LEARNING TARGETS: • I can describe the contributions of Greece and Rome to the political, economic, cultural, and technological advances of the Renaissance. • I can explain the cause-and-effect relationship between the events of the Crusades and the change in European exploration. HOMEWORK: 1) Do Chapter 1-Section 4 Worksheet 2) Begin studying for the Chapter One Test 3) Do Bonus Questions at yourclasspage.com/5024858235 WARM-UP: Slave trade existed in West Africa among Africans for centuries, but that changed in the 600s. Explain what occurred, who was involved, how they became slaves, etc. (page 20 in your book) CHAPTER 1 – THE WORLD BEFORE THE OPENING OF THE ATLANTIC Section Four – Europe before Transatlantic Travel THE BIG IDEA New ways of thinking and growth in trade changed the way people lived in Europe. Main Ideas • The Greeks and Romans established new forms of government. • During the Middle Ages, society eventually changed from a feudal system to the development of a middle class of artisans and merchants. • The Renaissance created a rebirth of arts and learning. • The Reformation was movement to correct problems of the Church I. GREEK and ROMAN GOVERNMENT -Later in this chapter we will look at a period called the Renaissance (1350 – 1600 AD) in which the artists and thinkers of Europe will resurrect the ideas of the classical Greek and Roman Empires. GREEK PHILOSOPHERS and GOVERNMENT -Human reason and the belief that humans could think, explain, and understand life, was a concept held by the ancient Greeks. -Great thinkers (philosophers) included… Socrates, Plato and Aristotle -Socrates (470-399 BC) the first of the great thinkers was a philosopher who taught his pupils that people should think and question what they believed. -He developed in the Socratic Method which was a questioning method to make a person realize, that what he thought he knew-he really didn’t know. -Socrates once said, “I know that I know nothing!” Socrates -His beliefs led Socrates to have many enemies. -He was put on trial, convicted for not worshiping Athenian gods, for corrupting the young and finally ordered to be put to death. - He was forced to drink a juice of hemlock (poison) The Death of Socrates -Plato (428-347 BC) was a student of Socrates. -He wanted to be a politician, but became so disgusted with life following Socrates death that he roamed the Mediterranean Sea area for 12 years before returning home to Athens. -Socrates never left any writings, so it was up to Plato to write about the dialogues or talks he had with Socrates and what Socrates actually believed. -When Plato returned he began The Academy, a school of philosophy in which students did not pay to attend, but was supported by philanthropists. -Plato also wrote The Republic and other pieces. -The Republic, describes an ideal society that is based on justice and fairness for all citizens. -One of Plato’s star students was Aristotle (384-322 BC) -Aristotle studied under Plato at the Academy for more than 20 years. Aristotle and Plato, Platoand Aristotle, Plato and Aristotle, painting by Lee Greene painting by Raphael. paintingby Raphael. Richard of Utah professor. -Aristotle taught that people should live their lives based on reason … or clear and ordered thinking. -Geometry, an accurate calculation of the size of the earth, the study of the human body and how it worked, and inventions by Greek scientists and mathematicians came about during this time period. -The Greek political system came about around the fifth and fourth centuries BC known as the Classical Period. -Greece was divided into hundreds of individual city-states. -Athens, became the first of the Greek city-states to establish a Democracy. -A Democracy is a form of government in which people rule themselves. -All male citizens were able to participate in the assembly to vote, debate and create the city’s laws. -A democracy where each citizen is directly involved in the government is called a DIRECT DEMOCRACY. ROMAN LAW and GOVERNMENT -Rome had been established in 753 BC, according to legend, by two brothers, Romulus and Remus. -It established a form of democracy when the Roman Republic was created in 509 BC. -Two officials called consuls were elected to one year terms by the citizens. -Consuls had many powers and could veto each others actions creating a form of checks and balances which we will study later. -Senior statesmen called Senators headed the Roman Senate and guided the consuls. -Each senator had a voice in the Assembly. -All Roman laws were written and on display so all citizens knew what they were. -Ignorance of the law did not exist nor was it an EXCUSE! -Two important concepts that protected the rights of Roman citizens were equality before the law and innocent until proven guilty. -The Republic of Rome and self rule, ended in 27 BC when Augustus Caesar (Octavian) became the ruler or Emperor of Rome. -The ideas of both the Romans and Greeks before them, have influenced many democracies around the world, especially the framers of our United States political system. II. MIDDLE AGES -The Roman Empire grew across Europe, the Mediterranean Area, the Middle East and northern Africa and lasted about 500 years. COUNTRIES IN WHITE ARE CURRENT DAY NAMES FOR THE ANCIENT COUNTRIES. GERMANY FRANCE ROMANIA SPAIN ITALY TURKEY GREECE SYRIA ALGERIA ISRAEL LIBYA JORDAN EGYPT -This empire eventually fell to various different groups that began to invade them. -Multiple kingdoms developed in the area of Europe. -We know this time period as the European Middle Ages or the Dark Ages that began around 500 AD and lasted about 1000 years. -This time period was shadowed by poverty, ignorance, economic chaos, bad government, fighting, and the plague. FEUDALISM -The Franks conquered Gaul (France) during the 480s under Clovis. -They developed a huge empire that ruled most of Europe until after the rule of Charlemagne. -In the 800s, weaker Frankish kings ruled and could not protect their empire from various Germanic tribes and the Vikings from the North. -These attacks ruined the trade networks that had been created and people began to trade in goods such as chickens and eggs instead of money. -Since the kings could no longer protect the people, they turned to a political and military system known as Feudalism. -The Feudal System: a) Nobles or lords would control large amounts of land and would rule these lands as independent territories. b) Nobles needed people to help protect his land so he gave vassals, land (fiefs) to use as long as they remained loyal to him and provided him military service. c) The vassals then found a group of men called knights - warriors who vowed to defend and fight for the lord, who he in turn would take care of. d) At first these knights lived with the vassals, where he fed, clothed and armed them, but some of these knights were too crude to be around the vassals families, so they would sub-divide their fiefs and give some of the land to their knights. e) The knights were heavily armed men mounted on horseback. f) The lord or vassal also ruled on all justice on his fief, serving as the judge and had a feudal court. Medieval Knight Armor with weapons. Medieval Knights Medieval Knights Medieval Knight with a Battle Axe Medieval Knights on horseback Medieval Knights on horseback Medieval Knights on horseback Medieval Horse with Armor Medieval Knights jousting -Closely related to the Feudal System, was the Manor System or Manorialism. -This system was an economic system – not a political and military system like feudalism. -Manors were large estates or fiefs that provided lords - food, clothing, shelter and everything else they needed for themselves and the people who worked the land. -The Manor System consisted of the following: a) A manor house where the lord lived that was surrounded by a garden, orchard, church, farm buildings, etc. b) Nearby existed the peasants or serfs huts and their small plot of land. c) The serfs were bound to the land for life, but unlike slaves could not be sold to another land or lord. d) The serfs farmed both their land and the lords land. e) In return for this hard work and devotion, the lord agreed to protect the serfs in case they were invaded. f) In case of an invasion the serfs would retreat into heavily walled, castles where they could be safe. This is a model of the layout of a manor. This is a model of the layout of a castle. An ancient Castle that was used for protection – surrounded by a moat that would have been filled with water. An ancient Castle in Chambord, France. An ancient Castle in Bodliam, East Sussex. An ancient Castle in Hohenzollern, Germany. An ancient Castle in Howard, England. An ancient Castle in Hunyard, Romania. An ancient Castle in Mount Saint Michael, France. An ancient Castle in Palacio Da Pena, Portugal. An ancient Castle in Neuschwanstein, Germany. Castle Tullywally Castle in Himeji, Japan WHY WERE THESE CASTLES NECESSARY? Medieval Crossbow Medieval Double Battle Axe Medieval Daggers Medieval Mace Fauchard Medieval Throwing Axe Flail Morningstar and other clubs Winged Spear The Longbow Stiletto Polearms Billhook Bardiche Crow’s Beak Corseque Halbard Falchion Sword Horseman’s Pick Trebuchet Sparth Pole Axe War Hammer Pole arms Pike Holders Siege weapons Spring Gald Perrier Mangonel Trebuchet -The Catholic Church was very important during this time period, because it helped to unify the states and people of Europe – Almost everyone in Europe was a Christian during the Middle Ages. -Feudalism and the Manor System primarily came to an end during the 1200s, though in some places it lasted much longer. -Issues that led to the end of Feudalism: a) The economic revival of Europe, because people and merchants felt safer to travel and do business. b) New farming methods came about, which led to a food surplus and a larger population. c) New military techniques came about such as gunpowder, which made castles unable to protect people and the longbow which meant archers could shoot from much further away. d) The use of money again instead of objects. e) Serfs left the land to become craftsmen or tradesmen. THE CRUSADES -Beginning in 1096, European Christians launched a series of wars (nine in all) that were known as The Crusades - against Muslims that held the Holy Land where Jesus had lived. -They did so under the urging of Pope Urban II who was afraid that the Muslims that controlled the Holy Land would stop Christians from being able to visit the area of Palestine or what is today Jerusalem in Israel. -The Holy Land was recovered for a short time, but ultimately the Christians could not hold the land, so the goal of the Crusades was not successful. -The Crusades, did change European life and their economy, because of their interactions with different people. -As soldiers traveled all over the Middle East and Asia they were introduced to new products and ideas. -Europeans began to get apricots, rice, cotton, pepper and other spices - as well as the ideas of Muslim thinkers. TRAVEL, TRADE and TOWNS -Towns were small during the Middle Ages, but newer technologies allowed for larger harvests and more food led to an increased population. -Travel became safer as the rulers grew stronger and were more able to protect the trade routes. -Areas that had been individual fiefs, became united as kingdoms with central governments. -New trade routes such as the Silk Road that ran from China to the Mediterranean Sea had been developed by the Mongols. -One of these traders was Marco Polo who spent 24 years traveling the route back and forth from Europe and Asia. -The goods he returned to Europe with and a book written about his travels spurred European interest about Asia. -Not only were goods brought back from Asia and Africa to the European markets, but also rats and fleas infected with an awful horrible disease. -This plague began in 1347 and is known as the Black Death or the Bubonic Plague. -The plague claimed about 25 million lives or about one-fourth (25%) of Europe’s population. -The work force was dramatically reduced and the serfs and peasants that survived the plague now demanded payment for their work. -Cities began to grow as people moved to them for work. -This meant that lords lost power and the kings authority began to increase. -Artisans and merchants emerged and created a new middle class instead of just upper and lower class citizens. III. RENAISSANCE -The term Renaissance means, “rebirth” and refers to the time that came about after the Middle Ages in Europe. -It started in Italy and spread throughout Europe from the 1300s to the 1600s. -Power of the rulers or kings increased during this period, because the invasions from warring groups decreased, thus, creating a time of stability in Europe. SEARCH FOR KNOWLEDGE -During this time period, Europeans began to search for the question as to what life meant following feudalism and the plague. -This period took off as the Turks conquered the Byzantine Empire in the East and the scholars escaped to Italy bringing the ideas from the great Greek thinkers. -European scholars began to examine the writing and art of the Greeks and Romans from the earlier Classical Period. -This study lead Europeans to change their ideas in the following ways: a) Where the Greeks had praised human achievement, these European scholars began humanism, or the study of human worth, ideas and potential. b) Just as scholars had done during the Classical Period, Europeans spent more time studying history, philosophy, and literature. c) European artists, after studying classical art began to make art more relevant - creating some of the world’s greatest paintings and statues. d) Europeans ideas of math and science began to advance after studying the teachings of Muslim scholars. -Some of the world’s greatest art pieces were created during this time. -The art of the time reflected the basic Renaissance idea-the value of human beings. -The world’s greatest artists of the time were: The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles -Seriously they were Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael Sanzio, Donatello de Bardi and Leonardo da Vinci The Real Teenage Leonardo da Vinci by Himself (left) Mutant Ninja Turtles Michelangelo by Donatello by an Unknown artist Marcello Venusti (above) (above) Raphael by Himself Mona Lisa (left) and the Last Supper (below) by Leonardo da Vinci St. George (above) and the Mary Magdeline (right) by Donatello de Bardi. Cherubini (above) and the Cowpe Madonna (right) by Raphael Sanzio David (above) and the Pieta (right) by Michelangelo Buonarroti Sistine Chapel pictures by Michelangelo Buonarroti Sistine Chapel pictures by Michelangelo Buonarroti -Many great writers came about during the Renaissance such as Dante Alighieri who was a poet and politician. -He wrote in Italian, which gave the average person a better and easier opportunity to read his work, instead of writing in Latin, which was the language of the Church. -He wrote The Inferno and Purgatory (Dante’s Divine Comedy) Dante Alighieri -Many scientific and mathematical advances occurred at this time such as creating symbols for the square root and for positive and negative numbers, that the Earth moved around the sun and better maps came about due to better measurements and more accurate calculations. -The most important invention came about by a German man in the mid-1400s named Johannes Gutenberg. -He developed a printing press that used movable type and mechanically printed the page. -This meant that books no longer had to be copied by hand. -They could mass produce books and make hundreds of copies, meaning more people had the ability to read these books. Johannes Gutenberg and the printing press. THE REFORMATION -The Renaissance ideas had weakened the Catholic Church by the 1500s. -The church was also being run by corrupt men and some even claimed that God would forgive them for their sins for money. -A German monk, named Martin Luther published 95 statements criticizing the church for these practices. -This began The Reformation, which was a movement to correct the Catholic Church. -The Church split into two groups – the Catholics and a new group called the Protestants. -The Protestants today have split into many different Christian groups such as Anglican/Episcopalian, Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian, and United Church of Christ. ECONOMIC CHANGES AFFECT TRADE -A commercial revolution came about following the Renaissance. -Mercantilism which is an economic system that unifies and increases the power and wealth of a nation by gaining a favorable balance of trade came about. -Northern Italian cities such as Florence, Genoa, Milan and Venice developed into major trading centers for two reasons. -First, they served as ports on the Mediterranean Sea and secondly, they served as manufacturing centers making specific goods. -Banks came about as trade and commerce grew, and the bankers of Florence, Italy kept money for merchants from all over the Europe. -These bankers made money by charging interest on money or funds that they loaned to the merchants. -The top bankers at this time was the Medici family. -Even though trade had already made Florence wealthy, banking helped increase their wealth. -Joint-stock companies were also created by merchants at this time. -A joint-stock company was a business in which a group of people invest together to share the companies profits or losses.
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