in
       accordance with a special purpose framework, is to address appropriately the special
       considerations that are relevant to: (a) The acceptance of the engagement; (b) The planning and
       performance of that engagement; and (c) Forming an opinion and reporting on the financial
       statements

      In an audit of special purpose financial statements, the auditor shall obtain an understanding of:
       (a) The purpose for which the financial statements are prepared; (b) The intended users; and (c)
       The steps taken by management to determine that the applicable financial reporting framework is
       acceptable in the circumstances

      The auditor shall determine whether application of other SAs requires special consideration in the
       circumstances of the engagement. In the case of financial statements prepared in accordance
       with the provisions of a contract, the auditor shall obtain an understanding of any significant
       interpretations of the contract that management made in the preparation of those financial
       statements. An interpretation is significant when adoption of another reasonable interpretation
       would have produced a material difference in the information presented in the financial
       statements

      In the case of financial statements prepared in accordance with the provisions of a contract, the
       auditor shall evaluate whether the financial statements adequately describe any significant
       interpretations of the contract on which the financial statements are based
      The auditor’s report on special purpose financial statements shall include an Emphasis of Matter
       paragraph alerting users of the auditor’s report that the financial statements are prepared in
       accordance with a special purpose framework and that, as a result, the financial statements may
       not be suitable for another purpose

SA 805: Special Considerations– Audits of Single Financial Statements and Specific Elements,
Accounts or Items of a Financial Statement (April 1, 2011)

      The objective of the auditor, when applying SAs in an audit of a single financial statement or of a
       specific element, account or item of a financial statement, is to address appropriately the special
       considerations that are relevant to: (a) acceptance of the engagement; (b) planning and
       performance of that engagement; and (c) Forming an opinion and reporting on the single financial
       statement or on the specific element, account or item of financial statement

      SA 200 requires the auditor to comply with all SAs relevant to the audit. If the auditor is not also
       engaged to audit the entity’s complete set of financial statements, the auditor shall determine
       whether the audit of a single financial statement or of a specific element of those financial
       statements in accordance with SAs is practicable

      SA 210 requires the auditor to determine the acceptability of the financial reporting framework
       applied in the preparation of the financial statements. This shall include whether application of the
       financial reporting framework will result in a presentation that provides adequate disclosures to
       enable the intended users to understand the information conveyed in the financial statement or
       the element, and the effect of material transactions and events on the information conveyed in the
       financial statement or the element

      The auditor shall consider whether the expected form of opinion is appropriate in the
       circumstances

      The auditor shall apply the requirements in SA 700, adapted as necessary in the circumstances
       of the engagement

      If the auditor undertakes an engagement to report on a single financial statement or on a specific
       element of a financial statement in conjunction with an engagement to audit the entity’s complete
       set of financial statements, the auditor shall express a separate opinion for each engagement. If
       the opinion in the auditor’s report on an entity’s complete set of financial statements is modified,
       or that report includes an Emphasis of Matter paragraph or an Other Matter paragraph, the
       auditor shall determine the effect that this may have on the auditor’s report on a single financial
       statement or on a specific element of those financial statements

SA 810: Engagements to Report on Summary Financial Statements (April 1, 2011)

      SA 810 deals with the auditor’s responsibilities when undertaking an engagement to report on
       summary financial statements derived from financial statements audited in accordance with SAs
       by that same auditor

      The objectives of the auditor are to: (a) Determine whether it is appropriate to accept the
       engagement to report on summary financial statements; (b) Form an opinion on the summary
       financial statements based on an evaluation of the conclusions drawn from the evidence
       obtained; and (c) Express clearly that opinion through a written report that also describes the
       basis for that opinion

      The auditor shall, ordinarily, accept an engagement to report on summary financial statements in
       accordance with this SA only when the auditor has been engaged to conduct an audit in
       accordance with SAs of the financial statements from which the summary financial statements
       are derived

      Before accepting an engagement to report on summary financial statements, the auditor shall: (a)
       Determine whether the applied criteria are acceptable; (b) Obtain the agreement of management
       that it acknowledges and understands its responsibility

      The auditor shall perform the prescribed procedures, and any other procedures that the auditor
       may consider necessary, as the basis for the auditor’s opinion on the summary financial
       statements

      When the auditor has concluded that an unmodified opinion on the summary financial statements
       is appropriate, the auditor’s opinion shall, unless otherwise required by law or regulation, use one
       of the phrases enumerated in this SA

      The auditor’s report on the summary financial statements may be dated later than the date of the
       auditor’s report on the audited financial statements. In such cases, the auditor’s report on the
       summary financial statements shall state that the summary financial statements and audited
       financial statements do not reflect the effects of events that occurred subsequent to the date of
       the auditor’s report on the audited financial statements that may require adjustment of, or
       disclosure in, the audited financial statements

      If the summary financial statements are not consistent, in all material respects, with or are not a
       fair summary of the audited financial statements, in accordance with the applied criteria, and
       management does not agree to make the necessary changes, the auditor shall express an
       adverse opinion on the summary financial statements

      If the audited financial statements contain comparatives, but the summary financial statements do
       not, the auditor shall determine whether such omission is reasonable in the circumstances of the
       engagement

      If the auditor becomes aware that the entity plans to state that the auditor has reported on
       summary financial statements in a document containing the summary financial statements, but
       does not plan to include the related auditor’s report, the auditor shall request management to
       include the auditor’s report in the document

STANDARDS ON REVIEW ENGAGEMENTS (SRES)

SRE 2400: Engagements to Review Financial Statements

      To establish standards and provide guidance on the practitioner’s professional responsibilities
       when a practitioner, who is not the auditor of an entity, undertakes an engagement to review
       financial statements and on the form and content of the report that the practitioner issues in
       connection with such a review

      The objective of a review of financial statements is to enable a practitioner to state whether, on
       the basis of procedures which do not provide all the evidence that would be required in an audit,
       anything has come to the practitioner’s attention that causes the practitioner to believe that the
       financial statements are not prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with the applicable
       financial reporting framework (negative assurance)

      The practitioner should comply with the Code of Ethics issued by the ICAI

      The procedures required to conduct a review of financial statements should be determined by the
       practitioner having regard to the requirements of this SRE, relevant professional bodies,
       legislation, regulation and, where appropriate, the terms of the review engagement and reporting
       requirements

      A review engagement provides a moderate level of assurance that the information subject to
       review is free of material misstatement; this is expressed in the form of negative assurance. For
       the purpose of expressing negative assurance in the review report, the practitioner should obtain
       sufficient appropriate evidence primarily through inquiry and analytical procedures to be able to
       draw conclusions

      The practitioner and the client should agree on the terms of the engagement

      When using work performed by another practitioner or an expert, the practitioner should be
       satisfied that such work is adequate for the purposes of the review

      The practitioner should document matters which are important in providing evidence to support
       the review report, and evidence that the review was carried out in accordance with this SRE

      The practitioner should apply judgment in determining the specific nature, timing and extent of
       review procedures. The practitioner should apply the same materiality considerations as would be
       applied if an audit opinion on the financial statements were being given

      Based on the work performed, the practitioner should assess whether any information obtained
       during the review indicates that the financial statements do not give a true and fair view in
       accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework

SRE 2410: Review of Interim Financial Information Performed by the Independent Auditor of the
Entity

      To establish standards and provide guidance on the auditor’s professional responsibilities when
       the auditor undertakes an engagement to review interim financial information of an audit client,
       and on the form and content of the report

      The auditor should comply with the ethical requirements relevant to the audit of the annual
       financial statements of the entity. The auditor should implement quality control procedures that
       are applicable to the individual engagement. The auditor should plan and perform the review with
       an attitude of professional skepticism

      The objective is to enable the auditor to express a conclusion whether, on the basis of the review,
       anything has come to the auditor’s attention that causes the auditor to believe that the interim
       financial information is not prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable
       financial reporting framework

      The auditor and the client should agree on the terms of the engagement

      The auditor should have an understanding of the entity and its environment, including its internal
       control, as it relates to the preparation of both annual and interim financial information, sufficient
       to plan and conduct the engagement

      The auditor should make inquiries, primarily of persons responsible for financial and accounting
       matters, and perform analytical and other review procedures to enable the auditor to conclude
       whether, on the basis of the procedures performed, anything has come to the auditor’s attention
       that causes the auditor to believe that the interim financial information is not prepared, in all
       material respects, in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework

      The auditor should obtain evidence that the interim financial information agrees or reconciles with
       the underlying accounting records and should inquire whether management has identified all
       events up to the date of the review report that may require adjustment to or disclosure in the
       interim financial information

      The auditor should inquire whether management has changed its assessment of the entity’s
       ability to continue as a going concern. If adequate disclosure is made in the interim financial
       information, the auditor should add an emphasis of matter paragraph to the review report to
       highlight a material uncertainty relating to an event or condition that may cast significant doubt on
       the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. If a material uncertainty that casts significant
       doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern is not adequately disclosed in the
       interim financial information, the auditor should express a qualified or adverse conclusion, as
       appropriate. The report should include specific reference to the fact that there is such a material
       uncertainty

      When a matter comes to the auditor’s attention that leads the auditor to question whether a
       material adjustment should be made, the auditor should make additional inquiries or perform
       other procedures to enable the auditor to express a conclusion in the review report

      The auditor should evaluate, individually and in the aggregate, whether uncorrected
       misstatements that have come to the auditor’s attention are material to the interim financial
       information
      The auditor should obtain written representations from management

      The auditor should read the other information that accompanies the interim financial information
       to consider whether any such information is materially inconsistent with the interim financial
       information. If a matter comes to the auditor’s attention that causes the auditor to believe that the
       other information appears to include a material misstatement of fact, the auditor should discuss
       the matter with the entity’s management

      When, as a result of performing the review of interim financial information, a matter comes to the
       auditor’s attention that causes the auditor to believe that it is necessary to make a material
       adjustment to the interim financial information, the auditor should communicate this matter as
       soon as practicable to the appropriate level of management. When, in the auditor’s judgment,
       management does not respond appropriately within a reasonable period of time, the auditor
       should inform those charged with governance

      The auditor should issue a written report that contains the nature, extent and results of the review
       of interim financial information

      The auditor should express a qualified or adverse conclusion when a matter has come to the
       auditor’s attention that causes the auditor to believe that a material adjustment should be made to
       the interim financial information for it to be prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with
       the applicable financial reporting framework

      When the auditor is unable to complete the review, the auditor should communicate, in writing, to
       the appropriate level of management and to those charged with governance the reason why the
       review cannot be completed, and consider whether it is appropriate to issue a report

      The auditor should consider modifying the review report by adding a paragraph to highlight a
       significant uncertainty (other than a going concern problem) that came to the auditor’s attention,
       the resolution of which is dependent upon future events and which may affect the interim financial
       information

      The auditor should prepare review documentation that is sufficient and appropriate to provide a
       basis for the auditor’s conclusion and to provide evidence that the review was performed in
       accordance with this SRE and applicable legal and regulatory requirements

STANDARDS ON ASSURANCE ENGAGEMENTS (SAE) — Other than Audits or Reviews of
Historical Financial Information

SAE 3400 (AAS 35): The Examination of Prospective Financial Information

      In an engagement to examine prospective financial information, auditor should obtain sufficient
       appropriate evidence as to whether:

           a. management’s best–estimate assumptions are not unreasonable and, in the case of
              hypothetical assumptions such assumptions are consistent with the purpose of
              information

           b. prospective financial information is properly prepared on the basis of assumptions

           c.   prospective financial information is properly presented and all material assumptions are
                adequately disclosed, including whether they are best–estimate assumptions or
                hypothetical assumptions

                and

           d. prospective financial information is prepared on a consistent basis with historical financial
              statements, using appropriate accounting principles

      While evidence may be available to support assumptions on which prospective financial
       information is based, such evidence is itself generally future–oriented and, therefore, speculative
       in nature, as distinct from evidence ordinarily available in examination of historical financial
       information. Auditor is, therefore, not in a position to express an opinion as to whether the results
       shown in prospective financial information will be achieved

       Auditor should:

           o   not accept, or should withdraw from, an engagement when assumptions are clearly
               unrealistic or when s/he believes that prospective financial information will be
               inappropriate for its intended use

           o   obtain a sufficient level of knowledge of business and become familiar with entity’s
               process to be able to evaluate whether all significant assumptions required for
               preparation of prospective financial information have been identified

           o   consider extent to which reliance on entity’s historical financial information is justified.
               Auditor should consider period of time covered by prospective financial information.
               Sufficient appropriate evidence supporting such assumptions would be obtained from
               internal and external sources

           o   would consider whether, when hypothetical assumptions are used, all significant
               implications of such assumptions have been taken into consideration

           o   should obtain written representations from management regarding intended use of
               prospective financial information, completeness of significant management assumptions
               and management’s acceptance of its responsibility for prospective financial information

           o   should assess the presentation and disclosures in prospective financial statement are
               adequate

           o   should document matters, which are important in providing evidence to support his/ her
               report on examination of prospective financial information, and evidence that such
               examination was carried out in accordance with this SA

      When auditor believes that presentation and disclosure of prospective financial information is not
       adequate, the auditor should express a qualified or adverse opinion in the report on prospective
       financial information, or withdraw from engagement as appropriate

      When auditor believes that one or more significant assumptions do not provide a reasonable
       basis for prospective financial information prepared on basis of best–estimate assumptions or
       that one or more significant assumptions do not provide a reasonable basis for prospective
       financial information given the hypothetical assumptions, the auditor should either express an
       adverse opinion setting out reasons in the report on prospective financial information, or withdraw
       from engagement

      When examination is affected by conditions that preclude application of one or more procedures
       considered necessary in the circumstances, auditor should either withdraw from engagement or
       disclaim the opinion and describe the scope limitation in the report on prospective financial
       information

SAE 3402: Assurance Reports on Controls at a Service Organization

      This SAE deals with assurance engagements undertaken by a professional accountant in public
       practice to provide a report for use by user entities and their auditors on the controls at a service
       organization that provides a service to user entities that is likely to be relevant to user entities’
       internal control as it relates to financial reporting

      The objectives of the service auditor are: (a) To obtain reasonable assurance about whether, in
       all material respects, based on suitable criteria: (i) The service organization’s description of its
       system fairly presents the system as designed and implemented throughout the specified period;
       (ii) The controls related to the control objectives stated in the service organization’s description of
       its system were suitably designed throughout the specified period; (iii) Where included in the
       scope of the engagement, the controls operated effectively to provide reasonable assurance that
       the control objectives stated in the service organization’s description of its system were achieved
       throughout the specified period; (b) To report on the matters in (a) above in accordance with the
       service auditor’s findings

      The service auditor shall comply with relevant ethical requirements, including those pertaining to
       independence, relating to assurance engagements

      Where this SAE requires the service auditor to inquire of, request representations from,
       communicate with, or otherwise interact with the service organization, the service auditor shall
       determine the appropriate person(s) within the service organization’s management or governance
       structure with whom to interact

      If the service organization requests a change in the scope of the engagement before the
       completion of the engagement, the service auditor shall be satisfied that there is a reasonable
       justification for the change

      The service auditor shall assess whether the service organization has used suitable criteria in
       preparing the description of its system, in evaluating whether controls are suitably designed, and,
       in the case of a type 2 report, in evaluating whether controls are operating effectively

      When planning and performing the engagement, the service auditor shall consider materiality with
       respect to the fair presentation of the description, the suitability of the design of controls and, in
       the case of a type 2 report, the operating effectiveness of controls

      The service auditor shall obtain an understanding of the service organization’s system, including
       controls that are included in the scope of engagement

      The service auditor shall obtain and read the service organization’s description of its system, and
       evaluate whether those aspects of the description included in the scope of engagement are fairly
       presented

      The service auditor shall determine which of the controls at the service organization are
       necessary to achieve the control objectives stated in the service organization’s description of its
       system, and shall assess whether those controls were suitably designed

      If the service organization has an internal audit function, the service auditor shall obtain an
       understanding of the nature of the responsibilities of the internal audit function and of the
       activities performed in order to determine whether the internal audit function is likely to be
       relevant to the engagement

      In order for the service auditor to use specific work of the internal auditors, the service auditor
       shall evaluate and perform procedures on that work to determine its adequacy for the service
       auditor’s purposes

      The service auditor shall request the service organization to provide written representations

      The service auditor shall inquire whether the service organization is aware of any events
       subsequent to the period covered by the service organization’s description of its system up to the
       date of the service auditor’s assurance report that could have a significant effect on the service
       auditor’s assurance report

      The service auditor’s assurance report shall include the basic elements prescribed by this SAE

STANDARDS ON RELATED SERVICES (SRS)

SRS 4400 (AAS 32): Engagements to Perform Agreed–upon Procedures Regarding Financial
Information

      In an engagement to perform agreed–upon procedures, auditor is engaged by client to issue a
       report of factual findings, based on specified procedures performed on specified matters of a
       financial statement. As the auditor simply provides a report of factual findings of agreed–upon
       procedures, no assurance is expressed by them in the report. Report is restricted to those parties
       that have agreed to procedures to be performed since others, unaware of reasons for the
       procedures, may misinterpret results

      To comply with Code of Ethics, issued by ICAI

      Where Auditor is not independent, a statement to that effect should be made in the report of
       factual findings. Terms of engagement should be well defined so as to avoid any
       misunderstandings

      To plan the work so that an effective engagement will be performed and documentation of
       important matters to be done which provides evidence to support the report of factual findings

      The report describes the purpose and agreed–upon procedures of engagement in sufficient detail
       to enable the reader to understand the nature and extent of work performed. The report should
       also clearly mention that no audit or review has been performed

SRS 4410 (AAS 31): Engagements to Compile Financial Information

      In such types of engagements, accountant uses accounting expertise as against auditing
       expertise to collect, classify and summarise financial information

      The accountant should comply with the "Code of Ethics", issued by ICAI. However, where
       accountant is not independent, a statement to that effect should be made in the accountant’s
       report. It should be ensured that there is a clear understanding between the client and accountant
       regarding terms of engagement by means of an engagement letter or such other suitable form of
       contract

      To obtain an acknowledgement from management of its responsibility for appropriate preparation
       and presentation of financial statements or other information and of its approval of such
       information to be compiled

      Accountant should also obtain an acknowledgement from management of its responsibility for
       accuracy and completeness of underlying accounting data and complete disclosure of all material
       and relevant information

      To plan the work so that an effective engagement will be performed. Accountant should obtain a
       general knowledge of business and operations of the entity and should be familiar with
       accounting principles. Accountant should request management representation letter covering
       significant information or explanations given orally on which they consider representations are
       required

      There are few special considerations which the accountant has to take care of i.e. s/he should
       ensure that financial statements or other financial information compiled, comply with requirements
       of identified financial reporting framework & where there is no specific financial reporting
       framework, client may specify that accounts should be compiled on, for example, based on
       requirements of Income Tax Act. If any accounting standard is not complied with, the fact should
       be disclosed in the notes to accounts

If accountant becomes aware of any material misstatement, s/he must report this to management or must
withdraw from engagement if management doesn’t act. Financial information compiled should be
approved by client before compilation report is signed by accountant

								
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