POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY: EUROPEAN LENS by 98w4iY

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									POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY:
EUROPEAN LENS


          KEY IDEAS
    INFLUENCE ON FOUNDERS
Plato & Aristotle




 School of Athens, by Raphael
 PLATO- Republic (360 BCE)
 People are just or unjust
 Does not support democracy
 Believes only a few are virtuous and
  intelligent enough to rule
  (philosopher-kings)
 Let them rule
        Plato & Aristotle in General

True                       ► True
 Knowledge is                Knowledge
 found                       is found
 “above”, in                 “here”, in
 the world of                the world
 ideas.                      of things.
ARISTOTLE- Politics (350 BCE)
 More liberal than Plato
 Believes people can be taught to be
  virtuous and reasonable- someone
  chooses to be virtuous
 Still believes in aristocracy ruling
    MACHIAVELLI- The Prince
           (1513)
 To a prince, then, it is not necessary to
  have the qualities written of above, but it is
  necessary to seem to have them
 Not to depart from the good, whenever
  possible, but to know how to enter into evil,
  whenever necessary
 Let, then, a prince act in such a manner as
  to conquer and maintain his estate . . .
HOBBES- Leviathan- (1651)

  English philosopher believed that an
   absolute monarch could best keep the
   “social contract.”
  State of nature=chaos, anarchy, etc
  Life is “solitary,nasty, brutish, and short”
  LOCKE- Two Treatises of
    Government (1690)

 English philosopher who argued
  governments are created to protect our
  “natural rights” of life, liberty and
  property.
 Believes in consent of the governed
 If leader does not hold up end of the
  bargain, it can be replaced (overthrown)
    MONTESQUIEU (1748)
     ROUSSEAU (1762)
 Montesquieu: French philosopher who
  argued for a monarchy but under a
  system of “Separation of Powers.”
   Executive, legislative, judicial
 • Rousseau: Swiss philosopher who
  believed direct democracy would best
  ensure peoples’ freedoms.

								
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