美国各大学经济学研究生主要课程 一、基础理论 Microeconomics The theory of the consumer, theory of the firm, perfect and imperfect competition, welfare economics, and selected topics in general equilibrium and uncertainty. Microeconomic Analysis Economic theory and methodology; Theory of consumer behavior, theory of the competitive firm, supply and factor demand; Duality relations in consumer and producer theory, partial equilibrium analysis, stability and comparative statics; Introduction to game theory; Theory of imperfect competition. General equilibrium analysis, efficiency, and welfare; Market failures, externalities, and the theory of the second best; Uncertainty and economic theory; Producer supply and factor demand decisions under uncertainty; Portfolio and savings decisions under uncertainty; value of information; Applications of game theory to economic analysis. Microeconomic Theory Consumer and producer theory under conditions of certainty. Decision making under uncertainty Economics of information Applications of game theory Models of imperfect competition. General equilibrium theory, including existence and stability Welfare economics and social choice. Advanced Microeconomic Theory Covers advanced topics in microeconomic theory. State-of-the-art research papers and books are read, and presentations are made by students as well as faculty. Rational Choice Theory Measurement and Aggregation in Economics General Equilibrium Social Choice and Welfare Uncertainty and Information Special Topics in Microeconomic Theory. Welfare Theory Notions of economic efficiency, equivalent, and compensated variation measures, consumer and producer surplus, market failures, social choice, path independence, compensated demand curves, cost-benefit evaluation, and public choice. Macroeconomics Models of aggregate supply and demand, theories of consumption and investment, money supply and demand, inflation, rational expectations, stabilization policy, financial markets, and international finance. Macroeconomic Analysis Analysis of static and dynamic models of aggregate economic activity with an emphasis on the role of fiscal and monetary policies on the determination of GNP and its distribution, the price level, and labor employment. Macroeconomic Theory The basic issues and models of macroeconomics. Investment and consumption Labor and monetary economics Tax and debt policy Mathematics for macroeconomists. Business cycles, both the empirical characteristics and the theoretical models. Advanced Macroeconomic Analysis Introduction to microtheoretic-based dynamic and stochastic macroeconomic models applied to the study of economic growth, business cycles, and governmental policies. Advanced Macroeconomic Theory Covers advanced topics in macroeconomic theory. State-of-the-art research papers and books will be read, and presentations will be made by students as well as faculty. Foundations of Macroeconomics Advanced Monetary Theory Special Topics in Macroeconomic Theory. Business Cycle Theory An in- depth treatment of theories of the cycle and the empirical data on relations of variables over the cycle. Topics in Money, Credit, and Business Cycles Selected topics in the performance of the macroeconomy, monetary and fiscal theory, and monetary and fiscal policy. Topics in Economic Theory: Critiques and Alternative Approaches Critiques of conventional economic theories and consideration of alternative theories and approaches. Topics in Economic Theory: Applications Applies the theories and methods to real-world problems, including (1) the specification of functional form and the estimation of supply and demand systems, (2) index number theory and the measurement of inflation, the cost of living, output, and other macroeconomic phenomena, (3) computable general equilibrium models, (4) programming methods, (5) problems of aggregating over agents and commodities, and (6) the measurement of economic phenomena like productivity, poverty, income and wealth distribution, technical and allocative inefficiency, and input substitutability. Microeconomic Theory for Master's Students Preparatory course for Ph.D. courses in microeconomics. Covers consumer behavior, production and cost functions, profit maximization. Imperfect competition and general equilibrium. Welfare economics. Macroeconomic Theory for Master's Students Preparatory course for the Ph.D. courses in macroeconomics. Covers national income accounting, determination of aggregate output, employment, the price level and interest rates. Fiscal and monetary policy. Inflation and unemployment. Growth and productivity. 二、数量经济学 Mathematics for Economists Covers mathematics that is extensively used in economics, including static optimization theory, elementary difference and differential equations, and dynamic optimization. Quantitative Methods in Economic Analysis Economic applications of selected mathematical and statistical concepts: linear models and matrix algebra; differential calculus and optimization; integral calculus and economic dynamics; probability distributions, estimation, and hypothesis testing in the analysis of economic data. Introduction to elements useful for micro- and macroeconomic modeling: nonlinear programming, comparative static analysis, difference and differential equations, probability, statistics, and game theory Mathematical Programming in Applied Economics Linear programming and the Simplex method; sensitivity analysis and parametric programming; goal programming, stochastic programming, and other extensions of linear programming; input-output and interregional models; nonlinear and quadratic programming to reflect production, marketing, and financial risk; comparison with other criteria for making risky decisions; integer programming and investment analysis; use of recursive and dynamic programming in long-term planning and farm firm growth models. Econometrics Specification, estimation, and testing of single and multiple equation models of economic processes; qualitative choice and limited dependent variable models; examination and evaluation of empirical studies in the economics literature. Large sample properties of estimators and large sample inference; dynamic models and instrumental variables; identification, estimation, and evaluation of systems of simultaneous equations; introduction to time series methods and applications, including alternative variance specifications. Econometric Statistics Generalized linear regression, nonlinear regression, measurement error models. Simultaneous equation systems, regression equations with autoregressive errors, large sample theory. Econometric Methods Econometric methods for the analysis of economic data and the construction of econometric models with applications to microeconomics and macroeconomics. Covers the linear regression model and related techniques of matrix algebra, statistical estimation, and inference. extensions of the basic regression model, nonlinear models, and limited dependent variable models. Econometric methods for the analysis of economic data and the construction of econometric models with applications to time-series macroeconomics. Covers univariate time-series models, volatility models, simultaneous equation models, and dynamic econometric models. Macroeconometrics Balanced treatment of time-series econometric techniques and their application to macroeconomics and financial markets. Techniques include GARCH and ARCH-M models, unit-root tests, nonlinear adjustment models, structural VARs, and cointegration tests. Intermediate Econometrics Single and multiple equation regression models; dummy explanatory variables; serial correlation; heteroskedasticity; distributed lags; qualitative dependent variables; simultaneity. Use of econometric models for tests of economic theories and forecasting. Advanced Econometrics Advanced topics and recent developments in econometrics. State-of-the-art research papers and books are read, and presentations are made by students as well as faculty. Advanced Econometric Methods; Topics in Econometrics; Applied Econometrics; Macroeconometrics; Nonparametric Econometrics; Microeconometrics. Advanced Topics in Econometrics Advanced treatment of issues important in econometrics. Topics chosen from asymptotic theory, nonlinear estimation, Bayesian and robust econometrics, econometric time series, limited dependent variables and censored regression models, nonparametric and semiparametric methods, bootstrapping and Monte Carlo techniques, etc. 三、信息经济学 Noncooperative Game Theory and Information Economics The noncooperative theory of strategic and extensive form games. Nash equilibrium, subgame perfection, and other refinements, and other solution concepts such as iterated dominance. Supergames. Applications in information economics such as bargaining, auctions, signaling, reputation building, and the principal-agent problem. 四、公共经济学 Public Economics Pure public goods and impure public goods; externalities; open access and common property resources; market and club provision of excludable public goods; Lindahl and Nash equilibria; collective action. Preference revelation mechanisms; voting models, experiments and public economics; nonprofit sector; optimal taxation; partial and general equilibrium analysis of tax shifting and tax incidence, excess burden of tax; tax competition. Fiscal Policy, Employment, and Capital Accumulation This course will cover governmental taxing, spending, and debt, especially their effects on capital formation, income distribution, and employment. 五、金融经济学 Financial Economics Review of decision-making under uncertainty. Portfolio Theory. Theoretical foundations of asset valuation models: capital asset pricing model (CAPM), arbitrage pricing theory (APT), representative agent models, pricing of derivative securities. Complete and incomplete asset markets, credit markets, financial intermediaries, the role of government in the financial sector. Market frictions, crashes, bubbles. Applications of asset valuation models, with emphasis on their testable implications. Economic and Financial Institutions: Structure and Purpose The theory of agency, moral hazard, and mechanism-design. Uncertainty and the role of markets and firms in society. Transaction costs and vertical integration. Bargaining theory and optimal property rights. Implicit contracts and informal power. Applications to agricultural institutions, debt financing, and corporate governance (equity financing). Applied Research in Monetary and Macroeconomics Application of economic theory to the analysis of contemporary issues in macroeconomics, monetary economics, and financial economics. Money, Credit, and the Macroeconomy Investigation of the role of money, credit, and financial institutions in influencing growth, distribution, employment, prices and business cycles in capitalist economies. Fiscal policy, monetary policy, and public investment are addressed from alternative theoretical perspectives. 六、国际经济学 Issues in International Economics Theories of international trade and finance. Emphasis on current policy issues in international economics. International Trade Modern theory of international trade; welfare and distributional aspects of trade and tariffs. The interdependence of international trade and economic growth. Optimal trade policies in the presence of such distortions as unemployment, monopolies and cartels, balance of payments problems, infant industries, and common market areas. International Finance The theory of exchange rate and balance of payments determination; open-economy macroeconomic issues; and current account adjustment. Emphasis on the current empirical literature concerning the efficient market theory of the foreign exchange market. 七、产业组织 Industrial Organization Theoretical and empirical studies of industry structure, conduct, and performance. Introduction to game theory. Monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition, collusion, and cartels. Contestable markets. Entry barriers and deterrence. Concentration and performance. Price discrimination. Product differentiation and spatial markets. Technological innovation and diffusion. Mergers. Vertical integration and contractual alternatives. Antitrust. Regulation and regulated industries. Advanced topics in industrial organization. State-of- the-art research papers and books are read and presentations are made by students and faculty. Basic non-cooperative game theory under complete and incomplete information. Theories of imperfect competition with strong emphasis on a game- theoretic view of the world. Studies the role of government actions in the form of laws and regulations in affecting the workings of a market economy at the micro level. Special topics in industrial organization. 八、增长与发展 Economic Growth and Development Performance and problems of developing countries in relation to growth, employment, structural change, and human development; theories and paradigms of development; theories and sources of economic growth; policies to promote industrialization and trade; role of agriculture; farm size and tenure in relation to productive efficiency and technology adoption; generation and diffusion of new agricultural technology; fertility, population growth, and sustainability; income distribution, poverty; foreign aid and development strategies adopted by countries and international lending agencies. Microfoundations of Economic Growth and Development Models of household and firm/farm behavior in developing countries. Computable general equilibrium models. General equilibrium incidence of large investment projects, technological change, and market interventions. Models of endogenous growth. Convergence and productivity. Analysis of large data sets. Theories of Economic Development A survey of the major theories of development and underdevelopment beginning with the classical model, theories of surplus, and including the models of Lewis, Nurkse, Hirschman, neoclassical schools, structuralist models, and dependency theory. Contemporary Development Strategies A review of the performance of the major strategies of development implemented in the recent past or currently under implementation. Comparative Analysis of Development Examines the way class structure and surplus use shape the development process. Capitalist development, and efforts to find an alternative to it are analyzed. Special attention given to the case of China. Topics in Economic Development Selected themes for advanced study in economic development. Project Evaluation in Developing Countries The rationale for social benefit-cost analysis of projects in developing countries. Estimation of shadow prices to replace the distorted market prices in evaluating project profitability. The role of income distribution, externality, and uncertainty in project evaluation. Agricultural and Rural Development This course is concerned with the economics of agricultural and rural development in developing countries. Topics examined include technical change, sharecropping and interlinked factor markets, migration, poverty and famine, land reform, environmental aspects of rural development, and structural adjustment within agriculture. Applied Quantitative Methods in Development Economics Construction of national income and other macroeconomic accounts. Input-output accounts, sample survey methods, and other empirical techniques. 九、比较 经济体制 Comparative Economic Systems Comparative analysis of different economic systems, including capitalism, socialism, and mixed systems. 十、思想史与流派 History of Economic Analysis The ideas of great economists from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Robert Malthus, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, William Stanley Jevons, Leon Walras, John Bates Clark, Thorstein Veblen, Alfred Marshall, John Maynard Keynes, and John R. Hicks. History of Economic Theory and Methodology The origins and contemporary development of alternative economic theories. Methodological and philosophical debates in economics. Topics in the History of Economic Thought In-depth study in selected areas of economic thought. Topic area varies depending on the expertise of the instructor. Topics include, but are not limited to, classical economics, the rise of neoclassical economic theory, institutional economics, and the economics of Keynes. Early and Classical Economics Study of the economic theories of the early and classical economists. Focus will be on theories of value, distribution, and growth of the major economists of this period, including Aristotle, Quesnay, Bailey, Smith, Malthus, Ricardo, Marx, and Mill. History of Marxian Political Economy This course surveys the development of Marxian political economy from Marx to the present. Marxian Economic Theory A study of Marxian economic theory, including the role of value, class, exploitation, and accumulation in Marxian economics, and a survey of current debates on these issues. Topics in Marxian Economics This course is intended to cover selected contemporary debates within Marxian economics. Topics may include theories of class and modes of production; articulation of class, race, and gender; theories of the state; Marxian microfoundations; and Marxian theories of international economics. History of Neoclassical Economics Study of the rise of neoclassical economics, including Jevons, Menger, and Walras; Marshallian economics; Sraffa; and imperfect competition. The development of general equilibrium theory and history of econometrics are also covered. Radical Political Economy A survey of the methodology of radical political economy and an examination of its logical, empirical, and normative bases. Introduction to Political Economy Introduction to alternative paradigms in political economic analysis. Includes different methodological and substantive approaches. Advanced Topics in Political Economy Prerequisite(s): graduate standing or consent of instructor. Advanced topics in the methodology and theory of political economy. Workshop in Political Economy Reading and discussion of selected topics in political economy; presentation and discussion of student papers and current faculty research in the area. The Political Economy of Imperialism Examination of traditional and contemporary theories of imperialism, with attention to the origins and evolution of principal ideas and a critical assessment of their influence on developmental literature. Theories of value and Distribution Advanced study in non-neoclassical theories of value and distribution. Emphasis will be placed on the Cambridge, Sraffian, and Marxian approaches. The Political Economy of the State Examination of theories of the capitalist state: Marxist, non-Marxist, and post-Marxist. Assessment of theory through case studies of advanced industrial and third world societies. 十一、经济史 Introduction to Economic History Analysis of selected problems on economic history with an emphasis on methodological approaches to those issues. 十二、环境与资源经济学 Environmental Economics Theory and methods of environmental economics. Externality theory, bargaining solutions, property rights, and resource allocation mechanisms. Environmental policy under uncertainty and asymmetric information. Dynamic and general equilibrium modes of environmental quality. Empirical studies and methods. Advanced Environmental Economics Interrelationships of natural resource use and the environment. Applied welfare and benefit-cost analyses. Externalities and pollution abatement. Nonmarket valuation of resources. Property rights. Legal and social constraints. Policy approaches. Advanced Resource Econometrics Dynamic allocation of scarce, exhaustible, and renewable natural resources, including minerals and energy, soil, water, forests, and fish. Social versus private decisions. Market and nonmarket considerations. Technological change. Regulation. Dynamics and uncertainty. Models of Nonrenewable Resource Management Dynamic models of nonrenewable resources. Uncertainty, game theory, and the measurement of resource scarcity. Examination of empirical models of nonrenewable resources. Models of Renewable Resource Management Dynamic economic models of renewable resources under certainty and uncertainty. Capital and inventory theoretic approaches to resource management. Models of resource exploitation under learning. Environmental preservation and irreversible development. Seminar in Resource Economics Selected topics in Environmental Economics. Natural Resource Economics. Urban and Regional Economics. Agricultural Economics. 十三、其他 Regional Economics Analysis of location choice by firms, employees, and households emphasizing the role of spatial variations in agglomeration economies, economies of scale, distance, transport, endowments, amenities, and local government. Models of land use, urban form, spatial competition, central place theory, and migration. Techniques of discrete choice analysis, statistical analysis of categorical data, urban system modeling, and interregional computable general equilibrium. Labor Markets Modern analysis of labor demand and market determination of wages and employment; analysis of distortions in labor markets due to non-competitive forces, legislation, and discrimination; microeconomic analysis of unemployment and job search. Labor Supply and Human Capital Formation Labor supply decisions and empirical analysis for agricultural operators and wage-earning households; multiple job holding; resource allocation in productive households; human capital formation by households, firms, and public institutions, which includes schooling, on-the-job training, migration, health, research, raising of children, and implications for household income and welfare; applications to problems in rural areas of developing and developed countries. Labor Supply, Labor Demand, and the Structure of Wages Introduce the theoretical and empirical literature on labor supply and demand and on the structure of wages. The contributions of neoclassical, institutional, and radical economists will be discussed. Labor Institutions and Macro Labor Outcomes A historical perspective on industrial structure, personnel management systems, labor unions, and government, and their relation to macro labor outcomes such as income distribution, productivity growth, and unemployment. Race, Class, and Gender Concentrates on neoclassical, institutional, and radical perspectives on race, class, and gender issues. Theories and empirical evidence on discrimination, the household and social reproduction, and the role of the state receive particular attention. Business Economics Applications of microeconomic theory and decision analysis. Demand analysis, production and cost analysis, forecasting, pricing, market structures and strategy, capital investment analysis, decision-making under uncertainty, government and business. Consumption and Demand Analysis Analysis of demand with emphasis on the theory of consumption decisions, the development and estimation of models, and the assessment and interpretation of empirical results. Demand systems, flexible functional forms, separability and aggregations, dynamic models. Household consumption models, demographics, equivalence scales, cost-of-living indices, standard of living measurement, and quality of goods. Empirical and experimental applications with emphasis on food demand. Extensions and policy issues related to marketing regulations, food assistance programs, poverty, nutrition, food safety, and health.
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