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									  Gender mainstreaming
Evidence from the European
   Foundation’s studies

    ETUC Conference 06.03.07
           Berlin

         Kasia Jurczak
        Research Officer
  Labour market trends: 4EWCS (2005)
• Increasing proportion of women in the workforce (but
  still short of Lisbon objectives: 56.3% v 71.3% for men)
• … accompanied by increased prevalence of part-time
  work (80% of European part-timers are women)
• Persistence of gender gaps (pay, time, employment rate)
• Occupational and vertical segregation
• Increasing proportion of women in managerial roles but
  still a 3:1 ratio of male:female managers…
• Working women continue to shoulder a disproportionate
  burden of unpaid household work
   Combined working hours : women work the longest
                                                 (EU27 only)


                     0       10           20           30      40           50           60          70
Part-time




             male             23.5                     7.3

            female           21.3                              32.7
Full-time




             male                         43.1                              7.9

            female                      40.0                                      23.0
                         Paid working hours main job                +Paid working hours second job
                         +Commuting time                            +Unpaid working hours
 Working time discretion by country
100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

 0%
       SE NL DK FI AT BE LU UK FR DE IE      IT   EE   SI CZ SK PL ES LV MT LT RO HU EL PT CY BG

                    Your working hours are entirely determined by yourself
                    You can adapt your working hours within certain limits
                    You can choose between several fixed working schedules
                    They are set by the company with no possibility for changes


                                                               Source: Fourth European Working Conditions survey
            Flexibility?....
     Work fixed starting and finishing times by
                     gender, %

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
 0
     EU15         EU15          EU15                     EU25
     1995          2000         2005                     2005

                     male    female           total


                                      Source: Fourth European Working Conditions survey
       More women managers … managing women

                  Your immediate boss is…
100%
 90%     21.31%     22.83%       24.81%        24.16%            28.63%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%       78.7%     77.2%        75.2%         75.8%             71.4%
30%
20%
10%
 0%
          EU15      EU15         EU25          (EU15)            (NMS)
          1995      2000         2005                   (2005)
                             A man       A woman
     More women managers … big variation by country
45



40



35



30



25



20



15



10



 5



 0

     FI EE LT UK SI SE NO LV HU IE DK PL SK PT BG BE FR HR RO EU CZ AT NL MT ES CH EL LU DE IT TR CY
                                                              27
         % of men with female managers

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0
     SI LT UK SE FI NO DK EE BE SK BG IE PT EL HU PL HR MT FR EU ES LV RO NL CZ AT IT CH LU TR CY DE
                           Gender pay gap


                    0%   10%   20%   30%   40%   50%   60%   70%    80%   90% 100%

           male

         female



 male part-time

female part-time

   male full-time

 female full-time
            Lowest income band                                     Highest income
       EIRO Comparative Analytical Report
       Gender and Career Development (1)
• European Industrial Relations Observatory (EIRO) study in EU-27
(except Sweden) plus Norway, conducted in Autumn 2006
• Explores whether and how far career patterns are changing in
response to the restructuring of work and organizations and how this
impacts on women’s experience of careers
• Traditional career – full time appointment and long term, uninterrupted
service with one employer
• Trade Unions – statutory and compulsory measures; all workforce; most
activity
• Employer Organisations – individual and voluntaristic solutions;
diversity management; gender issues addressed at the managerial level;
        EIRO Comparative Analytical Report
        Gender and Career Development (2)
• Gradual erosion (rather than a transformation) of traditional career
patterns, which is likely to improve opportunities for women.

• Women seem to be the main beneficiaries of the borderless careers;
increase of diverse careers; careers outside organisations; combination of
private and professional activities
• While the number of women in middle management posts is increasing
the top of the career ladder is male-dominated;
• Norway – statutory quota of female board members of public and semi-
public enterprises;
•Establishment type matters: female entrepreneurship in NMS; across
Europe more women managers in SMEs and domestic companies
       EIRO Comparative Analytical Report
       Gender and Career Development (3)
• Glass ceiling: a range of overlapping structural, institutional
and attitudinal factors:
   • unclear selection criteria for promotion (scope for discretion by senior
   management)
   • women cut off from old boys clubs
   • overall women more job rather than career focused
   • lack of female role models at the top posts
   • attitudinal factors: traits- forceful, competitive, objective – associated with man
   • women less frequently than men tend to take up training possibilities (due to
   family duties)
              Some Ideas for the future
• Centrally collect examples of gender mainstreamed agreements and have
them available for the member organisations;
• Extensions of parental leave could be reserved for the fathers
• Valorisation and professionalisation of traditionally female occupations
(personal social services, education)
• Target young women, when making their career choices, promote non-
traditional career patterns: “A clever girl chooses science”
• Organise for training compatible with family duties
•Utilise European initiatives, such as EQUAL for studies and pilot projects;
For more information:
www.eiro.eurofound.europa.eu

Camilla Gali da Bino gdb@europa.eurofound.eu (EIRO)
Sara Riso sri@europa.eurofound.eu (4EWCS)
Kasia Jurczak kju@europa.eurofound.eu (Gender
questions)

								
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