Soc213(001) Social Deviance Bogart Test01A 02/15/00
Part01: Text (Thio) Items: Old Item
Ch. 02: Traditional Theories
01. Merton, Cloward and Ohlin, and Cohen all agreed that the experience of _____ forces people to engage
in deviant activity. . inadequate socialization; B. intrinsic psychological dysfunction; C. anomic structural
pressures; D. societally induced strain; E. alienated libido. (p.17)
02 .The central subject of Merton’s strain theory is _____, a type of deviant adaptation to the _____. .
innovation, goal-means gap; B. conformity, disjunction meridian; C. retreatism, anomic frustration;
D. ethnocentrism, goals-means disjunction; E. differential opportunity, shame reintegration gap. (p. 19)
03. In status frustration theory, Cohen studied lower-class boys, who, frustrated with their inability to
achieve at school, would set up their own distinct (best answer) _____. . socialization clubs, B. delinquent
subcultures, C. successful subcultures, D. ritual enclaves,
E. criminal nexus. (p. 20)
04. In a _____, a youngster has the opportunity to achieve status within a violent delinquent gang (best
answer). . criminal subculture, B. deviant subculture, C. conflict subculture D. poor neighborhood, E. ghetto.
05. According to Cloward and Ohlin’s theory of _____,whether or not a lower-class person will commit a
deviant act such as robbery, depends on the nature of their access to illegitimate opportunity in the lower-class
neighborhood. . differential alienation; B. differential illegitimate opportunity; C. status frustration; D.
goal-means gap; E. behaviorism. (p. 21)
06. One of the greatest contributions of strain theory, originally published in 1938, was to help sociologists
seek the causes of deviance in _____ rather than _____. . individual, in society; B. aspirations, within the
society; C. upper-classes, lower-classes;
D. society, within the individual; E. socio-biology, phrenology.
07. A valid premise of strain theory, as put forth by Thio, is that: . if an individual associates more with
people who hold deviant ideas, the individual is likely to become deviant, B. lower-class people are more likely
to commit deviance, C. once labeled deviant, people tend to see themselves as deviant, D. first time offenders
have weak social bonds, E. when there is a significant gap between aspirations and opportunity, deviation is
generated, regardless of social class. (p. 23).
08. You hang out with your local neighborhood gang. Whether or not you also become deviant, according
to Glaser, depends on whether or not you _____with them. . bond B. associate, C. identify, D. approach, E.
learn. (p. 24)
09. Burgess and Akers Social Leaning Theory is also referred to as _____ and is based on _____. .
differential reinforcement, behaviorist theories B. reward contingency, conflict theory, C. prevention
contingency, institutional theory, D. opportunity reinforcement, Freudian theory, E. differential application,
status denigration theory. (p. 25).
10. Attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief are four elements of _____. . Hirschi’s social bond
and self-control theory, B. Braithwaite’s reintegrative shaming theory, C. the deterrence doctrine D. Marxist
theory, E. feminist theory. (p. 27).
Ch. 03: Modern Theories
11. All but which of the following applies to labeling theory? . being labeled deviant produces negative
consequences for the labeled, B. generally the powerful are more able to label others as deviant, C. deviance is
a collective action, D. would assume that a former mental patient would have more difficulty finding a job than
someone not so labeled, E. labeling has nothing but negative consequences for society. (p. 34).
12. Modern sociologists are more interested in the _____ rather than the _____of deviance. . morality,
cause; B. meaning, cause; C. control, consequences; D. etiology, labeling; E. legal problems, treatment. (p.
13. An ex-con has difficulty finding a job. This is an example of a consequence of _____ and this _____
may compel him into a criminal career (best answer): . social strain, internal conflict; B. strong social
bonding, differential identification; C. a goals-means gap, reintegrative shaming; D. the deterrence doctrine,
illegitimate opportunity; E. being labeled, stigmatization. (p. 36)
14. According to Lemert, in _____ deviation, someone commits a deviant act, but in _____ deviation, the
person identifies himself (herself) as a deviant. . primary, diversified, B. secondary, tertiary, C. negative,
evaluation D. secondary, primary, E. primary, secondary. (p. 36)
15. One of the primary (and common) criticisms of labelling theory: It tends to neglect the categories of
deviance most sociologists are
interested in. B. It has difficulty in explaining why deviance (primary deviance) occurs in the first place. C. It
is not rooted in any of the major traditions of sociology. D. It fails to take into
account how the individual deviant experiences his/her deviance. E. It blames the victims of the criminalizing
process. (pp. 37-38)
16. _____ has also been referred to as ethnomethodology, existential sociology, creative sociology, or
sociology of everyday life. . positivism, B. labeling theory, C. phenomenological theory, D. conflict theory, E.
Marxist theory. (p. 38)
17. The meanings that positivists ascribe to deviance are abstract in nature .... By contrast, the meanings
that the deviant persons imputes to his or her own behavior are . inferred, B. transparent, C. situated, D.
operationalized, E. graphic. (p. 39)
18. Agnes was: . a gang leader studied in an attempt to examine labeling theory in female delinquents, B. a
prostitute exemplifying the core of feminist deviance theories, C. Agnes Katz, a phenomenologist, D. a cross-
dresser whose weak self-control led her to engage in cross-dressing, E. a hermaphrodite with male genitals who
really felt she was a normal woman. (p. 41).
19. A critique of _____ is that they fail to recognized that powerless people cannot easily exercise their free
will because it is often suppressed by their miserable life circumstances. . legal reality theorists, B.
phenomenologists, C. feminist theorists, D. learning theories, E. control theorists. (p. 42)
20. A criticism of _____ theory is that it relies on the subjective experience of the deviant who exercises
free will, while ignoring the effect of the restrictive conditions on that process of decision making that exists in
some deviants’ lives. . feminist; B. legal reality; C. labeling; D. phenomenological; E. differential
association. (p. 42)
Part02: Text (Thio) Items: Newly Constructed
Ch.02: Traditional Theories
.* X 2.17-22.21a S00 WW
21. Which of the following is a Strain Theory? . Differential Identification, B. Differential Association, C.
Reintegrative Shaming, D. Social Bond and Self Control, E. none of the above. (pp. 17-22)
22. Merton’s Goal-Means Gap . discourages individuals from engaging in deviant activities, B. is the
absence of social norms, C. encourages success without legitimate means to accomplish this goal, D. is most
likely to occur among wealthy individuals, E. is a function of the individuals level of education. (p. 18)
23. The adaptation response from placing too much emphasis on the success goal and not enough emphasis
on legitimate means is . Rebellion, B. Retreatism, C. Ritualism, D. Innovation, E. Conformity. (p. 19)
24. “_____ suggests that U.S. Society encourages all classes of people to achieve status while at the same
time making it difficult for lower class people to really achieve it.” . Durkheim, B. Merton, C. Freud, D. Cohen,
E. Cloward and Ohlin. (p.19)
25. The delinquent subculture was the topic of which theorist? . Durkheim, B. Merton, C. Freud, D.
Cohen, E. Cloward and Ohlin. (p.20)
26. According to Cloward and Ohlin (1960) which of the following is NOT one of the types of illegitimate
opportunity individuals may use to achieve their success goals? . robbery, B. fighting, C. drug usage, D.
murder, E. these are all examples of illegitimate opportunity. (pp. 21-22)
27. _____ shows that an individual is pushed into deviant involvement by association with deviants. .
Social Learning, B. Differential Identification, C. Differential Reinforcement, D. Differential Association, E.
none of the above. (p. 24)
28. If you believe that a person will continue to engage in deviant activities if they are rewarded for doing
so, then you believe in . Hirsch’s Social Bond and Self-Control, B. Burgess and Aker’s Differential
Reinforcement or Social Learning, C. Braithwaite’s Reintegrative Shaming, D. Glaser’s Differential
Identification, E. none of the above. (pp. 24-25)
29. Which of the following is NOT a Control Theory? . Social Learning, B. Differential Identification, C.
Differential Reinforcement, D. Differential Association, E. all of the above. (pp. 26-28)
30. Which of the following is NOT a way for individuals to bond themselves with society according to
Hirschi (1969) . a belief in the moral validity of social rules, B. respect for alternative viewpoints C. attachment
to conventional people and institutions, D. commitment to conformity, E. each of these are bonding methods. (p.
Ch03: Modern Theories
31. According to labeling theory . the focus should be on the deviant person alone, B. the focus should be
on “normal” individuals, C. the focus is on class division of society, D. focus on the interaction between the
deviants and the conventional people, E. none of the above. (p. 34)
32. Which of the following statements about labeling theory is NOT correct? . deviance is a static process,
B. deviance comes from the response to deviance, C. deviance is a dynamic process, D. forms of behavior do
not differentiate deviants from non-deviants, E. labeling theory searches out the causes of deviance. (p. 35)
33. Which of the following people would most likely NOT apply the deviant label to others? . the poor, B.
the rich, C. white individuals, D. judges, E. prison guards. (p. 35)
34. According to Tannenbaum (1938), which of the following is a consequence of labeling on the deviant? .
persecution, B. incarceration, C. isolation from the community, D. unemployment, E. none of the above. (pp.
35. According to Lemert (1951) secondary deviance . occurs when the individual perceives himself as
deviant, B. occurs when an individual is initially labeled due to something they did, C. occurs at the point that
penalties are levied, D. is the stigmatization by the community, E. is the hostility and resentment focused on
those doing the penalizing. (p. 36)
36. Which one of the following is a consequence of labeling for the labeler? . the labeler is frequently
assaulted, B. enhanced social order, C. community distrust, D. economic decay, E. increased institutionalization
costs. (p. 37)
37. According to Thio, . objective meanings are constructs of the first degree, B. subjective meanings are
constructs of the second degree, C. social reality is constructed by the scientific observer, D. personal beliefs
and experiences of the observer must be used to apply meaning to the subject’s experience, E. the subject’s
experience must be objectively evaluated. (pp. 39-40)
38. According to Thio, Phenomenology is used to study all of the following EXCEPT . suicide, B. sexual
identity, C. religious cults, D. murderers and robbers, E. gang members. (pp. 40-41)
39. According to Thio, incompatible interest, needs and desires between whites and blacks is an example of
. cultural conflict, B. definitional conflict, C. Marxist conflict, D. social conflict, E. power conflict. (p. 43)
40. The statement “legal authorities are actually unfair and unjust, favoring the rich and powerful over the
weak and poor” (Chambliss and Seidman, 1971) is talking about which conflict theory? . Social Reality Theory,
B. Feminist Theory, C. Marxist Theory, D. Power Theory, E. none of the above. (p. 44)
Part 3: Lecture Items—Old
41. Erikson used the expression “boundary maintaining” to note that communities (societies) are .
ethnocentric, B. regulation migration into and out of their boundaries, C. socialize their members, D. resist their
loss of autonomy, E. attempt to distinguish themselves in moral and normative terms.
42. According to Erikson, penal reform after which deviants were no longer paraded in the public square
coincided with the development of . mass media, B. capital punishment, C. psychology, D. functional theory E.
43. According to Davis, the vigor of prostitution as an institution is based in its capacity to provide . . more
docile, less anti-social men, B. increased economic exchange, C. sexual satisfaction without interpersonal
complication, D. something for religious leaders to organize against, E. to maintain some degree of social
distance and self respect for the prostitute.
44.Faris and Dunham related mental disorder in particular and deviance generally to the ecological factor of: .
population size, B. the demographic transition, C. cultural lag, D. urban zones, E. dominance.
45. Mills noted that most social pathologists are from . upper class, city backgrounds, B. prosperous small
towns, C. middle class, rural backgrounds, D. middle class, city backgrounds, E. none of the above.
46. Cloward argued that Merton (in his anomie model) erred in failing to pay adequate attention to
differential . income B. motivation, C. legitimate opportunities generally, D. illegitimate opportunities
generally, E. marginality.
47. According to Merton, the claim the “frustration is the individual’s own thought and good for him or her”
is part of . The Protestant Ethic, B. the conservative myth, C. The Manichean Principle, D. the social contract,
E. latent text of sociologists.
48. By means of what sociological concept does Cloward explain the fact that only some people are given
training or “tutelage” as professional thieves? . differential identification, B. retreatism, C. sub-culture, D.
residual deviance, E. self selection.
49. The most important groups, according to developmental theorists, in the genesis of criminal behavior
are . . tertiary groups, B. intimate personal groups, C. secondary groups, D. educational groups, E. religious
50. Techniques of neutralization according to Sykes and Matza are: . ways the deviant uses to maintain
dominance, B. rationalizations the individual uses to protect him/herself from blame, C. means of maintaining a
non-deviant or non- criminal status, D. ways a deviant uses to violate the laws of society, E. techniques the
dominant society uses to control the subculture groups in society.
51. Travis Hirschi rejects the sociological question “What is the motivation for social deviance?” because
he argues that deviance exists without motivation, B. deviance is largely politically motivated, C. deviance does
not account for class differences, D. the study of motivation is psychological E. we all are motivated towards
deviance in essentially the same ways.
52. Gelles(1983) explanation of family abuse is that people abuse family members because . they are sick,
B. they can, C, they were themselves abused, D. they are victims of oppression, E. they consider it “normal.”
53. A good example of Lemert’s secondary deviance would be . a convicted criminal, on parole who after
unsuccessfully looking for a job begins stealing, B. a shoplifter who never gets caught, C. an undiscovered
alcoholic, D. all of the above, E. none of the above.
54. According to Scheff which children can sometimes have damaging outcomes from the childhood
disorder, Susto? . Mexican-American, B. Anglo, C. poor, D. rural, E. urban.
55. Lemert stated that changes in how one precise oneself are apt to be . very consistent over times, B. very
slow, C, sustained by the very acts which contradict them, sudden, E. more than one of the above.
56. According to conflict theories, crime mainly results from which of the following? . psychological
(individual choice), B. political (power), C. social (interaction), D. unfortunate (not good for society), E. ethnic
57. Gusfield’s study of the temperance movement led him to conclude that it was less a realistic response to
a social problem and more a(n) by a particular social class. . retreatism pattern, B. tax revolt, C. spiritualist
schism, D. assertion of secular humanism, E. symbolic crusade
58. Gusfield points out that became the dominating theme of the temperance movement which culminated
in the passage of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution. . sobriety, B. class, C. assimilative reform, D. labor
reform, E. coercive reform.
59. In his participant observation study in both the United States and in , Chambliss reported that there was
a striking similarity in the types of laws that do and do not get enforced. In both countries, many laws are
systematically violated in situations involving Nigeria-bribery, B. Mexico-fraud, C. Columbia-drug trafficking,
D. Thailand-prostitution, E. Libya-terrorism.
60. “Crime reduces surplus labor by creating employment not only for criminals but for law enforces,
locksmith, welfare workers, professors of criminology, and a horde of people who live off the fact that crime
exists” is a consequence of crime for society implied by a . . Marxist paradigm, B. control paradigm, C. labeling
paradigm, D. neutralization paradigm, E. none of the above.
Part A: Lecture Items (new)
61. According to Durkheim which of the following is true? Crime . defines the social norms, B. provides
the context in which social sentiments can be expressed, C. organizes the social system against perceived
threats, D. strengthens the community in the expression of its norms, E. all of the above.
62. Why is commercial prostitution so pervasive in modern societies? . prostitution turns sexual favors to
advantage, B. it provides erotic release of a promiscuous, non- emotionally complicating nature, C. when there
are more women than men more sexual needs are met, D. A and B., E. A and C.
63. Who defines and maintains boundaries in a community? . deviants and official agents, B. legal and
religious leaders, C. social stratification, D. moral and legal codes, E. none of the above.
64. What is the replacement of one set of social institutions by another called in The Polish Peasant? .
social reorganization, B. social definition, C. social reconstruction, D. normlessness, E. social reorientation
65. According to Park, where was human junk, “hobohemia,” concentrated? . in the areas occupied by the
most recent immigrants, B. in the areas adjacent to the large manufacturing plants, C. in the areas near the very
edge of the large cities that were under development, D. slum areas on the edge of the business areas of great
cities, E. none of the above.
66. How does anomic suicide differ from other forms of suicide? . in its dependence on economic status, B.
in its focus on individuals finding meaning in society, C. in its dependence on goals and values, D. in its
dependence on how society regulates individuals, E. in its dependence on the way individuals are attached to
67. According Durkhiem how does poverty protect against suicide? . poverty introduces a stable condition,
B. an individual’s suicide threatens the survival of his or her family, C. society is more likely to assist poor
individuals than rich individuals, D. organizations are formed to help the poor, E. it is more difficult for the poor
to find the means to commit suicide.
68. How did Thomas Merton explain anomie? . as normlessnesss resulting from social mobility, B. as a
disjunction between goals and means, C. as social disorganization resulting from increased migration, D. as the
consequence of rapid industrialization, E. as moral failure of individuals in a complex society.
69. In Sutherland’s theory of differential association what does identification refer to? . the choice to
associate with known criminals, B. being forced into crime because of the crime in the person’s neighborhood.,
C. he identifies himself with real or imaginary persons from whose perspective his criminal behavior seems
acceptable, D. he identifies himself with real person actively engaged in crime that make his criminal behavior
seem acceptable, E. he learns more about criminal behavior through active participation in criminal activities
70. In Cressey’s study of embezzlement which of the following is involved in the trust violator’s view of his
or her own misconduct? . guilt, B. fear of being found out, C. committing a criminal act, D. betraying is
responsibility to the company, E. what he or she is doing in essentially non- criminal.
71. Which of these important theories share the assumption that deviance is caused by the lack of social
control rather than the result of the lack of social control? . personality maladjustment theory, B. subculture
theory, C. differential association theory, D. A, B, and C, E. only B and C.
72. Which theory does Nye suggest as a substitute for causal theories of deviance? . containment theory, B.
functional theory, C. goal-means theory, D. abandonment theory, E. social exchange theory.
73. According to Nye which of the following are clusters of attitudes and behavior patterns embraced by
social control? . direct control imposed from without by means of reward and reinforcement, B. internalized
control exercised by the internalization of religious values, C. indirect control related power relationships with
parents another non- criminal persons, D. internalized control exercised by the internalization of religious values
availability of alternative means and goals, E. all of the above.
74. According to Tannenbaum how does the conflict between the delinquent and the institutions of the
community gives the gang its hold? The gang provides . escape, B. security, C. pleasure, D. peace, E. all of the
75. According to Becker what is the effect of public reaction on deviants? . deviants suffer directly from
public reaction, B. deviants are not effected from public reaction because they are antisocial, C. deviants suffer
indirectly as a consequence of the norms of the society in which they live. D. all of the above, E. none of the
76. According to Vold, what reflects the deep-seated and fundament conflict between interests groups and
their more general struggles for the control of the police power of the state? . law making, B. law breaking, C.
law enforcement, D. only B and C., E, A, B, and C.
77. According to Shaw and McKay and the Gluecks what lies behind many criminal acts that appear to be
the acts of individuals. . mental health problems, B. groups struggling for power, C. social disorganization, D.
high rates of social mobility, E. normlessness.
78. What does Turk’s analysis indicate about the relationship between criminalization and legally relevant
facts? . there is no relationship, B. there is a one to one relationship, C. criminal status does not necessarily
conform to legal definitions, D. legal norms are always consistent with cultural norms in the mind of the
community, E. none of the above.
79. According to Quinney what is the effect of the number of criminal definitions formulated and applies in
a politically organized society? . increase in criminal definitions = decrease in crime, B. increase in criminal
definitions = increase in crime, C. decrease in criminal definitions = increase in crime, D. there is no
relationship, E. none of the above.
80. According to Spitzer which of the following has been a problem focused on by a critical theory of
deviance? . the justification of criminal behavior, B. the variations in reporting crime, C. the individual who
violates the laws of society, D. the etiology of control, E. institutions social stability.