CHAPTER 8 � THE JEFFERSON ERA Section One � Jefferson Becomes by 3x702mPw


• I can describe the contributions of Greece and Rome to the
  political, economic, cultural, and technological advances of the
• I can explain the cause-and-effect relationship between the events
  of the Crusades and the change in European exploration.
HOMEWORK: 1) Do Chapter 1-Section 4 Worksheet
                  2) Begin studying for the Chapter One Test
                  3) Do Bonus Questions at

WARM-UP: Slave trade existed in West Africa among Africans for
 centuries, but that changed in the 600s. Explain what occurred,
 who was involved, how they became slaves, etc. (page 20 in your
Section Four – Europe before Transatlantic Travel
                THE BIG IDEA
New ways of thinking and growth in trade changed
          the way people lived in Europe.
                     Main Ideas
• The Greeks and Romans established new forms of
• During the Middle Ages, society eventually changed
  from a feudal system to the development of a middle
  class of artisans and merchants.
• The Renaissance created a rebirth of arts and
• The Reformation was movement to correct problems
  of the Church
-Later in this chapter we will look at a period called the
  Renaissance (1350 – 1600 AD) in which the artists and
  thinkers of Europe will resurrect the ideas of the classical
  Greek and Roman Empires.
-Human reason and the belief that humans could think,
  explain, and understand life, was a concept held by the
  ancient Greeks.
-Great thinkers (philosophers) included…
           Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
-Socrates (470-399 BC) the first of the great thinkers was a
  philosopher who taught his pupils that people should think
  and question what they believed.
-He developed in the Socratic Method which was a questioning
  method to make a person realize, that what he thought he
  knew-he really didn’t know.
-Socrates once said, “I know that I know nothing!”
-His beliefs led Socrates to have many
-He was put on trial, convicted for not
  worshiping Athenian gods, for corrupting
  the young and finally ordered to be put to
- He was forced to drink a juice of hemlock
The Death of Socrates
-Plato (428-347 BC) was a student of Socrates.
-He wanted to be a politician, but became so disgusted
  with life following Socrates death that he roamed the
  Mediterranean Sea area for 12 years before returning
  home to Athens.
-Socrates never left any writings, so it was up to Plato to
  write about the dialogues or talks he had with Socrates
  and what Socrates actually believed.
-When Plato returned he began The Academy, a school
  of philosophy in which students did not pay to attend,
  but was supported by philanthropists.
-Plato also wrote The Republic and other pieces.
-The Republic, describes an ideal society that is based on
  justice and fairness for all citizens.
-One of Plato’s star students was Aristotle (384-322 BC)
-Aristotle studied under Plato at the Academy for more
  than 20 years.
                       Aristotle and Plato,
Platoand Aristotle,
Plato and Aristotle,   painting by Lee Greene
painting by Raphael.
paintingby Raphael.    Richard of Utah professor.
-Aristotle taught that people should live their lives based on
  reason …
                   or clear and ordered thinking.
-Geometry, an accurate calculation of the size of the earth, the
  study of the human body and how it worked, and inventions by
  Greek scientists and mathematicians came about during this
  time period.
-The Greek political system came about around the fifth and
  fourth centuries BC known as the Classical Period.
-Greece was divided into hundreds of individual city-states.
-Athens, became the first of the Greek city-states to establish a
-A Democracy is a form of government in which people rule
-All male citizens were able to participate in the assembly to vote,
  debate and create the city’s laws.
-A democracy where each citizen is directly involved in the
  government is called a DIRECT DEMOCRACY.
-Rome had been established in 753 BC, according to
   legend, by two brothers, Romulus and Remus.
-It established a form of democracy when the Roman
   Republic was created in 509 BC.
-Two officials called consuls were elected to one year terms
   by the citizens.
-Consuls had many powers and could veto each others
   actions creating a form of checks and balances which we
   will study later.
-Senior statesmen called Senators headed the Roman
   Senate and guided the consuls.
-Each senator had a voice in the Assembly.
-All Roman laws were written and on display so all citizens
   knew what they were.
-Ignorance of the law did not exist nor was it an EXCUSE!
-Two important concepts that protected the rights of
  Roman citizens were equality before the law and
  innocent until proven guilty.
-The Republic of Rome and self rule, ended in 27 BC when
  Augustus Caesar (Octavian) became the ruler or
  Emperor of Rome.
-The ideas of both the Romans and Greeks before them,
  have influenced many democracies around the world,
  especially the framers of our United States political
-The Roman Empire grew across Europe, the
  Mediterranean Area, the Middle East and
  northern Africa and lasted about 500 years.
                                  COUNTRIES IN WHITE ARE CURRENT
                                  DAY NAMES FOR THE ANCIENT


SPAIN             ITALY


                      LIBYA                       JORDAN
-This empire eventually fell to various different groups that
  began to invade them.
-Multiple kingdoms developed in the area of Europe.
-We know this time period as the European Middle Ages or
  the Dark Ages that began around 500 AD and lasted about
  1000 years.
-This time period was shadowed by poverty, ignorance,
  economic chaos, bad government, fighting, and the plague.
-The Franks conquered Gaul (France) during the 480s under
-They developed a huge empire that ruled most of Europe
  until after the rule of Charlemagne.
-In the 800s, weaker Frankish kings ruled and could not
  protect their empire from various Germanic tribes and the
  Vikings from the North.
-These attacks ruined the trade networks that had been created
   and people began to trade in goods such as chickens and eggs
   instead of money.
-Since the kings could no longer protect the people, they turned
   to a political and military system known as Feudalism.
-The Feudal System:
   a) Nobles or lords would control large amounts of land and
        would rule these lands as independent territories.
   b) Nobles needed people to help protect his land so he gave
        vassals, land (fiefs) to use as long as they remained loyal
        to him and provided him military service.
   c) The vassals then found a group of men called knights -
        warriors who vowed to defend and fight for the lord,
        who he in turn would take care of.
   d) At first these knights lived with the vassals, where he fed,
        clothed and armed them, but some of these knights were
        too crude to be around the vassals families, so they
        would sub-divide their fiefs and give some of the land to
        their knights.
e) The knights were heavily armed men
mounted on horseback.
f) The lord or vassal also ruled on all justice
on his fief, serving as the judge and had a
feudal court.
Medieval Knight Armor with weapons.
Medieval Knights
Medieval Knights
Medieval Knight with a Battle Axe
Medieval Knights on horseback
Medieval Knights on horseback
Medieval Knights on horseback
Medieval Horse with Armor
Medieval Knights jousting
-Closely related to the Feudal System, was the
  Manor System or Manorialism.
-This system was an economic system – not a
  political and military system like feudalism.
-Manors were large estates or fiefs that provided
  lords - food, clothing, shelter and everything else
  they needed for themselves and the people who
  worked the land.
-The Manor System consisted of the following:
  a) A manor house where the lord lived that was
  surrounded by a garden, orchard, church, farm
  buildings, etc.
  b) Nearby existed the peasants or serfs huts and
  their small plot of land.
c) The serfs were bound to the land for life, but
unlike slaves could not be sold to another land or
d) The serfs farmed both their land and the lords
e) In return for this hard work and devotion, the
lord agreed to protect the serfs in case they were
f) In case of an invasion the serfs would retreat
into heavily walled, castles where they could be
This is a model of the layout of a manor.
This is a model of the layout of a castle.
An ancient Castle that was used for protection –
surrounded by a moat that would have been filled with
An ancient Castle in Chambord, France.
An ancient Castle in Bodliam, East Sussex.
An ancient Castle in Hohenzollern, Germany.
An ancient Castle in Howard, England.
An ancient Castle in Hunyard, Romania.
An ancient Castle in Mount Saint Michael, France.
An ancient Castle in Palacio Da Pena, Portugal.
An ancient Castle in Neuschwanstein, Germany.
Castle Tullywally
Castle in Himeji, Japan
  Medieval Crossbow

                      Medieval Double Battle Axe

Medieval Daggers            Medieval Mace

                    Medieval Throwing Axe

Flail      Morningstar and other clubs
Winged Spear    The Longbow

Stiletto       Polearms

Crow’s Beak        Corseque
   Halbard        Falchion Sword

Horseman’s Pick     Trebuchet
                Pole Axe

War Hammer   Pole arms
Pike Holders
Siege weapons
Spring Gald
-The Catholic Church was very important during this time
   period, because it helped to unify the states and people of
   Europe – Almost everyone in Europe was a Christian during
   the Middle Ages.
-Feudalism and the Manor System primarily came to an end
   during the 1200s, though in some places it lasted much
-Issues that led to the end of Feudalism:
   a) The economic revival of Europe, because people and
   merchants felt safer to travel and do business.
   b) New farming methods came about, which led to a food
   surplus and a larger population.
   c) New military techniques came about such as gunpowder,
   which made castles unable to protect people and the longbow
   which meant archers could shoot from much further away.
   d) The use of money again instead of objects.
   e) Serfs left the land to become craftsmen or tradesmen.
-Beginning in 1096, European Christians launched a series of
  wars (nine in all) that were known as The Crusades - against
  Muslims that held the Holy Land where Jesus had lived.
-They did so under the urging of Pope Urban II who was afraid
  that the Muslims that controlled the Holy Land would stop
  Christians from being able to visit the area of Palestine or
  what is today Jerusalem in Israel.
-The Holy Land was recovered for a short time, but ultimately
  the Christians could not hold the land, so the goal of the
  Crusades was not successful.
-The Crusades, did change European life and their economy,
  because of their interactions with different people.
-As soldiers traveled all over the Middle East and Asia they
  were introduced to new products and ideas.
-Europeans began to get apricots, rice, cotton, pepper and
  other spices - as well as the ideas of Muslim thinkers.
-Towns were small during the Middle Ages, but newer
  technologies allowed for larger harvests and more food led to
  an increased population.
-Travel became safer as the rulers grew stronger and were more
  able to protect the trade routes.
-Areas that had been individual fiefs, became united as kingdoms
  with central governments.
-New trade routes such as the Silk Road that ran from China to
  the Mediterranean Sea had been developed by the Mongols.
-One of these traders was Marco Polo who spent 24 years
  traveling the route back and forth from Europe and Asia.
-The goods he returned to Europe with and a book written about
  his travels spurred European interest about Asia.
-Not only were goods brought back from Asia and Africa to the
  European markets, but also rats and fleas infected with an
  awful horrible disease.
-This plague began in 1347 and is known as the
              Black Death or the Bubonic Plague.
-The plague claimed about 25 million lives or about one-fourth
  (25%) of Europe’s population.
-The work force was dramatically reduced and the serfs and
  peasants that survived the plague now demanded payment
  for their work.
-Cities began to grow as people moved to them for work.
-This meant that lords lost power and the kings authority
  began to increase.
-Artisans and merchants emerged and created a new middle
  class instead of just upper and lower class citizens.
-The term Renaissance means, “rebirth” and refers to the time
   that came about after the Middle Ages in Europe.
-It started in Italy and spread throughout Europe from the
   1300s to the 1600s.
-Power of the rulers or kings increased during this period,
  because the invasions from warring groups decreased, thus,
  creating a time of stability in Europe.
-During this time period, Europeans began to search for the
  question as to what life meant following feudalism and the
-This period took off as the Turks conquered the Byzantine
  Empire in the East and the scholars escaped to Italy bringing
  the ideas from the great Greek thinkers.
-European scholars began to examine the writing and art of the
  Greeks and Romans from the earlier Classical Period.
-This study lead Europeans to change their ideas in the
  following ways:
  a) Where the Greeks had praised human achievement, these
  European scholars began humanism, or the study of human
  worth, ideas and potential.
  b) Just as scholars had done during the Classical Period,
  Europeans spent more time studying history, philosophy,
  and literature.
  c) European artists, after studying classical art began to
  make art more relevant - creating some of the world’s
  greatest paintings and statues.
  d) Europeans ideas of math and science began to advance
  after studying the teachings of Muslim scholars.
-Some of the world’s greatest art pieces were created during
  this time.
-The art of the time reflected the basic Renaissance idea-the
  value of human beings.
-The world’s greatest artists of the time were:
  The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
-Seriously they were Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael Sanzio,
  Donatello de Bardi and Leonardo da Vinci
The Real Teenage                        Leonardo da Vinci by
                                        Himself (left)
Mutant Ninja

Michelangelo by                          Donatello by an
                                         Unknown artist
Marcello Venusti
(above)            Raphael by Himself
Mona Lisa (left) and the
Last Supper (below) by
Leonardo da Vinci
St. George (above) and the
Mary Magdeline (right) by
Donatello de Bardi.
Cherubini (above) and
the Cowpe Madonna
(right) by Raphael
David (above) and the
Pieta (right) by
Michelangelo Buonarroti
Sistine Chapel
pictures by
Sistine Chapel
pictures by
-Many great writers came about during the Renaissance such
  as Dante Alighieri who was a poet and politician.
-He wrote in Italian, which gave the average person a better
  and easier opportunity to read his work, instead of writing in
  Latin, which was the language of the Church.
-He wrote The Inferno and Purgatory (Dante’s Divine Comedy)
-Many scientific and mathematical advances occurred at this time
  such as creating symbols for the square root and for positive
  and negative numbers, that the Earth moved around the sun
  and better maps came about due to better measurements and
  more accurate calculations.
-The most important invention came about by a German man in
  the mid-1400s named Johannes Gutenberg.
-He developed a printing press that used movable type and
  mechanically printed the page.
-This meant that books no longer had to be copied by hand.
-They could mass produce books and make hundreds of copies,
  meaning more people had the ability to read these books.
Gutenberg and
 the printing
-The Renaissance ideas had weakened the Catholic Church by the
-The church was also being run by corrupt men and some even
  claimed that God would forgive them for their sins for money.
-A German monk, named Martin Luther published 95 statements
  criticizing the church for these practices.
-This began The Reformation, which was a movement to correct
  the Catholic Church.
-The Church split into two groups – the Catholics and a new
  group called the Protestants.
-The Protestants today have split into many different Christian
  groups such as Anglican/Episcopalian, Baptist, Lutheran,
  Methodist, Presbyterian, and United Church of Christ.
-A commercial revolution came about following the
-Mercantilism which is an economic system that unifies and
  increases the power and wealth of a nation by gaining a
  favorable balance of trade came about.
-Northern Italian cities such as Florence, Genoa, Milan and
  Venice developed into major trading centers for two reasons.
-First, they served as ports on the Mediterranean Sea and
  secondly, they served as manufacturing centers making
  specific goods.
-Banks came about as trade and commerce grew, and the bankers
   of Florence, Italy kept money for merchants from all over the
-These bankers made money by charging interest on money or
   funds that they loaned to the merchants.
-The top bankers at this time was the Medici family.
-Even though trade had already made Florence wealthy, banking
   helped increase their wealth.
-Joint-stock companies were also created by merchants at this
-A joint-stock company was a business in which a group of people
   invest together to share the companies profits or losses.

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